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Other points that must be taken into consideration for accessibility are: buy SE targeted email list
Security systems like alarms for burglary and access control systems security cameras, video surveillance building security and security personnel the central lighting system, security control systems, etc. SE consumer email database
Choice of Telecommunications Carriers and redundant connections
Green IT and energy efficiency
Quick response times for upgrades and extensions
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In accordance with the TIA 942 standard, the Data centre (DC) must include five main functional areas as depicted in the figure below. These areas are where growth can be planned and assists in to upgrade or add servers or programs with minimum disruption or downtime.
The five functional areas that are the most important are:
Entrance Room (ER)
Main Distribution Area (MDA)
Horizontal Distribution Area (HDA)
Zone Distribution Area (ZDA)
Equipment Distribution Area (EDA)
Ideally, separate rooms should be designated specifically for these areas. However, this might not be feasible for typical organisations and so these areas can be integrated by defining distinct areas:
The most efficient techniques for functional spaces are:
Find ER in the outside DC to ensure security or if it’s inside the DC Consolidate ER & MDA
MDA is best situated
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EDA is a device that is used for
Each space requires same power/cooling
The most common Data Center Requirements can be described under the following headings such as:
Beware of areas that limit expansion
Should have multiple Access
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Do not place it near EMI sources
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The size is determined to meet the specifications of specific equipment
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Max. temperature change rate 5 F/hr
40%-55 percent relative humidity (reduces ESD)
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Sprinkler systems should be pre-action systems
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The TIA standard suggests an arrangement of cabinets based on rows in a data centre, having the tops of racks facing each other in a single row (cold aisles that has perforated tiles) and the backs facing each other in the adjoining rows (hot aisles that have non-perforated tiles) as seen from top-view in the figure below. In this configuration, lower-density power cable paths are placed in cold aisles to improve airflow while the higher density cables for network connections are placed within the aisles that are hot. In the same way, cold air is introduced from the front of cabinets in cold aisles, and exits at the rear of the cabinets in those aisles that are hot. Air circulation could be either forced or passive (e.g. by using fans to draw out cold air or heated air).
In a data center, everything needs to function properly in order to move bits around and out of it that is, the infrastructure for cabling is the place the bits travel. Cabling should be used by different generations of devices over a time of between 10 and 25 years. The biggest issue is to develop the network architecture that connects horizontal distribution zones (HDAs) and zones of distribution (ZDAs) and areas for equipment distribution (EDAs). The multi-level cable tray (3 Layer) can be implemented where Bottom Layer is copper cables, the middle layer is fiber, and the Top Layer is Power. The data center cabling example is given in the diagram below: buy SE database for marketing
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While the basic information for a the data center have been given here Students are encouraged to know the requirements of TIA-942 and the processes.
The TIA-942 standard specifically addresses data centre infrastructure which includes the telecom infrastructure standard as well as facility specifications. It offers an adaptable and flexible structured cabling system that utilizes standard media , while also building upon the existing standards. It provides guidelines for various areas that can be useful in planning as well as managing data center. It also acts as a standard of tiers to determine the level of quality in a center and evaluates these centres.
4.4.1 Securing the Data Centre
The data center houses the bulk of the vital applications and data needed by the company. The design of the infrastructure as well as power and cooling wiring for the data center must be constantly planned and upgraded according to the requirements. Sales Executives Email List
Security must be considered part of the fundamental infrastructure requirements. Because the primary role of security for the center’s data is ensure access to services and services, the ways that security impacts traffic flows capacity, scalability, and even the possibility of failures need to be taken into consideration.
The following are the threats that affect the data center SE email database free
Access without authorization
Modification of data
Unauthorized access may include unauthorised device access as well as access to data that is not authorized. Service interruption, data loss and data modifications may be the result targeted attacks. A single threat may attack one or several in these categories. Particular threats could include threats: privilege escalation; malware, spyware, botnets, denial-of-service (DoS) and traversal attacks (including directoryattacks, URL) and, man-in the-middle.
4.4.2 Best Practices in the Data Centre
The implementation of access controls physical in the datacenter.
Monitoring continuous of the data center.
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Security routing is crucial and the these points should be treated with seriously:
Route peer authentication
Log neighbor changes
The firewalls need to be hardened similarly to other infrastructure device. The following configuration guidelines apply:
Use HTTPS for device access. Delete HTTP access.
Configure Authentication Authorization and accounting (AAA) to allow role-based access control and recording. Make use of a local fallback account in the event that you cannot connect to the AAA server is unavailable.
Limit the kinds of traffic permitted through the administration interface(s).
Use Secure Shell (SSH). Disable Telnet.
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4.5 ENVIRONMENT SECURITY – INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATIONS TECHNOLOGY
Security focused on the environment and making it easier to reduce the risk of environmental hazards, like natural or man-made catastrophes that buy SE targeted email list impact the technology of information and communication (ICT).
Companies should be aware of any risks caused by natural or man-made catastrophes for their ICT equipment as part of their risk assessment of security. Because ICT systems are vulnerable to the effects of environmental influences, other risk-reducing measures, in addition to the ones used to safeguard individuals and objects from damage, could be necessary. It has been discovered that in many instances, environmental and physical security are also managed by silo-functions, which leads to a significant inconsistency between IT security and physical security. This leaves many physical security vulnerabilities and problems with environmental components not addressed. The issue has been discussed in recent years, resulting in the concept of combining physical and technological security. Diverse technology options are emerging in the market which promise convergence and offer the possibility to create a common incident management system that addresses both security events affecting the environment and physical are managed.
4.5.1 Strategy for Environmental Security5
Strategies to protect the environment are designed at establishing environmental security control measures for an organisation. Students are advised to go to DSCI security framework to learn more about. SE business email database free download
Create a list of electric arrangement for supply, backup plans, emergency fire protection measures and fire detection systems as well as evacuation routes for fires and heating Ventilating and Air Conditioning (HVAC) devices in all facilities.
