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Second, take a careful review of the planned applications and the services the server will be able to offer and ensure that the server is properly installed as well as configured and managed to meet the security needs of the company. The most important rule of thumb is to set up the minimum amount of required services and remove any vulnerabilities known to exist by implementing patches or updates. Remove any unnecessary programs such as scripts, services, or applications They should be eliminated as soon as the installation process is completed. The process of securing the server application will generally involve the steps below: SCME email database providers

Update and patch the server application to version 72

Delete or block any unnecessary applications, services and samples of content

Configure user authentication for servers and access control SCME b2c database

Configure server control of resources

Verify to ensure the safety of server applications (and the server content If appropriate).

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Thirdly, examine regularly the available services and data on the server to determine the required security requirements. Conducting periodic audits and management of logs on the server is recommended. The following procedures are used:

Setting up, protecting and analyzing log file analysis regularly and on a regular basis

Backups of critical information regularly

Implementing and following the procedures to recover from the effects of compromise

Applying patches and testing them in a time

Monitoring security frequently.

1.3 ADDRESSING THREATS Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

To measure success, every service provider must get it right every time. They are considered to be failing when there is a isolated system or piece of data. The following guiding principles are a set of actions that are designed to accomplish specific cybersecurity goals and provide for examples of how to achieve these outcomes on the verge of any threats. SCME b2c database

Identify: Establish an understanding of the organization’s capabilities to control cybersecurity risks to assets, systems information, capabilities, and data. The actions that are part of the Identify Function are foundational for successful application in the Framework. Understanding the context of business and the resources supporting essential functions, and the associated cybersecurity risks allows an organization to concentrate and prioritize their efforts to be in line with its risk-management strategy and business requirements.

Protect: Create and implement appropriate safeguards to ensure the delivery of vital infrastructure services. This Protect Function supports the ability to reduce or limit the consequences of a cybersecurity-related event. Examples of outcomes categories within this function are Access Control Awareness and Training Security of Data Security; Information Protection Processes and Procedures; Maintenance and Protective Technology.

Detect: Design and implement the right actions to detect the occurrence of a cybersecurity incident. Its Detect Function enables timely discovery of cybersecurity-related events. Examples of outcomes categories include: Anomalies and Event Continuous Security Monitoring and Detection processes. SCME customers database

Respond: Design and implement the necessary actions to address a detected cybersecurity-related event.

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1.4.1 Identification of the Server role

Before installing the server, one must first establish the what the role of the server is. The role of server is the applications that run in the background on the server. The server could be utilized as printer, file server, mail server and mail

server either as a web server, database or server. Based on the role played by the server or the applications that run on it, the System Administrator (SA) is able to categorize the server as having low, moderate or even high danger perception. In all instances, the SA must ensure adequate security for the server to ensure the integrity, confidentiality and accessibility of information. SCME email database providers

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What is the flow of information and any other servers connected the server (database server directory server, Web Server network-attached Storage (NAS) server Storage Area Network (SAN) server, etc.) and the security concerns they pose, and the whereabouts for the server.

1.4.2 The identification of services in the network SCME email database providers

Network services (HTTP FTP, SMTP and authentication protocols, mail protocols) will be contingent on the purpose of the server, such as the Web server server for account servers mail server, database server, etc. In general it is recommended that a network server be assigned to only one service. This generally simplifies the configuration process, which minimizes the chance of errors during configuration. Also, it eliminates unanticipated and unsecure interactions between services, which could be a source of attackers. In certain situations it is possible to provide multiple services on the same host computer. For instance, server software that is offered by many companies combine File Transfer Protocol (FTP) along with the hypertext transmission protocol (HTTP) services into one package. For certain organizations it could be beneficial to allow access to public data using both protocols on an identical server hosting host but it’s not advised as it’s an unsecure configuration. SCME customers database

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1.4.3 Methods for authentication Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Based on the degree of risk exposure to the server, the authentication method must be determined based on the level of threat exposure.

For exposure to low-risk threats, using the password/user authentication mechanisms built into the OS is a acceptable method.

In the case of Medium Threat Exposure a choice could be made using a password/user combination that is implemented by a sever with a strong password policy, and an additional authentication system such as TACKAC, RADIUS or KERBOUS could be used. For instance, using an external POP mail server could have a radius servers that authenticate the user’s access.

To protect yourself from High Risk Exposure, a selection could be made of tokens or smart cards, as well as biometrics devices (devices that identify a person by biological traits like patterns or fingerprints) of blood vessels in the retina.

1.4.4 Security plan for security

The comprehensive plan of the assets and their adequate security against loss and misuse, unauthorized modifications or access, inaccessibility or undetected activity. The document provides a summary of the privacy and security requirements of the system , and details the security measures that are in place or being in place to meet these needs. It defines the basic system identification and access control that is implemented. System identification is defined as “the reason for the system as well as the sensitivity level of the system, as well as the environment within the context in which the system operates which includes networks, location of the system on the network, as well as the system’s connections to other systems. The control is the way to manage of technical and operational controls into practice. SCME customers database

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1.4.5 Physical security

The access to servers is vital physical access to servers is only for the administrators and other servers operators to backup the server, etc. There shouldn’t be server access for free. In general , the following guidelines should be followed. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Guard the system against unauthorized misuse, loss or damage, e.g. the door must be locked when you are not at the office.

