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Wireframe model versus solid model
(a) Wireframe Model

Wireframe modeling is one the methods employed for geometric modeling. Wireframe models represent the shape of an object, with its distinctive lines and points. There is no skin that defines the space that lies between them. The model includes information on the location of all lines (vertices) along with edges, in spatial coordinates. Each vertex is defined using the x, y and z coordinates. Edges are defined as the combination of vertex. The term “face” refers to having three at least three edges.

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The model is comprised of lines, points circles and arcs, conics and curves. The term “wireframe” refers to the notion that it could be the wire is bent to follow an object’s edges to produce the model.

Methods for creating 3D wireframe

1. Extrusion is a method of creating an 3D wireframe design by replicating the 2D profile and then extending it to a specific depth by the user. The result is an 3D wireframe that is a representation of the profile. Buy targeted email database lists online.

2. Wire-frame models are created through the rotation of a cross-section or the profile of the piece around an Axis. It’s like extrusion, but it is swept around an the axis.

3. Extrusion using the scale technique consists of delineating the depth and the ability to increase scale in a uniform manner.

4. Utilizing basic shapes to create models.

The advantages of Wireframe model
1. Simple to create The editing, retrieving and retrieval can be accomplished easily.
2. Designers require little or no training.
3. The system requires less memory, and requires shorter time for manipulation.

4. Most suitable for manipulations such like orthographic isometric and perspectival views. They are more efficient and speedily communicate information faster than multi-view drawings.

5. This can be used in analysis of finite elements.
6. It can be used as an input to CNC machines to produce basic parts.

7. They contain the majority of the data required to build solid, surface and higher order models. Buy targeted email list .

Wireframe model has disadvantages:
1. Image can cause confusion.
2. It is impossible to obtain the required information from this model.
3. Hidden line removal features not available.
4. Unsuitable for mass and volume calculation, NC programming cross sectioning etc.
5. Unsuitable for representation of complicated surfaces and solids.
6. Don’t represent actual solid (no surface or volume).
7. This cannot be used to determine dynamic properties.

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(b) Solid Model

An improvement over wireframe models in both real-world realism for the user as well as definition for the computer The model that is solid. The models are presented as solid objects for the viewers without the chance of being misinterpreted.

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Solid models can be used to study how much inertia is present and mass, volume, the sections of the model, etc. The mathematical models of solids are representations of objects that exist in the real world that meet certain characteristics, as listed below.
1. Bordered: This boundary has to be able to contain and limit the interior of the material.
2. Homogeneously three-dimensional: No dangling edges or faces should be there to ensure that the boundary remains within the interior of the solid.

3. Finite: The material must be of a size that is finite.

In engineering Solid models are utilized for the following purposes:

1. Graphics: drawing, solid and surface models
2. Design Mass property calculation, interference analysis Finite element modeling Mechanism analysis and kinematics Animation, animation, etc. Buy targeted emails list online.

3. Manufacturing The generation of tool paths, verification Process scheduling, dimension inspection finishing and tolerance.
4. Component Assembly Applications to robotics and flexible manufacturing Assembly planning and kinematics. and the dynamics of solid models.

A solid model is constructed using the following techniques.

(a) Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)
(b) Boundary Representation (B-Rep)
(c) Sweeping

(a) Constructive Solid Geometry (CSG)

CSG stands for Constructive Solid Geometry. (CSG) is commonly called an approach to building blocks with the components) are the graphics primitives at a higher level based on the principles that govern Boolean operations. The most frequently used operators include union (U) and differences (-), as well as intersection ( . The union operator connects two primitives and thus creates joining the cylindrical. A and the plate B makes the vane shown in Diagram 2.18(a). This is because the difference operator subtracts one from the other and and A-B produces the fork in figure 2.18(b). In another way A B – A = (Volume of the object A) (Volume of object A) (Volume of object A) – (Volume common to B and A). 