It is essential to ensure that there is full understanding of the adequacy of the measures used for environmental security, their present state against local and geographic conditions , as well as historical incidents relating to environmental security measures. Sales Executives Email List
Make sure that a substantial amount of resources and effort is committed to the continuous facility operation, security of the environment in facilities as well as preventing fires in facilities, and ensuring the safety of the life of those who work in facilities in the event of an incident.
Make sure that an enterprise-wide standard and guidelines are set to protect the environment.
Make sure that there is a plan to provide facilities with services management, embracing new technological solutions, analyzing the status of equipment and devices, and integrating them into an incident management to handle particular events involving environmental devices.
4.5.2 Environmental Security – Best Practices
DSCI security framework has been outlined following the best practices for security in the environment that companies can choose to use to implement security measures against threats from the environment to ICT.
Create a map showing fire security precautions in the building such as a smoke or fire detector maps of the facility as well as a fire alarming and command control system , and measures to protect against fire.
Be sure that sufficient amounts of effort is devoted to routine fire safety procedures which include the testing the fire alarms and regular maintenance of equipments , and exercises for fire safety. SE business email database free download
Make sure that the responsibilities are identified for emergencies, fire drills and routine training by the individuals designated.
It is essential that a large amount of effort is devoted to education and awareness for the employees. Make sure that adequate signage and maps of directions that can be used to guide employees in an emergency.
Make sure that a substantial amount of power system capacity as well as standby power supply and HVAC are in place to handle the present demands on the facility, as well as its expected expansion.Sales Executives Email List
Be sure that adequate funds are allocated to the maintenance of all equipment supporting them to maintain their functionality and to avoid any malfunctions.
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Check that the incident control system has the capacity to handle the issues that are detected by security equipments for environmental monitoring.
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4.5.3 Environmental Security – Guidelines6
Certain data stored on ICT systems may be required by companies in order to allow a return to normal operation following an incident. It is important for organizations to determine the accessibility of their data in their business continuity and disaster recovery plans. The consequences of information being unavailable can affect the steps that are taken to safeguard ICT equipment from natural and human-made hazards. Some guidelines for security in the environmental realm include: purchase SE email lists
Protection of ICT equipment: ICT equipment may require an environment that is controlled to protect the integrity of data stored on the device. Information-related equipment in ICT could require a controlled environment to avoid failure of the equipment and the potential loss of data. This could include, but are not including, controlling:
air quality such as smoke or dust
Organisations must apply controls to ensure that they meet the ICT equipment manufacturer’s specifications.
Backup and uninterruptible power sources Information could be lost by organizations when ICT systems suddenly shut down. Uninterruptible power source (UPS) can allow the agency to shut off devices in a controlled way or supply power until system ICT systems is restored. SE email database free download
Any UPS employed by an organization should have enough power to provide:
the controlled shut down of ICT systems the controlled shutdown of ICT systems Sales Executives Email List
the initialization of a battery backup power supply.
ICT equipment also requires security from surges in power (relatively long-lasting rises in voltage) Power sags, power surges, and spikes (short huge surges in power). The majority of UPS also
provide some protection from some protection from surges and can provide some security from surges and. Because most systems for environmental protection rely on power from the mains the backup power supply could help in maintaining the environmental control. Backup power sources must be maintained in line to the instructions of the manufacturer.
Protection against natural and man-made disasters: Organizations need to be aware of any potential threats from natural and man-made disasters that could affect their ICT equipment during their risk assessment of security. Examples of man-made and natural disasters include flooding, earthquake or cyclone, fire terrorist attacks etc. A business continuity plan for your an organization must be created and implemented, as well as tested frequently. SE email database free download
Protection against the effects of earthquake or explosion, terrorism as well as civil unrest and other types of man-made and natural risk should be planned and implemented. This may include:
Examining the probabilities of different kinds of risks, and the worth of the assets that are to be secured against these potential risks.
Security threats to be considered by structures and facilities that are located near. Sales Executives Email List
Proper equipment (e.g. fire-fighting equipment,) and other countermeasures are provided and appropriately placed on location.
The best off-site/remote locations for backup facilities and copies of data.
We will discuss some of the most frequent threats and backup plans to ensure the continuity of operations.
Flooding The threat of flooding is among the biggest dangers of any technology that relies on electricity, not just ICT systems. Server rooms should be placed in the server room to protect them from flooding. The flooding could be due to external sources like rivers that are swollen, or internal sources, such as ruptured pipes. Businesses considering the installation of server rooms in basements need to be aware of the possibility of flooding due to either internal or external sources. SE database for sale
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The organization should also safeguard ICT apparatus from fire. ICT equipment may be damaged directly or indirectly by exposure to flames or by the consequences from fumes (poor the quality of air) as well as the rise in temperature within the general ambient. purchase SE email lists
A further concern for ICT equipment in the event of fires is the risk of flooding during the fire fighting operation. A company may be able to utilize alternative systems to sprinklers that are not water-based that include CO2 and other gaseseous substances for crucial ICT installations.
Backup ICT systems backup ICT systems offer an organisation an option to restore their systems in the event that they’re principal ICT systems fail. These can be part of an organization’s business
Disaster recovery and continuity plans for disaster recovery and continuity. Any backup system should be, in the best way possible, totally independent of the infrastructure that is used by the primary system, so that in the event of breakdown of the primary ICT system, the backup ICT system will not fail. Backup ICT systems must be regularly tested to ensure their continuous functioning. Companies can utilize commercial or off-site backup services. It is recommended to consider dual redundancy, which means having two backup facilities for critical business information as well as ICT systems. Security requirements for environmental security should be specified in contracts that outsource tasks. SE email database free download
4.6 LET US SUM UP
In this class, we reviewed the how important it is to have physical and environmental security to meet the goal of the organization’s Information security plan. Security measures that protect the environment and physical security stop unauthorized access to physical information as well as damage and interruption of the company’s information assets. Security measures for the physical and environmental should be sufficient to safeguard the technology for communication and information within the company. Physical and environmental security needs to be blend with IT security, and both domains shouldn’t be used as separate entities. Data centers are hubs that contain vital assets for organizations, and security and the continuity of operations are among the first priority. Sales Executives Email List
CHECK YOUR PROGRESS
What is physical security for ICT.