Secure portable equipment

Place printers and monitors in a way that other people cannot view sensitive information

Be sure to store floppy discs or other types of media at a safe area

Find out how to dispose of the equipment

Inform any loss of data or other accessories to the SA

Make sure the system is secure and the sensitive information safe from prying eyes

You must obtain permission prior to taking the equipment off site

Be careful when you move equipment

Log out, close down, or shut the system when you leave the office

Install an UPS system that has adequate battery backups to prevent information loss, or corrupting caused by power outages buy  SCME database online

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The installation must be performed on the original media provided by the supplier. The OS is to be hardened by following the steps laid out in the guidelines supplied by the vendor in this regard. This includes the installation of patches, disabling undesirable ports, etc. It is important to align the release date of patches to their OS Version number. SCME address lists

1.5.1 OS Hardening Patches

One of the main tasks is to maintain up-to-date patching for both the OS and software for applications that are installed on servers. A lot of these patches address security weaknesses that are identified by hackers. It is important to evaluate the effect of these patches on an identically configured servers prior to implementing them on a the production server since patches could inadvertently create unexpected problems for functioning of servers. SCME business database

There are two kinds of patches, in general. Service Packs and Hotfixes. Installing these patches in the correct order is essential. Service Packs should be installed prior to Hotfixes. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Service packs can be used to fix a variety of bugs and vulnerabilities. The most recent service pack which has been validated to work in your environment must be installed after installing your operating system. The Service Packs are cumulative. users should install the most recent Service Pack. Care should be taken when installing patches.

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Hotfixes are more often released than service packs, and are intended to address the issue in a specific way. Certain hotfixes might not be required for a specific system. Prior to installing the fixes on crucial devices or installing on a vast number of devices, the hotfixes must be checked to confirm that there are no conflicts with any other drivers from third parties. SCME business database

1.5.2 Deleting unwanted protocols and services

The principle behind this is that smaller is safer! Only network services that are required by law should be installed on the server. There are numerous options that are included in that standard OS software. Based on the function of server, it is recommended to load only the necessary network services for example, on DNS services for mail servers is not necessary.

Do not disable unneeded protocols on the network, because each one of them consumes server resources. Only the essential protocols are required to be installed onto the server. Every network protocol must be set up with security settings, such as in the case of TCP/IP, only ports that are essential should be turned on. For instance that on MS Windows NT Server disable the inbound and outbound traffic for external connections to TCP as well as UDP ports 135, 135, 139 , and UDP port 138. Blocking these ports stops possible intruders from collecting important information, such as names of computers, usernames, and the services that run on these computers. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Some of the possible candidates that are worth a look include Wireless Services, Remote control and remote access software Network and System administration tools, and utility programs such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Security scanners such as NMAP, NESSUS should be utilized to identify what ports or services are currently running in the system. Any port or service that is not needed must be shut down.

1.5.3 OS authentication

Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a person (a user or device or person) who wishes to access resources, data or applications. Verifying that identity creates an identity of trust for future interactions. Also, authentication allows accountability through the ability to connect access and actions with specific identities. After authentication, authorization processes are able to permit or restrict the amount of access and actions that are granted to an individual. Limiting access for users for the software on servers is an absolute requirement. SCME business database

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The most likely practices are:

Unwanted user accounts are removed or disabled. Accounts

Disable non-interactive logins

Create Logical groups and user accounts

Make sure you enforce a strict password guidelines for restricted users. The password you select must be one that is complex enough to stop attempts from hackers and other tools. Your passwords must be long (min twelve characters or more) and should also include upper and lowercase letters, numbers and alphanumeric symbols. The most effective method is to make passphrases such as “server secure for administrators” that can be translated as “$3rv3r$3k4@dm1n”. Choose the date for changing passwords or reuse policy, authorisation to change passwords, and set it up to extend the time between login attempts after every unsuccessful attempt, or to deny the login attempt after certain failures. Two factor authentication may be considered on high-profile servers. Also, it is important to limit methods or protocols that allow credentials to travel through plaintext. The most appropriate encryption and authentication technologies like Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Shell buy  SCME database online

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(SSH) (SSH) also known as virtual private networks that use IPsec or SSL/TLS to safeguard passwords while transmission on untrusted networks.

1.5.4 Protecting server against unauthorized network access SCME address lists

The firewall and the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) should be utilized on the networks of the company. Attacks such as Denial of Service (DOS) are averted by the installation of firewalls and IDS. For more details about firewalls check out CERT-In Security Guidelines for Firewalls.

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1.5.5 Encryption

The encryption technology for networking and servers are recommended to control remote servers. It blocks administrator passwords and other sensitive information from entering networks in clear text. Utilize strong authentication for accessing hosts that are part of the domain to minimize the chance of security breaches because of fake credentials similar to UNIX systems. SSH protocol makes use of public key cryptography. It provides security and encryption as well as strong authentication.  SCME email Profile

1.5.6 Effective use of ACL’s

Security of the file system is contingent on the system used by the files. Only the safest file system is recommended to be used on the server. After that, user permissions for individual drives, folders, files should be established. Shares that are default must be deleted. Only the necessary objects and file shares must be activated to the server. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

1.5.7 Access Control and Permissions

Create access controls for every protected file, directories devices, and each modification or decision to not alter the permissions for each object must be documented, along with the reason for each decision.

Remove write/modify access permissions from all executable files and binary files.

Restrict access to the source files for operating systems the configuration files, as well as their directories to administrators who are authorized.

To be used on UNIX platforms, there must be no files that can be accessed by group or world unless they are specifically requested by the necessary applications

In the case of NT system, there must be no permissions set in the sense the “the Everyone group has Modify permissions on files”  SCME email Profile

Attribute a minimum level of access rights to every kernel file

Make all log files “append only” If the option is present

To achieve this, prevent the installation, removal or altering scripts without admin review. The proper method to allow and enforce the same could be developed and documented. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Be aware of the inheritance of access control in defining categories of users and files. It is important that your operating system be set up so that newly created directories and files have access control appropriate to them, and that access controls are propagated through the hierarchy of directories as designed when they are assigned to them.