The intersection operator removes all primitives, excluding the regions that are shared with both. Thus A B is the model shown in Figure 2.18(c). As a beginning step toward modeling, the appropriate primitive is selected from the list. A typical selection of primitives can be seen in figure 2.19. The primitives then undergo various unary operations, such as scaling, rotating or translating, as well as mirroring. The two or more primitives created are processed to create the new primitive.

Because CSG employs solid primitives, the internal details of the object will be included within the model. These models are able to be utilized to examine internal features and used to calculate the mass, volume, and moment of inertia and so on. The downside of this model system is the small number of patterns that are that are available to users. CATIA (DS) CATIA (DS) and UNISOLIDS (McDonnell Douglas) are two examples of CSG solid modelers based on CSG. Buy targeted email address lists .

One of the major challenges of set-theoretic modeling (CSG) is an efficient calculation of intersections between the various elements in the model. When a model is complex and contains numerous primitives, this could be extremely computationally demanding. The complexity of this job can be decreased by methods as the space division in the model in a way that intersections are checked for primitives that are close to one another.

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Boundary Representation (B-Rep)

This model takes its inspiration from the notion that physical objects are defined by a set faces. A solid model is constructed by combining faces. It contains loops, edges, vertices and bodies.

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Only the boundaries that define the model get saved along with the volumestric characteristics. These are determined using Gauss Divergence theorem, which connects the volume integral to the surface integrals. This model can be used to represent a variety of solids, based on their basic surfaces (planar curving, curved or even sculptured). There are two kinds of solid models that can be modeled in this scheme:

1. Solids with polyhedral structure
2. Curved solids
1. polyhedral solids. Polyhedral designs consist from straight edges e.g. the non-cylindrical shape like a box, wedge the combination of two or more non-cyclinical bodies, etc. Buy targeted email directory lists online.

Polyhedral

Solids may have blind or through holes and even three-dimensional surfaces without edges that hang. A polyhedral that is valid adheres to Euler’s equation

F-E+V-L=2(B-G)

Where,
F = Face
E = Edge
V = Vertices
L= Inner Loop
B = Bodies

G is for through holes

A simple polyhedral does not have holes. Each face is bound by one edge set (bounded by a pair of edges). Euler’s equation for a basic polyhedral is:
F-E+V=2
2. Curved Solids: A curvilinear solid is similar to a polyhedral shape however it has curved edges and faces. Cylinders and spheres are two examples of curving solids.

Primitives: In B-rep models are made up of the basic primitives as follows:

* Vertex: A point in space

* Edge The term “edge” refers to a finite, non-intersecting space curve, bound by two vertices, which are not always distinct.

* Face: A finite connected, non-self-intersecting, region of a closed oriented surface, bounded by one or more loops. Buy targeted mail directory lists online.

* Loop: A organized loop of vertices that alternates with edges. A loop defines a non-self-intersecting closed space curve, which may be a boundary of a face.

* Body: An entity with edges, faces and Vertices. A body with a minimum is the form of a point.

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(c) Sweeping

Sweeping can help create an unidimensional model. This technique is great to create 2 1/2-dimension models. The models created are axisymmetric, and have uniform thickness (i.e. models that are extruded). There are two kinds of sweeps: the linear and the rotational.

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In a linear sweep, a 2-D sketch is extruded along the desired length to create an axisymmetric and homogeneous model as illustrated in figure 2.20. In a rotational sweep, a sketch will be turned around the axis. The model generated is always axisymmetric.
Apart from the two types of sweeps mentioned in the previous paragraph, models can be built using nonlinear sweep. In this kind of sweep the closed drawing is carried along an unlinear route.

GRAPHICS STANDARDS

The CAD/CAM program can be seen as an application program that is supported by a graphics device as illustrated in figure 2.21. The graphics system executes all the related graphic techniques. In the source code of the program it is integrated in subroutine calls. This means that software is dependent on the device. If devices for input and output change and become outdated, the software is also obsolete also unless substantial resources are allocated to alter this software. This was a huge expense for both the CAD/CAM vendor as well as the users. Buy targeted email outlook lists online.
The need for standards in graphics were evident and recognized by the CAD/CAM community, both the vendors and the users. These are just a few of the requirements:

1. Application program portability. This helps to avoid hardware dependence of the program. For instance, if the program was written initially to be used on the DVST screen, the program could be transferred to a by rasterizing it with little effort.