Discuss the importance of ICT the policy on disposal of equipment.
What is access control.
The reasons why security of data centers is crucial.
What is TIA-942.
UNIT I: SERVER SIDE THREATS AND VULNERABILITIES- COUNTERMEASURES AND BEST PRACTICES SE b2b database
1.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After completing this course You will be equipped to:
Learn about threats, vulnerabilities and threats to servers
Be aware of different types of threats to the server
Implement OS hardening
Know the OS authentication process
Protect server against unauthorized network access
Know the basics of the encryption
Secure server platform
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Confidentiality refers to the fact that data isn’t divulged or made available to unauthorised individuals and entities or processes. Data integrity refers to keeping and ensuring the integrity and accuracy of information throughout its lifespan i.e. data cannot be altered in a non-authorized or unnoticed way. The term “accessibility” means that the information can be accessed by authorized users whenever they need to. SE database for sale
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Security of servers is not different. Servers are the lifeblood of numerous organizations that provide some or all services to other hosts on the network. It is a major purpose. For example, a Web server will provides Web service to the users’ Web browsers. There are a variety of servers, including applications, authentication directory services email log management for infrastructure
name/address resolution, (e.g., Domain Name Server [DNSfor instance) Print,, and remote access. The servers of an organization offer various services for both external and internal users. A lot of servers also manage or store sensitive data for the company. It is not a good idea to think that information is of no importance. Criminals aren’t only searching for classified information. Computers can’t lie and remain safe. It is the responsibility of the administrators of the system to continuously keep an eye on and be proactive from a security standpoint to ensure that systems are secure. In order to make sure that systems are the most secure possible the system must be made sure that we’re keeping systems and devices in a timely manner and using the best cyber security methods. Servers of an organization provide many different services to both internal and external users. A lot of servers also process or store sensitive data for the company. Some of purchase SE email lists
The most commonly used kinds of servers are Web and email servers, databases infrastructure management, server for files. Our goal is figure out the security risks that a critical server can has and the possible impact using the best security methods to minimize the threat surface. SE b2b database
Numerous technologies, features and configuration options are employed to increase the server’s security by taking into account identification and authentication, authorization, isolation, data protection, Secure networking. Sales Executives Email List
Servers are typically targeted by hackers due to the importance of their information and services. For instance, a server may contain personally identifiable information that can be used for identity theft.
Here are some examples of typical security threats to servers:
DoS (DoS) attack on servers, preventing authorized users from accessing the necessary services
Data breach and compromise of server data by unauthorised individuals or altered in an unauthorised manner.
Man IN The Middle attacks in which sensitive data sent unencrypted or poorly secured between the server and client could be accessed by a hacker.
The server is an entry point in an attack plan that is targeted and has been linked to further compromise both internally as well as externally. If the server was offering Active Directory Services, credentials of servers and users might be compromised. It is possible for the server to accidentally launch attacks against geographically separated locations such as the possibility of a DOS attack. The traffic is generated unknowingly by this compromised server. SE b2b database
Infected parties can exploit security flaws in the server or in its underlying operating system in order to obtain gain access to servers.
According to research, the top locations to secure servers are
The operating system view.
Software for the Underlying Server
Security of the server through an appropriate and secure configuration by means proper patches and upgrades Security testing, monitoring logs and backups of data as well as operating system data. Sales Executives Email List
Security of the operating system that the server will be run. When the safety of your OS is taken seriously, most attacks can be prevented that isn’t covered by the procedures and policies that an organization applies. Some of the best practices to ensure OS security include:
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Configure control of resource
Install and install additional security controls in the event that they are required.
Test the security of your operating system.
Second, take a careful review of the planned applications and the services the server will be able to offer and ensure that the server is properly installed as well as configured and managed to meet the security needs of the company. The most important rule of thumb is to set up the minimum amount of required services and remove any vulnerabilities known to exist by implementing patches or updates. Remove any unnecessary programs such as scripts, services, or applications They should be eliminated as soon as the installation process is completed. The process of securing the server application will generally involve the steps below: SE b2c database
Update and patch the server application to version 72
Delete or block any unnecessary applications, services and samples of content
Configure user authentication for servers and access control Sales Executives Email List
Configure server control of resources
Verify to ensure the safety of server applications (and the server content If appropriate).
Thirdly, examine regularly the available services and data on the server to determine the required security requirements. Conducting periodic audits and management of logs on the server is recommended. The following procedures are used:
Setting up, protecting and analyzing log file analysis regularly and on a regular basis
Backups of critical information regularly
Implementing and following the procedures to recover from the effects of compromise
Applying patches and testing them in a time
Monitoring security frequently.
1.3 ADDRESSING THREATS
To measure success, every service provider must get it right every time. They are considered to be failing when there is a isolated system or piece of data. The following guiding principles are a set of actions that are designed to accomplish specific cybersecurity goals and provide for examples of how to achieve these outcomes on the verge of any threats. SE b2c database
Identify: Establish an understanding of the organization’s capabilities to control cybersecurity risks to assets, systems information, capabilities, and data. The actions that are part of the Identify Function are foundational for successful application in the Framework. Understanding the context of business and the resources supporting essential functions, and the associated cybersecurity risks allows an organization to concentrate and prioritize their efforts to be in line with its risk-management strategy and business requirements. Sales Executives Email List
Protect: Create and implement appropriate safeguards to ensure the delivery of vital infrastructure services. This Protect Function supports the ability to reduce or limit the consequences of a cybersecurity-related event. Examples of outcomes categories within this function are Access Control Awareness and Training Security of Data Security; Information Protection Processes and Procedures; Maintenance and Protective Technology.