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Install tools to check the integrity of the files that are stored on the servers. This can also assist in tracking and analyzing the perpetrators in the event there is an intrusion. For UNIX the analysis and integrity tools such as Tiger, Tripwire, Coroner’s Toolkit are available. After setting up the server OS checksum for files, it should be created and saved on a safe removable media. SA should run the file checksum software at least once each day to verify the checksum configured, any variations should be evaluated appropriately. When the server is reconfigured to be reconfigured, a new checksum must be created, removing the previous checksum. SCME address lists

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After the OS server has been installed and security measures have been put in place The next step is to secure and install the software chosen for the server. In accordance with servers software installations prior to installing, go through the website of the vendor for vulnerabilities that are known and if you find patches required, these must be applied during the process of installing software. The majority of the security enhancements discussed are appropriate for the implementation of server security. Some of the most effective methods to follow include:

Create an exclusive physical drive or partition (separate from the OS and server application) to store server data as appropriate.  SCME email Profile

Install the server software on an exclusive host or an OS that is dedicated to guests when virtualization is used.

Delete or disable all the services that are installed by the server application , but not needed (e.g. gopher, FTP HTTP remote admin).

Disable or remove all unnecessary default user accounts that were created during servers installation.

If you have external-facing servers, modify service banners so that they do not reveal the server’s OS version and type when possible.

1.6.1 Access Restrictions / Resource Restrictions Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

A proper configuration of access control can to prevent disclosure of sensitive or restricted data and will limit the use of resources in the case of an DoS attack on the server. For instance, server critical access to files must be restricted. For instance, server software configurations security restriction files, log files for servers. The application is restricted to users who have been granted access to accounts or groups with restricted access rights. Furthermore, the limitations on the temporary file created with server software is limited to a specific and secured subdirectory (if it is possible). Access to the temporary files is restricted only to server-related processes which created the files (if it is possible).

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Resource restrictions can limit the availability of problems (such such as DOS attack). Techniques like putting limits for the quantity of disk space allocated for uploads, when uploads to servers are permitted. Ideally uploads should be stored on a separate partition in order to ensure that the hard disk limit is not exceeded. SCME email leads

Sufficient storage space allocation for log management, store ideally on different partition/centralized log servers or efficient log rotation/ backup practices. I’ve seen it in a variety of instances where attackers alter or erases local logs to hide the trail of attack. The backup of logs on a central logging server provides administrators with more data to analyze an attack. Set up timeouts, as well as other security measures to limit the effect of specific DoS attacks.

Limiting the multiple network connections, and timeouts for connections to the server software allows for rapid establishment of connections to the maximum allowed while established ones will be timed out as swiftly as it is feasible, making the possibility of connecting to users who are legitimate. This method only reduces the impact, but it doesn’t stop the attack.

In a certain degree this can help can protect against attacks that try to overflow the file system of servers OS with untrue and irrelevant data that can result in the server’s shut down.  SCME email id list

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1.7.1 Account Policy SCME database for sale User privileges and rights

Create a list of the types of users who will have access to the offered services. Sort users according to their organization’s department physical location or duties. There is a category of administrators who require access to manage the network server , as well as an additional category for backup users must be established. Normally access to servers on networks must be restricted to administrators who are accountable for the operation and maintenance of the server. Find out the privileges every category of user can have when using the system. To document the privileges, build an array that lists the categories of users or users that are listed along and the privileges they have. The privileges are typically put into groups that specify the system resources or services an individual user is able to access and write to, alter and execute, make delete install, uninstall to turn on or shut off. For various resources, including data and program files the access controls offered in OS OS are the best method to control access privileges. Also, think about using encryption techniques to ensure the privacy of sensitive information. SCME email leads

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SCME email id list Audit and logs Management

Auditing is the examination and evaluation of the actions performed by the system’s users. Event auditing permits the safe flexible, fine-grained, and customizable recording of various security-related events in the system, such as logins, configuration changes , and access to network and file. Log records can be valuable for monitoring live systems for intrusion detection as well as postmortem analysis. The audit mechanism and log management are able to create the necessary information, keep them up-to-date, and secure audit trails. SCME email leads

Audit policies are certain types of security-related events administrators want to be able to observe. As a by default, auditing policies options are not set. For domain controllers auditing is disabled by default. If you turn on different categories of auditing events, administrators can Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Implement an audit policy that meets the security requirements of the business. An audit log is a record of entries whenever a user takes certain actions. For instance, a modification of a file or policy could result in an audit entry that records the specific actions that were performed and the user account associated with it and when and date the action was performed. Both unsuccessful and successful attempts to actions can be analyzed. Audits of security are essential for any company network because audit logs can indicate the existence of security breaches may have occurred. In the event that a security breach has been discovered in other way, the correct auditing settings will create an audit log with crucial information regarding the incident. If audit settings are not set, it could be hard or even impossible to pinpoint the cause of a security incident. But, if audit settings are set such that a large number of authorized actions generate events that are not authorized, there is a risk that Security Event Log will be full of useless information. Regular security assessments allow administrators to monitor and verify whether adequate security measures are in place for each computer in an overall risk-management system. These types of analyses are focused on providing specific data about the various aspects of a computer’s security. This information can be used by administrators to make use of to alter the security levels. Additionally, this data will help identify any security vulnerabilities that might develop within the computer as time passes. Prior to any auditing procedures are initiated, a company should decide how they intend to gather, organize and then analyze the information. There is no value in massive amounts of audit data without a strategy to use the data. Additionally, the settings for audits can influence the performance of a computer. The impact of a particular combination of settings can be minimal on a user’s computer, but can be noticeable on servers that are busy. It is therefore recommended to conduct some tests of performance prior to implementing new auditing configurations in the production environment. SCME email listing
Audit Policy and Log Generation

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Audit policies detect and prevent the intrusion into any company’s computer system. It also exposes the use that is a sign of abuse. Audits are conducted in order to:

Make sure that confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility by monitoring and maintaining audit logs.