2. Picture data portability. The description and storage of images should be independent of the various graphic devices.

3. Text portability. This guarantees that text that is associated with graphics can be displayed in a different form on hardware. 

4. Object database portability. Although the above issues concern the CAD/CAM industry, the process of moving manufacturing and design (product specifications) information across systems from one to the next is of great interest to users of CAD/CAM. In certain instances an organization may have to transfer an CAD database for particular model to an external company to fabricate and manufacture the item.

With these requirements with this in mind, the quest for standards started in 1974. The GSPC (Graphics Standards Planning Committee) was established to tackle the standards problem. The primary goal of standards is that the software should be independent of the device and interface with any input device using an device handler, and to any graphic display using the device driver. This leads to the concept design of CAD/CAM software in the manner illustrated on Figure 2.21. Buy targeted mailing outlook lists online.


Graphics system can be broken in two parts that are the kernel (core) system that is hardware-independent. The other is the. Device handler/driver that is inherently hardware dependent. Kernel system in turn serves as an intermediary between the program and the hardware, ensuring the independence and flexibility that the software has. On interface A in the image, the program invokes the basic functions and subroutines offered in the kernel system via the language bindings. These subroutines and functions, at the same time, call driver and device handler functions as well as subroutines on interface B in order to accomplish the job required for the app.

The CAD/CAM software now supports different hardware generation. It’s also portable between one graphics system and another. System and application programmers also have the ability to be portable and switch from one system another. Additionally, if a system is obsolete or new model is supported, just the driver/device handler needs to be changed or written. This is due to the fact that the kernel system is able to work in conjunction with devices that are virtual.

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The quest for standards started in 1974 continued at the USA and at the international level. In 1977 and in 1979 the ACM (Association of Computing Machinery) SigGraph group published two significant reports (not official standards) regarding The core systems.

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Core was not a standard however it influenced a number of related initiatives. In 1981, the GSPC ended its existence and in 1981 the ANSI (American National Standard Institute) formed an organization called the Technical Committee on Computer Graphics Languages X3H3 to develop an uniform basis for device-independent computer graphics functions. 

On the international scale similar efforts to those from the GSPC were supervised by the ISO (International Standardization Organization). The technical work was supervised by the German Standards Institute (GIN) which led to the creation of GKS (Graphics Kernel System). GKS is being implemented in the USA and has the ANSI version featuring 4 output levels, instead of three.

Because of these efforts across the globe there are a variety of standards that operate at different levels of the graphics system illustrated in Figure 2.21 are in place. These include:

1. GKS is an ANSI and ISO standard. It is device-independent, host-system independent and application-independent. It supports two-dimensional and three-dimensional data, as well as viewing. It connects the application program using the graphics program.
2. The PHIGS (Programmer’s Hierarchical Interactive Graphics System) is designed to be a high-function workstations and their associated applications for CAD/CAM. The most significant enhancements that it offers over GKS-3D is the support for segmentation to display graphics , and also the capability to alter the content of segments and hips relations. PHIGS works in the same way that GKS does (interface A). Buy targeted email database lists.
3. VDM (Virtual Device Metafile) describes the functions required to describe images. The description may be saved or transferred from one device. It operates at a level that is just above driver drivers for devices. VDM is now referred to as CGM (Computer Graphics Metafile).
4. Virtual Device Interface (Virtual Device Interface) is located between GKS or PHIGS and the driver/device handler code (interface B in Figure. 3.2h). Therefore, VDI is the most low-cost device-dependent interface available in an image system. It shares many features with CGM. VDI was designed specifically to connect plotters with GKS and PHIGS. It’s not suited for integrating with intelligent workstations. It’s also not integrated into a distributed networked environment. VDI is now referred to as CGI (Computer Graphics Interface).
5. IGES (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification) was adopted in September of 1981, and was subsequently incorporated into the standard of ANSI YI4.26M. It permits the exchange of model data databases between CAD/CAM systems. IGES works on the level of an object database or the application data structure.
6. NAPLPS (North American Presentation Level Protocol Syntax) was recognized in the United States, Canada and ANSI in 1983. It defines graphics and text using bytes in a series within ASCII code.