Detect: Design and implement the right actions to detect the occurrence of a cybersecurity incident. Its Detect Function enables timely discovery of cybersecurity-related events. Examples of outcomes categories include: Anomalies and Event Continuous Security Monitoring and Detection processes. SE address lists
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Respond: Design and implement the necessary actions to address a detected cybersecurity-related event.
1.4 BAISC DEPLOYMENT QUESTIONS
1.4.1 Identification of the Server role SE quality email lists
Before installing the server, one must first establish the what the role of the server is. The role of server is the applications that run in the background on the server. The server could be utilized as printer, file server, mail server and mail
server either as a web server, database or server. Based on the role played by the server or the applications that run on it, the System Administrator (SA) is able to categorize the server as having low, moderate or even high danger perception. In all instances, the SA must ensure adequate security for the server to ensure the integrity, confidentiality and accessibility of information.
What is the flow of information and any other servers connected the server (database server directory server, Web Server network-attached Storage (NAS) server Storage Area Network (SAN) server, etc.) and the security concerns they pose, and the whereabouts for the server.
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Network services (HTTP FTP, SMTP and authentication protocols, mail protocols) will be contingent on the purpose of the server, such as the Web server server for account servers mail server, database server, etc. In general it is recommended that a network server be assigned to only one service. This generally simplifies the configuration process, which minimizes the chance of errors during configuration. Also, it eliminates unanticipated and unsecure interactions between services, which could be a source of attackers. In certain situations it is possible to provide multiple services on the same host computer. For instance, server software that is offered by many companies combine File Transfer Protocol (FTP) along with the hypertext transmission protocol (HTTP) services into one package. For certain organizations it could be beneficial to allow access to public data using both protocols on an identical server hosting host but it’s not advised as it’s an unsecure configuration. SE b2c database
1.4.3 Methods for authentication
Based on the degree of risk exposure to the server, the authentication method must be determined based on the level of threat exposure.
For exposure to low-risk threats, using the password/user authentication mechanisms built into the OS is a acceptable method.
In the case of Medium Threat Exposure a choice could be made using a password/user combination that is implemented by a sever with a strong password policy, and an additional authentication system such as TACKAC, RADIUS or KERBOUS could be used. For instance, using an external POP mail server could have a radius servers that authenticate the user’s access.
To protect yourself from High Risk Exposure, a selection could be made of tokens or smart cards, as well as biometrics devices (devices that identify a person by biological traits like patterns or fingerprints) of blood vessels in the retina. SE customers database
1.4.4 Security plan for security
The comprehensive plan of the assets and their adequate security against loss and misuse, unauthorized modifications or access, inaccessibility or undetected activity. The document provides a summary of the privacy and security requirements of the system , and details the security measures that are in place or being in place to meet these needs. It defines the basic system identification and access control that is implemented. System identification is defined as “the reason for the system as well as the sensitivity level of the system, as well as the environment within the context in which the system operates which includes networks, location of the system on the network, as well as the system’s connections to other systems. The control is the way to manage of technical and operational controls into practice. Sales Executives Email List
1.4.5 Physical security
The access to servers is vital physical access to servers is only for the administrators and other servers operators to backup the server, etc. There shouldn’t be server access for free. In general , the following guidelines should be followed. SE address lists
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Guard the system against unauthorized misuse, loss or damage, e.g. the door must be locked when you are not at the office.
Secure portable equipment SE quality email lists
Place printers and monitors in a way that other people cannot view sensitive information
Be sure to store floppy discs or other types of media at a safe area
Find out how to dispose of the equipment
Inform any loss of data or other accessories to the SA
Make sure the system is secure and the sensitive information safe from prying eyes
You must obtain permission prior to taking the equipment off site
Be careful when you move equipment
Log out, close down, or shut the system when you leave the office
Install an UPS system that has adequate battery backups to prevent information loss, or corrupting caused by power outages
1.5 INSTALLATION & CONFIGURATION
The installation must be performed on the original media provided by the supplier. The OS is to be hardened by following the steps laid out in the guidelines supplied by the vendor in this regard. This includes the installation of patches, disabling undesirable ports, etc. It is important to align the release date of patches to their OS Version number. SE customers database
1.5.1 OS Hardening
One of the main tasks is to maintain up-to-date patching for both the OS and software for applications that are installed on servers. A lot of these patches address security weaknesses that are identified by hackers. It is important to evaluate the effect of these patches on an identically configured servers prior to implementing them on a the production server since patches could inadvertently create unexpected problems for functioning of servers. Sales Executives Email List
There are two kinds of patches, in general. Service Packs and Hotfixes. Installing these patches in the correct order is essential. Service Packs should be installed prior to Hotfixes.
Service packs can be used to fix a variety of bugs and vulnerabilities. The most recent service pack which has been validated to work in your environment must be installed after installing your operating system. The Service Packs are cumulative. users should install the most recent Service Pack. Care should be taken when installing patches.
Hotfixes are more often released than service packs, and are intended to address the issue in a specific way. Certain hotfixes might not be required for a specific system. Prior to installing the fixes on crucial devices or installing on a vast number of devices, the hotfixes must be checked to confirm that there are no conflicts with any other drivers from third parties.