Find out if there was a security incident to trace what happened leading up to the incident and everything that transpired after it. This can help investigators in determining the severity of the intrusion that could be necessary in order to initiate any legal procedure. In this instance the way in which the logs are handled could decide the outcome. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Ensuring compliance with regulations or with the security policy of the organization.

Monitoring system or user activity when appropriate, to stop the unauthorized disclosure or access to sensitive information.

Make sure that the handling of sensitive data is limited to authorized personnel. Systems logs must be created and maintained on their access.

It is important to ensure the audit log access is limited and that a separation of tasks is kept.  SCME email id list

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Make sure Audit reports are examined on a periodic basis and allow you to audit specific data through exceptions.

Verify that audit logs are stored for future reference. SCME database for sale

It is essential that the appropriate Audit policies are formulated and applied to every computer system, server and network devices in order to enable recording of every important event. Inadequate implementation of these policies can lead to incorrect post-incident analysis and could hinder Forensic analysis and investigation.

After initial configuration and setup of the logging process administrators must verify that the logging process is running smoothly. The most important thing is that the logs and systems must be equipped with synchronized clocks. If not time stamps may not be appropriate. This can be accomplished by synchronizing internal clocks on all systems that have a timeserver that is hardened on the network.

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The server should be audited regularly and log files scanned to identify the possibility of intrusions and attacks most likely every day. Smaller companies should have their own log server that is secured OS must be set up. Server-to-logging server communications should be done via an encrypted channel. i.e. encrypted channel. Furthermore, the logs should be encrypted and access to it must be restricted. For extremely high risk exposure IDS needs to be installed. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List Log Storage and Protection

The best practices for log Storage and protection are:

All Log collecting and consolidation activities are best Methods for Log Storage and Security are: SCME email listing

Log collection efforts and consolidating must be carried out using an independent and dedicated log server.

The log information should be appropriately protected by encryption along with digitally signing to guarantee the integrity of the log data

Log files should be configured to only appendto prevent deletions, purges and overwrites. One good option is to copy the logs to an”WORM” (Write Once Read Many) device, like DVD or CD; this ensures that accidental deletions are protected by physical methods

Backups regularly of log file types should be scheduled at regular intervals (daily or weekly, monthly and so on) and should adhere to a naming convention that conveys information about the date the type, date, server and any other information that could be pertinent. Incorporating log backups into the overall backup strategy of the company will be beneficial.

Log files could easily grow to be enormous if you set them to track every single detail. At times, this is thought of as an inconvenience, but the cost of storage capacity is falling at an alarming rate and compliance issues that require massive trail trails for audits, it may be simpler to record all events and also have the tools in place to identify and highlight important events to our focus.

Policies for safe disposal that are set out by the company should be followed when wiping or shredding logs and media. SCME email listing

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Regular reports on management should be created to accurately monitor disposal and backup events , and to identify any irregularities that could occur. This sorting of information allows an investigator to follow up on attacks and identify when incidents occurred. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List Securing Log Files

Log files often contain sensitive data, including alerts about vulnerabilities in servers and the actual routes to resources or details about the usage of servers. This is why many administrators opt to block the reading of log files to anyone other than them. This can be done through a variety of ways. One of the easiest is to alter your directory’s security to where logs are stored and make the directory owned by the administrator of the server. Administrators have full rights to access the directory. all other users have none.  SCME email id list

 SCME email Profile Managing Logs (log rotation)

Even on a moderately busy server, the volume of data that is stored in log files is huge. The log file for access typically expands by at least 1 megabyte every 10,000 requests. Therefore, it is essential to regularly change the logs by deleting or moving the logs that are already in place. This is not possible when the server is running since Apache will continue to write to the log file for as long as it has the file. The server should be restarted when the log files have been deleted or moved to ensure that it can start the new files. SCME database for sale

With a gentle reboot, the server will be directed to create new log files without losing any connections that are in the process of being established or waiting to be made from clients. To do that, it has to continue writing to the old log files as it is unable to process old requests. This is why it is important to wait for a period of time following the restart before performing any work on the log files. SCME email database


1.8.1 Patches Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

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SCME email database free

The server needs to be updated often to ensure that it is updated with the most recent service hotfixes and patches. This way, certain known security threats are able to be prevented. Server software like mail server, web server, database server etc. must be regularly updated with the most recent patches or software versions. The software used on the server (if there is any) such as web browsers must also be constantly updated with the most recent patches. This ensures that the server is secure from attackers who want who would exploit weaknesses or bugs within the software for servers. The new patches must be tested on a separate computer and only be applied to actual servers. Once the patches have been applied, OS hardening needs to be done again. SCME email database

1.8.2 Anti-virus

Computer viruses can be spread quickly via floppy disks, emails or programs downloaded via the Internet. Possible issues range from changing information to formatting the system’s hard drive. Once they are created, viruses may propagate without assistance from their creators. They can be acquired from computer systems in the workplace or from a computer in the home or via an email. To protect the systems, it is recommended that a virus scanning/detecting/cleaning program must be installed on the computer systems and It should be regularly updated.