Different CAD/CAM users, as well as programmers for applications or systems could be interested in any one or several of the standards listed above. Knowledge of these standards can be used as a reference in evaluating the various systems for CAD/CAM. For instance mechanical design needs 3-D modeling. Thus, the system must support GKS-3D or PHIGS is needed. For two-dimensional applications like VLSI design GKS-2D can be used as a suitable. Furthermore to the needs for the future of the system should also be taken into consideration to avoid making the system locked in software that would be inexplicably difficult to upgrade over the next few years. In the end, knowing about the standards they are based on and how their applications could encourage engineers to develop production and design standards through engineering organizations , and impose the standards on CAD/CAM vendors.

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DATABASE STRUCTURE and CONTENT

Data Structure

Informally, a data structure is described as a collection of data elements that are linked to each to each other through a set relationships.

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By applying these relations to the components of the set result in an object with meaning. From a CAD/CAM angle of viewpoint the term “data structure” refers to a plan, reasoning, or set of steps that are designed to meet an image or non-graphics objective.

Consider the object illustrated in figure 2.22. Three distinct kinds of data structures have been identified to create the object. They are built on vertices, edges, or blocks. In in the official definitions of data structures the set of vertices, edges, or blocks is the collection of data items that correspond to each kind of type. Edges and vertices or blocks represent the information items. In addition the connectivity vertices for the first type and the information about edges for the second type, and those set operator for third type form the relations needed by every type. In the example above 1 A & B in Figure 2.22 (b) shows Vertex 1 shares between edges A and B. In the figure 2.22(c) A, 1and 4 shows that edge A is shared by the two vertex 1 and 4. Buy targeted email id lists .

2.8.2 Database

The phrase “database” is often used and can mean various things to different types of users. In casual usage, it is often synonymous with “files” or “collection of data.” In formal terms, a database can be defined as a collection of non-graphics as well as graphic information stored on secondary storage within the computer. It can therefore be described as the process of storing data or the implementation of data structure in the computer. It is, therefore, an archive for information. From the perspective of software development the view of the structure of data has to be taken first before deciding on the type of a database for implementing this structure. There might be multiple options for a databases to implement a particular data structure.
1. Eliminate Redundancy. This is essential for integrating CAD/CAM functions and CIM applications. The database must be robust enough to accommodate all stages of product production and design. If design and manufacturing departments, for instance are able to access this database inconsistencies and conflicting choices are eliminated , and the data is shared across all applications. So, the engineering resources as well as the experience of a company can be stored in a database, and later modified for the development of new products. 
2. Inforce Standards. Central control over the database all international and national standards are adhered to. Dimensioning and tolerance are just two examples. Additionally, a business could develop internal standards that are required by different departments. The use of standards is beneficial for data exchange and migration between systems.
3. Set Security Restrictions. Access to sensitive information and projects can be inspected and monitored through assigning every user with the correct acces code (read, write or delete, copy, or none) to different areas within the database.

4. Maintain Integrity. Integrity of your database guarantees its accuracy. Integrity precedes the consistency. Buy targeted email id lists online. A lack of integrity in the database could cause inconsistent data.

5. Be aware of conflicting requirements. It is easy to make compromises when creating a model of the central database to give it the best overall performance. For instance, if the software was designed exclusively for modeling and design then one might expect to see inadequate performance for manufacturing tasks.

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Database models
The databases for CAD/CAM have to be able to hold pictorial data in addition to alphanumeric data that is typically stored in standard databases.