1.5.2 Deleting unwanted protocols and services
The principle behind this is that smaller is safer! Only network services that are required by law should be installed on the server. There are numerous options that are included in that standard OS software. Based on the function of server, it is recommended to load only the necessary network services for example, on DNS services for mail servers is not necessary. SE customers database
Do not disable unneeded protocols on the network, because each one of them consumes server resources. Only the essential protocols are required to be installed onto the server. Every network protocol must be set up with security settings, such as in the case of TCP/IP, only ports that are essential should be turned on. For instance that on MS Windows NT Server disable the inbound and outbound traffic for external connections to TCP as well as UDP ports 135, 135, 139 , and UDP port 138. Blocking these ports stops possible intruders from collecting important information, such as names of computers, usernames, and the services that run on these computers. Sales Executives Email List
Some of the possible candidates that are worth a look include Wireless Services, Remote control and remote access software Network and System administration tools, and utility programs such as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP). Security scanners such as NMAP, NESSUS should be utilized to identify what ports or services are currently running in the system. Any port or service that is not needed must be shut down. SE address lists
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1.5.3 OS authentication
Authentication is the process of verifying the identity of a person (a user or device or person) who wishes to access resources, data or applications. Verifying that identity creates an identity of trust for future interactions. Also, authentication allows accountability through the ability to connect access and actions with specific identities. After authentication,
authorization processes are able to permit or restrict the amount of access and actions that are granted to an individual. Limiting access for users for the software on servers is an absolute requirement. SE mailing lists
The most likely practices are:
Unwanted user accounts are removed or disabled. Accounts
Disable non-interactive logins
Create Logical groups and user accounts
Make sure you enforce a strict password guidelines for restricted users. The password you select must be one that is complex enough to stop attempts from hackers and other tools. Your passwords must be long (min twelve characters or more) and should also include upper and lowercase letters, numbers and alphanumeric symbols. The most effective method is to make passphrases such as “server secure for administrators” that can be translated as “$3rv3r$3k4@dm1n”. Choose the date for changing passwords or reuse policy, authorisation to change passwords, and set it up to extend the time between login attempts after every unsuccessful attempt, or to deny the login attempt after certain failures. Two factor authentication may be considered on high-profile servers. Also, it is important to limit methods or protocols that allow credentials to travel through plaintext. The most appropriate encryption and authentication technologies like Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)/Transport Layer Security (TLS), Secure Shell Sales Executives Email List
(SSH) (SSH) also known as virtual private networks that use IPsec or SSL/TLS to safeguard passwords while transmission on untrusted networks.
1.5.4 Protecting server against unauthorized network access SE business database
The firewall and the Intrusion Detection System (IDS) should be utilized on the networks of the company. Attacks such as Denial of Service (DOS) are averted by the installation of firewalls and IDS. For more details about firewalls check out CERT-In Security Guidelines for Firewalls.
The encryption technology for networking and servers are recommended to control remote servers. It blocks administrator passwords and other sensitive information from entering networks in clear text. Utilize strong authentication for accessing hosts that are part of the domain to minimize the chance of security breaches because of fake credentials similar to UNIX systems. SSH protocol makes use of public key cryptography. It provides security and encryption as well as strong authentication. Sales Executives Email List
1.5.6 Effective use of ACL’s
Security of the file system is contingent on the system used by the files. Only the safest file system is recommended to be used on the server. After that, user permissions for individual drives, folders, files should be established. Shares that are default must be deleted. Only the necessary objects and file shares must be activated to the server. SE address lists
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1.5.7 Access Control and Permissions SE business database
Create access controls for every protected file, directories devices, and each modification or decision to not alter the permissions for each object must be documented, along with the reason for each decision.
Remove write/modify access permissions from all executable files and binary files. SE mailing lists
Restrict access to the source files for operating systems the configuration files, as well as their directories to administrators who are authorized.
To be used on UNIX platforms, there must be no files that can be accessed by group or world unless they are specifically requested by the necessary applications
In the case of NT system, there must be no permissions set in the sense the “the Everyone group has Modify permissions on files”
Attribute a minimum level of access rights to every kernel file
Make all log files “append only” If the option is present
To achieve this, prevent the installation, removal or altering scripts without admin review. The proper method to allow and enforce the same could be developed and documented.
Be aware of the inheritance of access control in defining categories of users and files. It is important that your operating system be set up so that newly created directories and files have access control appropriate to them, and that access controls are propagated through the hierarchy of directories as designed when they are assigned to them. SE business database
Administrators should disallow the ability of subdirectories to override security directives at the top level unless the override is necessary Sales Executives Email List
Install tools to check the integrity of the files that are stored on the servers. This can also assist in tracking and analyzing the perpetrators in the event there is an intrusion. For UNIX the analysis and integrity tools such as Tiger, Tripwire, Coroner’s Toolkit are available. After setting up the server OS checksum for files, it should be created and saved on a safe removable media. SA should run the file checksum software at least once each day to verify the checksum configured, any variations should be evaluated appropriately. When the server is reconfigured to be reconfigured, a new checksum must be created, removing the previous checksum.
1.6 SECURING THE SERVER PLATFORM
After the OS server has been installed and security measures have been put in place The next step is to secure and install the software chosen for the server. In accordance with servers software installations prior to installing, go through the website of the vendor for vulnerabilities that are known and if you find patches required, these must be applied during the process of installing software. The majority of the security enhancements discussed are appropriate for the implementation of server security. Some of the most effective methods to follow include: SE email database providers
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Create an exclusive physical drive or partition (separate from the OS and server application) to store server data as appropriate.
Install the server software on an exclusive host or an OS that is dedicated to guests when virtualization is used. SE mailing lists
Delete or disable all the services that are installed by the server application , but not needed (e.g. gopher, FTP HTTP remote admin).
Disable or remove all unnecessary default user accounts that were created during servers installation. SE email Profile
If you have external-facing servers, modify service banners so that they do not reveal the server’s OS version and type when possible.