The creation of new viruses is ongoing and the vendors of virus detection software are able to provide updates to recognize these viruses. To receive the most recent updates, go to the vendor’s website. Certain virus detection software permits automatic updates via the Internet. The anti-virus program should be set to schedule the updates at least two times every week. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

It is suggested that computers run a quick scan every time the system is started and applications load into memory and when any new data is discovered (from removable media, email). Computers must run a complete periodic system scan, which could set to start while the users are not in the evening. Before distributing software to multiple machines on the network, you must install it on a separate device and run a scan for viruses on computers. SCME email database

1.8.3 Monitoring system Performance

The performance of the server should be monitored regularly. The tools are included available in servers OS. These tools check the health of the server for hardware components such as memory, CPU I/O, hard disk, and more. and application software installed that runs on the server such as the web server application and database server applications. Any decline in the server’s performance may also be associated with alarms and triggers which transmit warning or alert notifications to SA and can then decide on the appropriate remedial steps. Monitoring of server performance can also assist in identifying attacks, for instance, when hackers misuse a server to attack, the processes in operation to execute the attack could slow down server performance. Incident detection tools

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A suitable tool for incident detection should install on the server. The reports generated by these tools must be regularly monitored to monitor any changes in the system, unauthorised access, DoS attacks etc. Alarms and notifications for events should be set in a way that is appropriate.

A few of these tools include Windows servers that are based on Rootkit as well as File integrity checking tools, Fport, NBTScan Unix servers NMAP, SAINT, SARA THC Amap, THC Hydra These tools are extremely helpful in detecting compromise of servers and other similar attacks. buy  SCME email database

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1.8.4 Backups

To ensure security of data, a backup policy should be developed. It must cover techniques like cold, warm , and hot backups, the role of backup operators , and who has access to them. Everyone should be aware that all types of storage can be subject to loss. For instance an unplanned disk failure could cause the loss in server information. Therefore, users must take measures to ensure that they have copies of vital data, also known as backups. The users must ensure the security of the data stored on the device, which includes backups of the important data stored on it. The information stored on central servers needs to be regularly backed up with the help of the Administrator. buy  SCME database for marketing

Users should adhere to these guidelines:

If you can, store important information to centrally-managed network drives. They typically are backed up on a daily basis.

Keep a paper copy of the server configuration file  SCME Email

Make sure to keep the DATs and other media that you can take with you in a safe location, away from your computer.

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SCME business email database free download

Make sure that a different system is able to read the removable media. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

1.8.5 Recovery

It is possible to have a situation that a server goes down due to hardware issues like network failures, disk failures problems or network failures. For these failures the recovery strategies for running the server with no impact on server services need to be specified such as disk arrays, mirroring disks, or recovering from backup media. In the event of software malfunctions additionally, steps must be defined for reloading the server’s services or operating system in the appropriate manner. Recovery tools must be installed onto the server as software to recover hard disks. With the aid of these tools, the server OS can be restored without losing time. For the most critical of applications, fault-tolerant systems can be set up.


1.9.1 Define incident

An incident is the act that is in violation of an explicit or implicit security policy, in the event that there is a security policy in the business. The types of actions that are considered as in violation of a standard security policy are listed below. This includes but is not only:  SCME Email

security breach in which the information resource of the system is made available to or susceptible to being exposed to unauthorized access

unexpected disruption or denial of service

any event that could compromise the security for a computer or network

the unauthorised use of a computer system to facilitate the storage or processing of information

Modifications to the hardware or firmware properties without the owner’s consent or instruction

1.9.2 Incident detection

Tools for monitoring the performance of servers and for detecting incidents assists in detecting an issue. The indicators of an event could be a sudden decline on server efficiency, server failure or malfunction of service(s) and/or destruction of content on websites or spam mails and abuse of mail routes, etc.

1.9.3 Protective measures after an incident Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

If an SA detects an unusual behaviour in server performance or alarms from the use of tools to detect incidents, the next steps must be taken.

Change the administrator password on the server

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Disconnect the server from the network according to the severity of the incident

Or stop server services like web server, mail server etc. or, perhaps the most important thing is to turn off the server buy  SCME email database

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In this course we’ve learned to put in place appropriate security techniques and procedures when maintaining and operating an unsecure server. buy  SCME database for marketing

Sever systems, which are the most important component of an organization demands strict and rigorous security practices such as the creation, documentation, and the implementation of standards, policies, procedures and guidelines in ensuring the security of information, integrity, and availability of

Information system resources. In addition, we were taught the best practices to use a server operating system to deploy, configure and manage for security demands of the company. Additionally the recommended best practices provide a concise explanation of how software applications are deployed, configured and managed to satisfy the security requirements of the business. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

There are many known hacks that occur on servers. A compromised server could also be utilized as the Launchpad to conduct attacks on internal systems as well as external resources and systems.

We conclude by promising that the security of servers will be guaranteed. This is a continual process to ensure security for the future .

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SCME b2c database



After completing this course after which you will be capable of:

Be aware of the necessity of the need to secure infrastructure services.

Be aware of the risks associated with running services that are vulnerable.

Be aware of the different threats to Web applications.

Be aware of the security guidelines to secure web servers.

Be aware of the security guidelines to secure Email Servers.

Be aware of the security guidelines to secure Database Servers.

Learn the best practices for protecting DNS Servers.


IT infrastructure is the combination of hardware, software networks resources and other services that are required for the operation, existence and management of an IT environment. It allows organizations to offer IT products and solutions to partners, employees or customers. It is typically internal to the company and is incorporated into facilities owned by the organization8. IT infrastructure services like email web services, email, etc. should be protected from threats since the compromise of these services could result in the destruction of business goals. In this course, we will talk about security of some commonly used IT service infrastructures:  SCME Email

Web servers

Email Service

Database servers

DNS Servers


Web Servers Web Server is an internet-connected computer host that is that is connected to the Internet to provide websites on demand. Web servers that are public is accessible to anyone everywhere on the Internet. Because web servers are open to access by the public, they could be targeted by attackers to break into the server. Attackers can hack websites and take valuable information from servers. This could result in a total attack on the IT systems. For government and corporate systems, the loss of crucial information could lead to the launching of information espionage or warfare on their websites. Beyond data loss or theft of data, a site defacement can cause significant harm to brand image and reputation. institution. buy  SCME email database

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Security threats that are common to a server that is public could be classified as following:

Access to the internet without authorization buy  SCME database for marketing


Data theft

Data manipulation

Improper usage

Launch pad to attack

Hosting improper/malicious contents

Denial of Service & Distributed Denial of Service

Hackers exploit various security vulnerabilities in the web hosting system to exploit the vulnerabilities to attack the system. Security flaws that are common and can cause a security breach can be classified as  SCME lists

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Insufficient network boundary security control Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Bugs or flaws in websites hosting programs (OS or application, etc.)

