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Security breach Internet Information Server
Windows IIS is one of the most popular web servers software applications.
Due to its increasing popularity and number of servers operating IIS there are a variety of attacks that can be carried out on IIS servers. The three most popular attacks on IIS are listed below:
The attack of a directory-traversal is based on the idea that web-based clients are restricted to specific directories in the Windows files system. The directory that is initially accessible to web browsers is known as the root directory on a server. The root directory usually contains the home page, commonly known by the name of Default or Index as well as other HTML documents that are used by websites. Buy Physicians email lists online.
\The subdirectories in the root directory include various types of files, for instance, scripts could include dynamic scripting files that are used by Web server. Web servers should permit users to access only specific directories and subdirectories within the root directory. However an attack that allows directory traversal gives access to additional directories within the system of files.
Windows 2000 systems running IIS are vulnerable to a directory-traversal attack which is also known as Unicode exploit. This vulnerability within IIS that permits the exploit to be used for directory tra-versal/Unicode can only be found in non-patched Windows 2000 systems and affects CGI scripts as well as Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI) extensions like .asp. The issue is that the IIS parser wasn’t properly interpret Unicode which gave hackers access to the system. Buy Physicians email lists online.
In essence, Unicode converts characters of any language into an hex code that is universally standardized. But, Unicode is double-interpreted, and the parser can only scan the resultant request once (following the initial interpretation). Hackers are therefore able to sneak requests for files via IIS. For instance, using the character %c0% instead of the slash in a relative pathname could exploit vulnerability IIS vulnerability. In certain cases the request can let hackers gain access to files that they would not normally be able to access. The Unicode vulnerability to traverse directories permits hackers to modify, add or delete files or to upload and execute code to the host. The capability to upload to or execute files can allow attackers to install Trojans or backdoors to the system.
It is believed that the IIS Unicode exploit is an old vulnerability that is described in this document as proof of concept, that is, evidence that this vulnerability exists and is able to be exploited. Buy Physicians email lists online.
Buffer overflow attacks aren’t only limited to web servers, and could also be launched against other systems. Buffer overflows involve sending more data, typically by way of text strings more than the web server can handling. The main source of buffer overloads is through a web form that is hosted on web servers. Countermeasures for buffer overflows and buffer overflows will be explained in detail in the next chapter.
Source disclosure attacks happen when the source code of an application running on servers could be exposed Buy Physicians email lists online. Attacks on source disclosure can cause a hacker to be able to determine the type of application, its program-ming language, as well as other details specific to an application. All of this information may enable a potential hacker discover security vulnerabilities and potential vulnerabilities that could be transmitted directly to the server. Also, the majority of a hacker’s work is spent collecting information on a person or object to find the most suitable entry point to exploit.
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Connecting It All Together Source Disclosure Attacks
A good example of executing the source disclosure attack is to use BlackWidow against a server on the internet and then copy the entire file to an local directory.
By examining the source files with BlackWidow it is possible to find information about the hostname, its IP address, as well as the version. Additional information-gathering tools such as Netcraft can aid in the discovery of the OS, web server software type, and version.
A CEH must be aware of all the information-gathering techniques to identify potential vulnerabilities in web servers and web applications. The reason that this knowledge is essential to the CEH is to ensure they are able to defend themselves against similar attacks and put in place security measures to protect themselves from attacks.
Patch management plays an essential part in preventing and reducing the threat of attacks against web servers and web-based applications. Patch management involves making sure that the correct patches and hotfixes are installed as that are required by a vendor of systems. A proper patch management process involves deciding the method by which patches will be installed and tested, and then testing the patches on non-production networks before installation.
Keep a record of all patches that have been applied to your system. To facilitate the installation of patches it is possible to use automated patches management systems offered from PatchLink, St. Bernard Software, Microsoft, and other software providers to analyze your system and determine the patches you want to install. Buy Physicians email address lists online.
The first week on the job as an Administrator of Web Sites
As a new network administrator for a tiny company with 40 employees, it was my job to examine the configuration and patches of the small network that had two servers. The company utilized IIS 5.0 on the Windows 2000 server that had been serving the website of the corporation to clients for the past three years. The servers were installed and configured by a consultancy company three years before my arrival on the team. The content on the website was frequently updated through the assistant to marketing but no further updates was applied for the website server. Buy Physicians email address lists online.
Then, I began making updates and patch management for the server. The company didn’t have a firewall that protected the Internet connection in addition, Windows Server OS had not been patched or had hotfixes implemented since its the time of installation. Its IIS web server application was not up-to-date. This presented an enormous security risk for the organization and patch management was the top priority for protecting the web server and the applications that were running on it. Buy Physicians email address lists online.