1.6.1 Access Restrictions / Resource Restrictions
A proper configuration of access control can to prevent disclosure of sensitive or restricted data and will limit the use of resources in the case of an DoS attack on the server. For instance, server critical access to files must be restricted. For instance, server software configurations security restriction files, log files for servers. The application is restricted to users who have been granted access to accounts or groups with restricted access rights. Furthermore, the limitations on the temporary file created with server software is limited to a specific and secured subdirectory (if it is possible). Access to the temporary files is restricted only to server-related processes which created the files (if it is possible).
Resource restrictions can limit the availability of problems (such such as DOS attack). Techniques like putting limits for the quantity of disk space allocated for uploads, when uploads to servers are permitted. Ideally uploads should be stored on a separate partition in order to ensure that the hard disk limit is not exceeded. Sales Executives Email List
Sufficient storage space allocation for log management, store ideally on different partition/centralized log servers or efficient log rotation/ backup practices. I’ve seen it in a variety of instances where attackers alter or erases local logs to hide the trail of attack. The backup of logs on a central logging server provides administrators with more data to analyze an attack. Set up timeouts, as well as other security measures to limit the effect of specific DoS attacks.
Limiting the multiple network connections, and timeouts for connections to the server software allows for rapid establishment of connections to the maximum allowed while established ones will be timed out as swiftly as it is feasible, making the possibility of connecting to users who are legitimate. This method only reduces the impact, but it doesn’t stop the attack. SE email Profile
In a certain degree this can help can protect against attacks that try to overflow the file system of servers OS with untrue and irrelevant data that can result in the server’s shut down.
1.7 ENFORCING AND MAINTAING SECURITY BEST PRACTICES
1.7.1 Account Policy
22.214.171.124 User privileges and rights
Create a list of the types of users who will have access to the offered services. Sort users according to their organization’s department physical location or duties. There is a category of administrators who require access to manage the network server , as well as an additional category for backup users must be established. Normally access to servers on networks must be restricted to administrators who are accountable for the operation and maintenance of the server. Find out the privileges every category of user can have when using the system. To document the privileges, build an array that lists the categories of users or users that are listed along and the privileges they have. The privileges are typically put into groups that specify the system resources or services an individual user is able to access and write to, alter and execute, make delete install, uninstall to turn on or shut off. For various resources, including data and program files the access controls offered in OS OS are the best method to control access privileges. Also, think about using encryption techniques to ensure the privacy of sensitive information. SE email database providers
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126.96.36.199 Audit and logs Management
Auditing is the examination and evaluation of the actions performed by the system’s users. Event auditing permits the safe flexible, fine-grained, and customizable recording of various security-related events in the system, such as logins, configuration changes , and access to network and file. Log records can be valuable for monitoring live systems for intrusion detection as well as postmortem analysis. The audit mechanism and log management are able to create the necessary information, keep them up-to-date, and secure audit trails. SE lists
Audit policies are certain types of security-related events administrators want to be able to observe. As a by default, auditing policies options are not set. For domain controllers auditing is disabled by default. If you turn on different categories of auditing events, administrators can Sales Executives Email List
Implement an audit policy that meets the security requirements of the business. An audit log is a record of entries whenever a user takes certain actions. For instance, a modification of a file or policy could result in an audit entry that records the specific actions that were performed and the user account associated with it and when and date the action was performed. Both unsuccessful and successful attempts to actions can be analyzed. Audits of security are essential for any company network because audit logs can indicate the existence of security breaches may have occurred. In the event that a security breach has been discovered in other way, the correct auditing settings will create an audit log with crucial information regarding the incident. If audit settings are not set, it could be hard or even impossible to pinpoint the cause of a security incident. But, if audit settings are set such that a large number of authorized actions generate events that are not authorized, there is a risk that Security Event Log will be full of useless information. Regular security assessments allow administrators to monitor and verify whether adequate security measures are in place for each computer in an overall risk-management system. These types of analyses are focused on providing specific data about the various aspects of a computer’s security. This information can be used by administrators to make use of to alter the security levels. Additionally, this data will help identify any security vulnerabilities that might develop within the computer as time passes. Prior to any auditing procedures are initiated, a company should decide how they intend to gather, organize and then analyze the information. There is no value in massive amounts of audit data without a strategy to use the data. Additionally, the settings for audits can influence the performance of a computer. The impact of a particular combination of settings can be minimal on a user’s computer, but can be noticeable on servers that are busy. It is therefore recommended to conduct some tests of performance prior to implementing new auditing configurations in the production environment. SE email Profile
188.8.131.52.1 Audit Policy and Log Generation
Audit policies detect and prevent the intrusion into any company’s computer system. It also exposes the use that is a sign of abuse. Audits are conducted in order to:
Make sure that confidentiality, integrity, and accessibility by monitoring and maintaining audit logs.
Find out if there was a security incident to trace what happened leading up to the incident and everything that transpired after it. This can help investigators in determining the severity of the intrusion that could be necessary in order to initiate any legal procedure. In this instance the way in which the logs are handled could decide the outcome. SE email leads
Ensuring compliance with regulations or with the security policy of the organization.
Monitoring system or user activity when appropriate, to stop the unauthorized disclosure or access to sensitive information.
Make sure that the handling of sensitive data is limited to authorized personnel. Systems logs must be created and maintained on their access.
It is important to ensure the audit log access is limited and that a separation of tasks is kept.
Make sure Audit reports are examined on a periodic basis and allow you to audit specific data through exceptions.
Verify that audit logs are stored for future reference. Sales Executives Email List
It is essential that the appropriate Audit policies are formulated and applied to every computer system, server and network devices in order to enable recording of every important event. Inadequate implementation of these policies can lead to incorrect post-incident analysis and could hinder Forensic analysis and investigation.