Secure design and programming of hosted applications

Weak password

Social engineering

Insufficient operational control

An attacker could employ a variety of hacking methods or tools to gain access to or exploit the security flaws listed above.

Security of servers can be broadly classified into two groups:

Web Server Security and

Security of Web applications

The security of Web applications is discussed in the Unit 3 in this section. In this module, we will examine the general security of web servers.

2.3.1 Defense in depth

The process of securing a website server consists the implementation of defense in depth by implementing various security measures on the network’s architecture as well as operating system and application levels. Defense in depth can be defined as the process of layering defenses in order to provide an additional level of security. Defense in depth structure creates multiple barriers between the attacker and critical business information resources. The multiple layers block attacks on important systems as well as preventing easy surveillance of networks.  SCME lists

As we’ve discussed Web Server is a program which serves Web websites to Web browsers via HTTP or the Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP or HTTPS). Certain versions of Web Server software contain middle-tier software that acts like an application server. This allows users to complete higher-level tasks like searching a database, and then sending the results via Web Server Web Server to the client browser in the form of the HTML file.

In order to secure the security of a Web Server, administrators should be aware of the following Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Based on your security needs Be sure to check for particular security-related features that are available on the selected web server. It could be a combination of authentication, access levels control, remote administration and log-in features. email marketing database FM

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Install only the necessary features in Application Servers. Application Servers and remove default features that are not employed.

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Install the most recent version of the software for web servers along with the most recent updates. buy  SCME database for marketing

Set up webserver software within the CHROOT cage.

Eliminate all scripts, samples, instructions and executable code from the application root directory of the web server directory.

Take out all files that aren’t included in the web site.

Change your HTTP Service banner so that Web server and Operating System type & version are not displayed.  SCME lists

Create a brand new customized least-privileged user and group to use this Web Server process, unique from other groups and users.

While the server could need to be run in the role of administrator or root to connect to port however, it is not recommended to be running in this mode.

The configuration files for Web Server’s configuration files Web Server should be readable by the Web Server process but not accessible for writable.

The server must be configured to ensure the web-based content file are able to be read, but and not written through Web services. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Take into consideration security concerns before choosing software, scripts, or plug-ins for your web server.

A variety of Server Side Active Content Technologies are accessible, including. Java servers, ASP, ColdFusion, and so on.. Each one has distinct strengths and weaknesses, as well as the risk. Therefore, the technology that will be used in the Web server should be selected after careful analysis.

Third-party modules that are free shouldn’t use without thorough testing and confirmation of their function and security.

Configure your Web server to make use of encryption and authentication technology (SSL) in the event that it is needed, as well as an option to verify the most current CRL (certificate Revocation List).

2.3.2 Hosting by third party

An enterprise may not have the infrastructure and know-how, so could use a third party organisation to host their Web website. The company can co-locate its own servers on the network of the service provider or directly host those servers owned by the provider. SCME mailing lists

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The benefits of third party hosting include:

The service provider might have more experience in security and guarding Web servers.

The network is optimized for protection and support for Web servers. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

DoS attacks directed on the Web server are not going to have an impact on the production network.

The failure of the Web server doesn’t directly harm the company’s network.

The disadvantages of hosting through third parties are

It is necessary to trust a third-party who has Web Server content.

It’s difficult to remotely manage or update Web servers.

There is no way to control Security of Web server.

The Web server is susceptible to being attacked by attackers targeting other Web servers that are hosted by the provider who is located on the exact same network.

When choosing a third-party hosting provider, users must keep these points in the mind of.

Hosting companies should adopt security policies and adopt the best practices for websites.

Hosting companies should have their network and Web servers inspected for security.

Hosting organizations must also have their website servers examined by VA&PT experts regularly and take immediate action to fix the security flaw discovered. email marketing database FM

SCME email database free download Security auditing Third third party hosting service provider

If a website or service hosts on a server that is owned by a different organization, then the webserver’s system, the operating system and webhosting software, including backend database application software, if there is one is under the supervision of the entity hosting the site (i.e. that is the one who owns the server) and it is the responsibility of the webserver owners to take care of auditing security of these systems, since the entity that owns the website content does not have access to or control of the assets. But, as the information and software associated with the website are under the control of the company that owns the content of the website, their obligation is limited to having them audited by an CERT-In certified information security auditing firm. buy  SCME targeted email list

The entity that controls the contents of the website, may choose any auditing company from of the CERT-In accredited organizations for auditing security information in accordance with their policies and rules of office and financial guidelines in order to have them audited. The audit report on information security by the auditor for information security must clearly declare that the pages, as well as the backend database as well as the scripts, in the event that they exist, are not afflicted of any vulnerabilities or malicious code, that could be exploited to breach and gain access without authorization with elevated privileges to the webserver hosting system that hosts the website. SCME mailing lists

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Web server security rules

Web administrators need to be proficient.

Make sure you download software from a reliable sources.

Make sure that all software is up-to-date.

IS Security audit and VA&PT tests should be conducted frequently.

A dedicated device can be used to serve to serve as Web server.

Modifications to configurations should be recorded (revision programming for control)

Central Syslog server must be utilized.