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A brief description of most popular databases is given below:

1. Relational Database. It stores data in tables known as relations, that are connected to one another. These relationships are stored in files that can be access in a sequential or randomly access manner. The files that are sequentially accessible are extensively utilized. In this case the relationships needed to define what is shown in figure 2.22 are illustrated in figure 2.23. This object can be represented using the three relations POINT Line/Curve and SURFACE. A particular structure of data illustrated in figure 2.22 determines which of the relations need to be input by the user, and which ones can being calculated automatically. One of the drawbacks of this data structure is the fact that it needs significant sorting, which could result in the system responding to user-supplied commands.

2. Hierarchical Database. In this model the data is represented as the structure. This is generally called”the “root” while the higher to the hierarchy of the levels of the tree relative to one another, is the one that descends from the lower. Figure 2.24 illustrates a hierarchical database of the object as shown in figure 2.22. There are four levels required to fully represent the object. One disadvantage of the hierarchical model is the asymmetry in the tree that forces programmers in databases to commit their time and energy to issues that arise from the hierarchical method, that do not pertain to the actual modeling of the object itself.

3. Network Database. Network databases allow for the modeling of the many-to-many correspondence more precisely than the more hierarchical techniques. Figure 2.25 depicts a database that is a part of a network of the object in figure 2.22. The major drawback to the network method is its excessive complexity , both in the structure of the database as well as the programming. 

4. The Object-Oriented Database. Contrary to traditional processing of databases, CAD/CAM applications require manipulation and access that is object-oriented which means that the storage units and units of retrieval are considered design objects and not individual records stored in the files. Design objects are also the basis of maintaining the integrity of databases upon addition, deletion or modification of the elements. 

The model that is object-oriented should be able to comprehend the full range of semantics associated with objects. This is what results in an “rich,” well-integrated and fully-functioning database accessible to applications. The object-oriented models of databases comprise the model of entity relationships, the complex object representation, molecular representation, and abstract data model. Buy targeted email leads online.

Abstract data models are very similar to the solid modeling database. It makes use of abstract objects as the primary elements to design the database. Figure 2.26 illustrates an example of this type of database. Primitives are created from input data and create the smallest field, or record of storage within the database.

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Object

Databases that are object-oriented appear to be perfect for CAD/CAM. Hybrid databases can be beneficial.

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Here are a few of the specifications and functional requirements that databases for CAD/CAM must meet:

1. Multiple engineering applications, from concept design to manufacturing processes.
2. Dynamic modification and expansion of the database as well as its associatedivity.

3. The design process is always iterative. This kind of design isn’t common when it comes to processing business data. The CAD/CAM databases management systems should help support the iterative, preliminary and evolving characteristics of designing. 

4. Design versions and levels detail. The CAD database must have the capability of storing and administration of various design solutions that could be available for a specific design. There is rarely a singular approach to solving a design issue and it is possible to find several best solutions.

5. Multiple users and concurrent users need to be accommodated by the database. Large design projects usually require several designers working concurrently working on different aspects of a project.

6. Support for temporary databases. Because of the nature of design that is iterative previous data generated may not be incorporated into your database till the designing process has been completed. Buy targeted mailing lists.

7. Free design sequence. The database system shouldn’t place restrictions on designers to follow since distinct designs need different sequences.

8. Access to data is easy. Software applications that need information from a database of CAD/CAM need not require an extensive understanding of the structure of the database to obtain the information required. This is crucial when making CAD/CAM systems more flexible to specific manufacturing processes and designs. 
NUMERICAL CONTROL MODULE III

Numerical control may be described as a type of programmable automation where the process is controlled using numbers or letters. In NC the instruction program is modified as the workpiece changes, without making significant modifications to manufacturing equipment. The capability to alter the program to accommodate every new job allows NC its potential for flexibility. Numerical control must be thought of as a possible method of controlling an operation in any situation in production that has the following features:

* Similar workpieces with respect to raw materials (e.g. the shock of metal to be used for machine)

* The work pieces are made in a variety of dimensions and geometries.
* The workpieces are manufactured in small – to medium-sized amounts.

* A series of similar steps in processing is necessary for the completion of the operation on every workpiece.