After initial configuration and setup of the logging process administrators must verify that the logging process is running smoothly. The most important thing is that the logs and systems must be equipped with synchronized clocks. If not time stamps may not be appropriate. This can be accomplished by synchronizing internal clocks on all systems that have a timeserver that is hardened on the network. SE email database providers
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The server should be audited regularly and log files scanned to identify the possibility of intrusions and attacks most likely every day. Smaller companies should have their own log server that is secured OS must be set up. Server-to-logging server communications should be done via an encrypted channel. i.e. encrypted channel. Furthermore, the logs should be encrypted and access to it must be restricted. For extremely high risk exposure IDS needs to be installed. SE lists
184.108.40.206.2 Log Storage and Protection
The best practices for log Storage and protection are:
All Log collecting and consolidation activities are best Methods for Log Storage and Security are:
Log collection efforts and consolidating must be carried out using an independent and dedicated log server.
The log information should be appropriately protected by encryption along with digitally signing to guarantee the integrity of the log data
Log files should be configured to only appendto prevent deletions, purges and overwrites. One good option is to copy the logs to an”WORM” (Write Once Read Many) device, like DVD or CD; this ensures that accidental deletions are protected by physical methods SE email leads
Backups regularly of log file types should be scheduled at regular intervals (daily or weekly, monthly and so on) and should adhere to a naming convention that conveys information about the date the type, date, server and any other information that could be pertinent. Incorporating log backups into the overall backup strategy of the company will be beneficial.
Log files could easily grow to be enormous if you set them to track every single detail. At times, this is thought of as an inconvenience, but the cost of storage capacity is falling at an alarming rate and compliance issues that require massive trail trails for audits, it may be simpler to record all events and also have the tools in place to identify and highlight important events to our focus. Sales Executives Email List
Policies for safe disposal that are set out by the company should be followed when wiping or shredding logs and media.
Regular reports on management should be created to accurately monitor disposal and backup events , and to identify any irregularities that could occur. This sorting of information allows an investigator to follow up on attacks and identify when incidents occurred.
220.127.116.11.1 Securing Log Files
Log files often contain sensitive data, including alerts about vulnerabilities in servers and the actual routes to resources or details about the usage of servers. This is why many administrators opt to block the reading of log files to anyone other than them. This can be done through a variety of ways. One of the easiest is to alter your directory’s security to where logs are stored and make the directory owned by the administrator of the server. Administrators have full rights to access the directory. all other users have none. SE email database providers
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18.104.22.168.1 Managing Logs (log rotation)
Even on a moderately busy server, the volume of data that is stored in log files is huge. The log file for access typically expands by at least 1 megabyte every 10,000 requests. Therefore, it is essential to regularly change the logs by deleting or moving the logs that are already in place. This is not possible when the server is running since Apache will continue to write to the log file for as long as it has the file. The server should be restarted when the log files have been deleted or moved to ensure that it can start the new files. SE lists
With a gentle reboot, the server will be directed to create new log files without losing any connections that are in the process of being established or waiting to be made from clients. To do that, it has to continue writing to the old log files as it is unable to process old requests. This is why it is important to wait for a period of time following the restart before performing any work on the log files.
1.8 OPERATIONS & MAINTENANCE
The server needs to be updated often to ensure that it is updated with the most recent service hotfixes and patches. This way, certain known security threats are able to be prevented. Server software like mail server, web server, database server etc. must be regularly updated with the most recent patches or software versions. The software used on the server (if there is any) such as web browsers must also be constantly updated with the most recent patches. This ensures that the server is secure from attackers who want who would exploit weaknesses or bugs within the software for servers. The new patches must be tested on a separate computer and only be applied to actual servers. Once the patches have been applied, OS hardening needs to be done again. SE email leads
Computer viruses can be spread quickly via floppy disks, emails or programs downloaded via the Internet. Possible issues range from changing information to formatting the system’s hard drive. Once they are created, viruses may propagate without assistance from their creators. They can be acquired from computer systems in the workplace or from a computer in the home or via an email. To protect the systems, it is recommended that a virus scanning/detecting/cleaning program must be installed on the computer systems and It should be regularly updated. Sales Executives Email List
The creation of new viruses is ongoing and the vendors of virus detection software are able to provide updates to recognize these viruses. To receive the most recent updates, go to the vendor’s website. Certain virus detection software permits automatic updates via the Internet. The anti-virus program should be set to schedule the updates at least two times every week.
It is suggested that computers run a quick scan every time the system is started and applications load into memory and when any new data is discovered (from removable media, email). Computers must run a complete periodic system scan, which could set to start while the users are not in the evening. Before distributing software to multiple machines on the network, you must install it on a separate device and run a scan for viruses on computers. buy SE database online
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1.8.3 Monitoring system
22.214.171.124 Performance SE Email
The performance of the server should be monitored regularly. The tools are included available in servers OS. These tools check the health of the server for hardware components such as memory, CPU I/O, hard disk, and more. and application software installed that runs on the server such as the web server application and database server applications. Any decline in the server’s performance may also be associated with alarms and triggers which transmit warning or alert notifications to SA and can then decide on the appropriate remedial steps. Monitoring of server performance can also assist in identifying attacks, for instance, when hackers misuse a server to attack, the processes in operation to execute the attack could slow down server performance. SE email listing
126.96.36.199 Incident detection tools
A suitable tool for incident detection should install on the server. The reports generated by these tools must be regularly monitored to monitor any changes in the system, unauthorised access, DoS attacks etc. Alarms and notifications for events should be set in a way that is appropriate.
A few of these tools include Windows servers that are based on Rootkit as well as File integrity checking tools, Fport, NBTScan Unix servers NMAP, SAINT, SARA THC Amap, THC Hydra These tools are extremely helpful in detecting compromise of servers and other similar attacks.