When I applied hotfixes and security patches initially to the OS and after that IIS and IIS, I discovered that malware, including Code Red, Code Red worm and numerous viruses, had already infected the system. It took some days of applying hotfixes and patches and updating the definitions of viruses until the website server could be updated. Fortunately for the small-sized company I was able make the OS and the web server software up to date and establish an automated system to manage patches before the system was compromised or a major security breach took place.
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The N-Stalker Security scanner for Web applications lets you to test the security of a website application against many weaknesses, including cross-site scripting SQL injection, buffer overflow and parameter-tampering.
The Metasploit framework is an open source tool to test and hack operating systems and the web servers software. Exploits can be utilized as plug-ins and tests can be carried out using either a Windows as well as Unix platform. Metasploit was initially a command line program, but is now available as a browser interface. With Metasploit hackers can develop their own exploits, as well as employ common exploits.
CORE Impact and SAINT Vulnerability Scanner are tools for exploiting vulnerabilities that are used by exploiters to test and degrade operating systems as well as the web servers software.
Web Server Hardening Methods
The web server administrator is able to perform a variety of things to strengthen the server (increase the security of the server). Buy Physicians email id lists online.
Here are some suggestions to improve the security of your web server:
Name the administrator account and make sure to use a strong password. To change the admin-istrator’s name within Windows start by opening the User Manager and right-click on the Administrator account and choose Rename. Buy Physicians email id lists online.
Disable default websites as well as FTP websites. The procedure to block default websites was previously described in this section: Right-click on the default site within IIS Manager and select Stop. The same procedure is applicable to the default FTP website.
Eliminate unneeded applications off the servers, for instance WebDAV. It is possible to remove unnecessary applications from servers by making use of Add/Remove Programs within the Windows Control Panel.
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Put a legal notice on the website in order to alert potential hackers of the consequences of hacking the website.
Use the most recent patches, hotfixes and service packs to your running system as well as the webserver software.
Conduct bounds-checking on inputs for queries and web forms to stop buffer overflow and insecure input attack.
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Turn off remote admin.
Utilize a script that maps extension file names that are not used to generate an error message of error message of 404 (“File is not located”) error code.
Logging and auditing can be enabled.
Set up a firewall between your Web server as well as the Internet and only allow necessary ports (such as 443 and 80) by the firewall.
Replacing the GET method by using the POST method for sending data to a website server.
Web Application Vulnerabilities
As well as knowing how hackers can hack a server’s security It is also crucial for the CEH to be aware of web application security vulnerabilities. In this article we’ll explore the workings of web applications and the motives behind hacking into web applications. We’ll also look at the structure of an attack on a web application and some real threats to web applications. We’ll also look at Google hacking and countermeasures that you must be aware of. Buy Physicians email directory lists online.
Web applications are applications that are hosted on a web server in order to provide the user with functionality beyond a simple website. Webmail, database queries, discussion groups, blogs and discussion forums are just a few examples of web-based apps.
The goal of hacking an application on the web is to steal confidential information. Web applications are crucial for the protection of a system since they generally connect to databases that holds information, like identities that include passwords and credit card numbers. Web application vulnerabilities increase the risk that hackers attack the operating system, web server software or web application. Web applications are basically a way to access a system, and could be exploited to harm the system. Buy Physicians email directory lists online.
Hacking websites is similar as hacking systems in other ways. Hackers go through a 5-step procedure that involves scanning a network and gather data, then test various attack scenarios before deciding to create and execute an attack.
Web Application Security and Threats
A variety of threats to web applications exist on a server for web applications. Here are the most frequent threats and countermeasures for them:
Cross-Site Scripting Any parameter input in a web-based form is processed by the web application. A proper combination of variables may cause arbitrary command execution. Countermeasure: Validate cookies form fields, query strings or hidden fields. Buy Physicians email directory lists online.
An alternative to cross-site scripting is replacing the left angle and right angle brackets (and >) with and > by using server scripts. One way to stop SSL attack is to set up a proxy server and then terminate SSL through the proxy, or install an hardware SSL accelerator and then terminate SSL in this level.
SQL Injection Adding SQL commands in the URL allows data from the server database to modify the database, delete or add data within the database. SQL injection is discussed in depth in Chapter 9 “Attacking Application: SQL Injection and Buffer Overflows.” Countermeasure to validate the user’s variables.
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Command Injection Hackers inject programming commands into web forms.
Countermeasure: Use libraries that are specific to the language for programming languages.
Snooping and Cookie Poisoning The hacker steals or corrupts cookies. Countermeasures:
Don’t save passwords in cookies. use cookie timeouts to authenticate cookies.
Buffer Overflow Massive amounts of data are transmitted to a web-based application via web forms to perform commands. Buffer overflows are discussed in depth in chapter 9. Countermeasures: Validate input from the user length; conduct bounds checking.