It is recommended to use encryption for handling sensitive data. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  


Electronic mail, also known as email, is a type of electronic mail that is distributed via electronic methods from a computer user to a number of recipients through an internet network or network. Below is a quick overview of how email functions. Email Sender composes messages via a computer employing an email software, also known as the client. The email program blends the message written (the body) along with the recipient’s date, subject, as well as the timing (the head). The application (the client) sends the message via an email server employing an email server using the Simple Message Transfer Protocol, or SMTP.

Email servers are an application that runs on a different computer. The email server is where messages are dissected, and the recipients are identified by the To Cc, To Bcc, and To fields in the header. In turn, the SMTP server then identifies the host computer of the recipients. For example, if the message is being sent to [email protected], the email server looks up and sends the message off to that server. The message is bouncing around on the Internet in the process of making connections to the computer that is intended for it. The email server that is the destination another SMTP server downloads the message, and puts the message into an email account of the user who is intended to use it. It then sits there and is waiting until the recipient logs in to receive messages. The recipient’s mail program retrieves the latest messages through his server. The program that handles mail uses Post Office Protocol (POP) the most recent versions POP3 (or (Internet message access protocol) IMAP to fetch the message. POP3 or IMAP retrieve the message that is waiting on the server and send it to the recipient’s personal computer. After the email messages are in the recipient’s computer they are stored in the database. Once email messages have been received, they are stored in different mailboxes that are organized by email programs: such as Inbox, Spam, Deleted Items and trash. SCME mailing lists

2.4.1 Security Threats to Email Service

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Email distribution of malware The use of email by hackers as a means to spread malicious programs to victims. The malware-infected email is likely to appear as a message sent by an acquaintance or may have a appealing feature that draws users to download the email.

Spam and social engineering: Email spam, also called junk email , also known as bulk emails that are not solicited (UBE) is an electronic spam subset with nearly identical messages that are that are sent to a variety of recipients via email. The emails may contain hidden links that appear for websites that are familiar, but could actually can lead to phishing websites or sites hosting malware. Spam emails may also contain malware in the form of scripts or other executable files attached to them. Spam emails can also be used by attackers to entice recipients (social engineering) to give valuable information , sometimes even cash in the case in the case of Nigerian fraud. email marketing database FM

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The Targeted Attack: These attacks are a type of attack targeted at a specific company or industry. A form of malware such as these are of particular concern as they are created to collect sensitive data. Attacks targeted to specific targets may be sent via SMTP email. Government agencies have the highest level of targeted industry. Financial industries are second most targeted industry probably because cybercriminals want to make money from the sensitive, confidential data that financial industry houses in their IT infrastructure. buy  SCME targeted email list

Modification of Message Any person with the permission of a system administrator on each of the SMTP servers that the message is sent to can read, erase or modify the message before it goes on to the destination. The recipient is unable to determine if the message received was altered. Even if the mailer was simply removed, it will not be able to tell if the message was or not. SCME quality email lists

Eavesdropping: It’s simple for anyone with access to computer or network that the data travels to collect the data and listen to it. Others using computers that are near the route taken by emails via the Internet may be able to read or copy messages that are not meant for them.

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Repudiation: Normally, email messages could be faked and it is impossible for an individual recipient can prove someone else sent them a certain message. Also, it is possible the sender may be able to successfully deny having sent an email. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Identity theft: If someone is able to get an account username or password used to connect to mail servers, they are able to access other email accounts and even send fake emails that appear to be legitimate senders. The credentials are obtained through listening to SMTP, IMAP, POP or Webmail connections, or by studying emails that contain this information is present as well as other ways.

Backups without protection The messages are stored as plain texts on every SMTP Servers. Backups made on the servers’ disks include plain text copies of messages. Since backups are kept for a long time and be accessible to anyone who has the ability to access them messages may be accessible in unsecure locations until email recipients believe that all copies are deleted.

2.4.2 Security Guidelines for Email Servers

It is recommended that readers read for the NIST Specific Publication 800-45, which contains guidelines on Electronic Mail Security. This section is taken of NIST 800-45. In this section, we have covered the best practices to secure the server for email.

Implementing the Secure Network Infrastructure: Readers are advised to refer to the Network Security Block in the Course as well as NIST’s special publication 800-45 on the implementation of a secure network infrastructure protecting your email servers.
Security of your Mail Server Operating System: The readers are encouraged to consult Block 2 Unit 1 Security of the server general in this Course , or NIST’s Special Publication 800-45 to assist in protecting an operating system for the mail server. SCME quality email lists

Limitation on Email Relay: The email relay settings for servers should be a bit more restrictive. All mail servers offer this option. The the owner of the server can define the domains or IP addresses that the that the mail server relays mail to. This parameter defines to who SMTP protocol will forward mail. Incorrect configuration of this parameter can result in harm since spammers are able to utilize mail servers (and networks resources) as a means of harassing other users.

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SCME Email

SMTP authentication: SMTP Authentication forces the users of the email server to get permission to send emails by first providing an account user name and password. This is to stop open relays and abuse of the email server. If it is configured correctly only accounts that are known to the server can make use of email servers SMTP to send emails.