To ensure security of data, a backup policy should be developed. It must cover techniques like cold, warm , and hot backups, the role of backup operators , and who has access to them. Everyone should be aware that all types of storage can be subject to loss. For instance an unplanned disk failure could cause the loss in server information. Therefore, users must take measures to ensure that they have copies of vital data, also known as backups. The users must ensure the security of the data stored on the device, which includes backups of the important data stored on it. The information stored on central servers needs to be regularly backed up with the help of the Administrator. SE email listing
Users should adhere to these guidelines:
If you can, store important information to centrally-managed network drives. They typically are backed up on a daily basis.
Keep a paper copy of the server configuration file
Make sure to keep the DATs and other media that you can take with you in a safe location, away from your computer.
Make sure that a different system is able to read the removable media.
It is possible to have a situation that a server goes down due to hardware issues like network failures, disk failures problems or network failures. For these failures the recovery strategies for running the server with no impact on server services need to be specified such as disk arrays, mirroring disks, or recovering from backup media. In the event of software malfunctions additionally, steps must be defined for reloading the server’s services or operating system in the appropriate manner. Recovery tools must be installed onto the server as software to recover hard disks. With the aid of these tools, the server OS can be restored without losing time. For the most critical of applications, fault-tolerant systems can be set up. buy SE database online Sales Executives Email List
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1.9 INCIDENT HANDLING
1.9.1 Define incident SE Email
An incident is the act that is in violation of an explicit or implicit security policy, in the event that there is a security policy in the business. The types of actions that are considered as in violation of a standard security policy are listed below. This includes but is not only:
security breach in which the information resource of the system is made available to or susceptible to being exposed to unauthorized access
unexpected disruption or denial of service
any event that could compromise the security for a computer or network
the unauthorised use of a computer system to facilitate the storage or processing of information
Modifications to the hardware or firmware properties without the owner’s consent or instruction SE email listing
1.9.2 Incident detection
Tools for monitoring the performance of servers and for detecting incidents assists in detecting an issue. The indicators of an event could be a sudden decline on server efficiency, server failure or malfunction of service(s) and/or destruction of content on websites or spam mails and abuse of mail routes, etc. Sales Executives Email List
1.9.3 Protective measures after an incident
If an SA detects an unusual behaviour in server performance or alarms from the use of tools to detect incidents, the next steps must be taken.
Change the administrator password on the server
Disconnect the server from the network according to the severity of the incident
Or stop server services like web server, mail server etc. or, perhaps the most important thing is to turn off the server
1.10 LETS SUM UP
In this course we’ve learned to put in place appropriate security techniques and procedures when maintaining and operating an unsecure server.
Sever systems, which are the most important component of an organization demands strict and rigorous security practices such as the creation, documentation, and the implementation of standards, policies, procedures and guidelines in ensuring the security of information, integrity, and availability of SE email database
Information system resources. In addition, we were taught the best practices to use a server operating system to deploy, configure and manage for security demands of the company. Additionally the recommended best practices provide a concise explanation of how software applications are deployed, configured and managed to satisfy the security requirements of the business.
There are many known hacks that occur on servers. A compromised server could also be utilized as the Launchpad to conduct attacks on internal systems as well as external resources and systems.
We conclude by promising that the security of servers will be guaranteed. This is a continual process to ensure security for the future .
SECURING IT INFRASTRUCTURE SERVICES
2.1 LEARNING OBJECTIVES
After completing this course after which you will be capable of: Sales Executives Email List
Be aware of the necessity of the need to secure infrastructure services. buy SE database online
Be aware of the risks associated with running services that are vulnerable.
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Be aware of the different threats to Web applications.
Be aware of the security guidelines to secure web servers. SE Email
Be aware of the security guidelines to secure Email Servers.
Be aware of the security guidelines to secure Database Servers.
Learn the best practices for protecting DNS Servers.
IT infrastructure is the combination of hardware, software networks resources and other services that are required for the operation, existence and management of an IT environment. It allows organizations to offer IT products and solutions to partners, employees or customers. It is typically internal to the company and is incorporated into facilities owned by the organization8. IT infrastructure services like email web services, email, etc. should be protected from threats since the compromise of these services could result in the destruction of business goals. In this course, we will talk about security of some commonly used IT service infrastructures: Sales Executives Email List
2.3 WEB SERVERS SECURITY
Web Servers Web Server is an internet-connected computer host that is that is connected to the Internet to provide websites on demand. Web servers that are public is accessible to anyone everywhere on the Internet. Because web servers are open to access by the public, they could be targeted by attackers to break into the server. Attackers can hack websites and take valuable information from servers. This could result in a total attack on the IT systems. For government and corporate systems, the loss of crucial information could lead to the launching of information espionage or warfare on their websites. Beyond data loss or theft of data, a site defacement can cause significant harm to brand image and reputation. institution.
Security threats that are common to a server that is public could be classified as following: SE email database
Access to the internet without authorization
Launch pad to attack
Hosting improper/malicious contents
Denial of Service & Distributed Denial of Service
Hackers exploit various security vulnerabilities in the web hosting system to exploit the vulnerabilities to attack the system. Security flaws that are common and can cause a security breach can be classified as
Insufficient network boundary security control
Bugs or flaws in websites hosting programs (OS or application, etc.)
Secure design and programming of hosted applications
Insufficient operational control
An attacker could employ a variety of hacking methods or tools to gain access to or exploit the security flaws listed above. SE email database
Security of servers can be broadly classified into two groups: Sales Executives Email List
Web Server Security and
Security of Web applications
The security of Web applications is discussed in the Unit 3 in this section. In this module, we will examine the general security of web servers.
2.3.1 Defense in depth
The process of securing a website server consists the implementation of defense in depth by implementing various security measures on the network’s architecture as well as operating system and application levels. Defense in depth can be defined as the process of layering defenses in order to provide an additional level of security. Defense in depth structure creates multiple barriers between the attacker and critical business information resources. The multiple layers block attacks on important systems as well as preventing easy surveillance of networks.buy SE database online