Limit connections to safeguard against DoS attacks Limit the amount of connection to the an email server must be restricted. The parameters are based upon the specs of hardware used by the server (memory, bandwidth, CPU, etc.) and the load that it is expected to carry daily. The principal parameters used to manage connections are: the total amount of connected connections the total amount of concurrent connections and the maximum rate of connection. To keep the best values for these parameters could need to be adjusted as time passes. This is a great way in reducing spam floods as well as DoS attacks that attack the network infrastructure. SCME consumer email database

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IP blacklists that block spammers: A local IP blacklist for email servers is essential to fight particular spammers that only focus on specific companies. This is a fast and reliable method of preventing from making unneeded Internet connections to the email server. buy  SCME targeted email list

Blocking Spam-Sending Servers of the most crucial configurations for protecting your email server is to make use of DNS-based blacklists. DNS Blacklists are spam-blocking lists that permit administrators of websites to block messages coming from certain systems with an track record that have sent spam. Verifying if the sender’s IP or domain is recognized by DNSBL servers around the world (e.g., Spamhaus, etc. ) This could reduce considerably the volume of spam. By activating this option and using the maximum amount of DNSBL servers can greatly decrease the impact of unwanted emails. SCME quality email lists

You must activate SPF to block spoofed source The A Sender Policies Framework (SPF) is a process that is used to block spoofed sender addresses. In general, malicious email messages contain fake addresses for senders. The SPF check makes sure that sending MTA is able to send email for the sender’s domain. If SPF is enabled on the email servers the MX of the server sending the email record (the DNS Mail Exchange record) is checked prior to message transmission can take place. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

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Secure POP3 and IMAP authentication: POP3 and IMAP are frequently used without secure authentication. This causes a security issue in mail systemsince users’ authenticating information is transmitted in plain text over the mail servers, making them accessible to attackers.SSL/TLS must be used to safeguard user passwords for email.

Failure of the Mail Server: Businesses should take note of the availability of their email servers and, based on the results, might decide to use the failover configuration. It is possible for organizations to establish at least two MXs per each domain. The primary one is designated as the primary one, while the second is used in case the primary is unavailable due to reasons of any kind. SCME quality email lists

Protection of the email server against malware The detection of malware should be installed at all points of network (Boundary defense or email server, clients system) to safeguard email from the attacks of malware. The malware scanning process can be implemented in your firewall or mail relay or mail gateway device as the data from email is transferred into the network of the organization as well as in the mail server, or on the end users’ host. In general, companies should implement at the very least two different levels of scans–one at the user’s host level, and another that is at the level of the mail server level or the firewall/mail relay/mail gateway levels. They must consider implementing malware scans at each of the three levels. Content filtering functions similarly to malware scanning on the mail server or firewall but it’s searching for messages that have information other than malware that is spam, for instance. emails that contain inappropriate words.

Logging logs is crucial to ensure the integrity of the service as well as the analysis of incidents. Logging must be enabled on email servers. Additionally, logs should be reviewed on a regular basis to look for any suspicious activity.

Backup of Mail Servers One of the most essential tasks for administrators of mail servers is to safeguard the integrity of data on the server. This is essential since mail servers are typically among the most vulnerable and critical servers within the network of an organization. The administrator of the mail server must make backups of the server’s mail servers regularly due to a variety of reasons. purchase  SCME email lists

Tests for Security of the Mail Servers Every email servers must be tested for technical weaknesses. Testing for penetration and vulnerability scanning should be conducted regularly. For readers, it is recommended to consult the VA/PT module. Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

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Database servers form the basis of ecommerce, e-business, and the e-governance system. They must be subject to the same security like operating systems as well as networks. The integrity and security of data stored on databases can be affected through:

Insecure password usage


System vulnerablities SCME consumer email database

It is essential that a flexible security policy for databases is developed and regularly used.

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2.5.1 Database Vulnerabilities buy  SCME targeted email list

An extensive security assessment for a server’s database needs to be more extensive, including a thorough assessment of the potential for vulnerabilities in all areas such as :

Software supplied by vendors can pose risks or bugs purchase  SCME email lists

o Missing operating system patches o Vulnerable services

Secure choices for default configurations and implementations.

The risks associated with the administration

Security features that aren’t disabled

Dangerous default settings

Unlawful granting of privileges to users

Unauthorized modifications to the configuration of the system

The risk associated with user activities

Insufficient password strength

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Inappropriate access to crucial data

Illicit activities, such as the stealing of the contents of databases

2.5.2 Database Security

Security of databases can be divided into the following fundamental points: Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Server Security

Database Connections

Table Access Control

Restricting Database Access

All of these aspects must be taken into consideration when securing databases. Planning

When deciding on the installation of a database server within the business the DBA must take into consideration the following aspects:

The type of server required Based on the needs the DBA must select one of the following kinds of servers:

o Standalone server o Client-Server Model o Clustering Model

Server Security: Server security refers to the procedure of restricting access to the database server. This is the most crucial aspect of security, and must be considered carefully.

The database server is not visible to the public. There shouldn’t be an anonymous connection.

A database server that provides details to the dynamic website must not be located situated on the same system with the Web server.

If the database server is providing data to a web server, it must be

set up to allow only connections through the server.

Each server must be set up to only allow legitimate IP addresses.
A database server that provides details to a homegrown program that is running on an internal network is only able to respond to addresses inside the network. purchase  SCME email lists

Database Connections

Any changes to databases made through a website page must be checked for validity.

Data shouldn’t be allowed to be entered when a normal user isn’t able to input information.

Super-user accounts such as “sa” is not to be employed for every connection and data

The server’s source.

The minimum level of privileges needed for a user to connect to databases should be granted.

Table Access Control: Table Access Control is among the most under-appreciated methods of security in databases due to the inherent difficulties when it comes to implementing it. The proper use of the control of table access will require the cooperation of the System Administrators, Database Administrator and Database Developer. purchase  SCME email lists

Physical location of the server: Physical protection must be offered to the server in accordance with the importance of the information stored on it.

Separate storage space Separate storage space for the backups of databases and archive must be determined prior to the time.

Find Users and Their Needs: identify the kinds of users, and give them the minimum permissions for access to databases in accordance with their needs.

Security Policy A security policy composed of the rules and procedures required to ensure a certain level of system security must be founded on:

Identification of Security Requirements Supply Chain Management Executives Email List  

Determine the importance to business of the data and the processing system.

Affix a security priority the data in accordance with the business case assessment

Determine the types of users who require accessibility to Database Server and the data that it regulates

Determine the system resources needing protection in order to assure the access to the information for every valid user. SCME consumer email database