Authentication Hijacking Hackers steal an account after the account has been authenticated by the user. Buy Physicians email outlook lists online.
Countermeasure Solution: Make use of SSL to secure traffic.
Directory Traversal/Unicode The hacker navigates through the folders of an operating system through an internet browsing browser, as well as Windows Explorer. Anticipate the threat: Give access rights for private fold-ers on the server that hosts web pages; install patching and hotfixes.
Instant Source allows hackers to view and edit HTML sources. It is accessible directly from the browser on the web. Buy Physicians email outlook lists online.
Wget is a command-line utility which hackers can utilize to download a complete website that includes all files. Hackers can inspect sources of code on their own and try specific attacks before attacking the real web server.
WebSleuth utilizes the spidering technique to search a website’s entire content. For instance, WebSleuth can pull all the email addresses from various pages of a site.
BlackWidow is able to scan, map and analyze all pages on a website to build a profile of the website.
SiteScope determines the web-based connections in an application, and aids in deconstructing the software.
WSDigger is a Web Services testing tool, which includes samples of plug-ins that attack for SQL injection cross-site scripting as well as other web-based attacks. Buy Physicians email outlook lists online.
Burp is a Windows-based , automated attack tool for web-based applications. It is also able to decipher passwords for web-based applications as well as to perform man-in the-middle attacks.
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Google hacking is the process of using Google’s powerful Google search engine in order to identify valuable targets or look for important information like passwords.
Many tools, such as http://johnny.ihackstuff.com and Acunetix Web Vulnerability Scanner, contain a list of Google hacking terms organized in a database, to make searching easier (see Exercise 8.5). For instance, you could type in the word password or medical records into Google’s Google search engine and check the information available. In many cases, Google can pull information directly from databases or files.
Utilizing Acunetix Internet Vulnerability Checker
Get and install Acunetix Web Vulnerability scanner at www.acunetix.com. Buy Physicians email id database online.
Start the Web scanner, and choose File New Scan to open the Scan Wizard.
Follow the wizard’s instructions Accept the default settings to begin the scan.
Check the scan report after the scan is completed. Be aware of the web server as well as vulnerability in application in the report.
Create a second scan with the wizard. It will make it a target for your web server in the lab or webserver VM. Review and analyze the scan report of your lab’s web server. Buy Physicians email id database online.
Web-Based Password-Cracking Techniques
As an CEH is required to know the strategies hackers use to break into passwords on the web. This includes being able define the different authentication methods as well as understanding what a password cracker is, and recognizing the different types of techniques used to crack passwords and understanding the options for countermeasures. We’ll discuss each of them in the next sections.
Web servers and web applications can support different types of authentication. Most commonly, it type of authentication is HTTP authentication Buy Physicians email id database online. There are two kinds of HTTP authentication which are digest and basic. Basic HTTP authentication is when you send your login and username in text while digest authentication is a hashing process and employs an authentication model that is based on a challenge-response.
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Additionally, web server and internet applications also support the following kinds of authentication methods:
NTLM authentication This type of authentication uses Internet Explorer and IIS web servers and makes NTLM better suited for internal authentication in an intranet which uses Microsoft operating systems.
Windows 2000 and 2003 servers make use of Kerberos authentication to provide an additional secure method of authentication.
Certificate-Based Authentication This type of authentication uses an x.509 certificate for public/private keys technology.
Token-Based authentication A token, like SecurID is a type of hardware machine that provides an authenticating timer for 60 seconds. A user can use this code to login to networks.
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Password Attacks and Cracking Passwords
The three kinds of password-related attacks are as the following:
Dictionary Utilizes passwords which are located in the dictionary
Brute-Force Guesses Complex Passwords made up of numbers, letters and other special characters
Hybrid is a term that uses dictionary words and an identifier or number to substitute for an alphabet
A password cracker is a software created to decrypt passwords and disabling password security. Password crackers depend on search engines (attacks) or brute force methods to break passwords. Buy Physicians email database leads online.
The initial step in the dictionary attack is to create an inventory of passwords which can be found in the dictionary. The hacker typically creates this list using the help of a dictionary generator or dictionaries that are downloaded via the Internet. After that, the list of words from the dictionary is encrypted or hashed.
The hash list is checked against the password that hackers are trying break. Hackers can obtain the password hashed by sniffing it through wireless or wired networks and also directly via an account in the Security Accounts Manager (SAM) or shadow password files located on your hard disk of a computer. The program then displays the password that is not encrypted. password. Dictionary password crackers only identify passwords that contain dictionary words. Buy Physicians email database leads online.
In the event that the individual has set up an extremely secure password, brute force password cracking could be applied. The brute-force cracker will attempt each possible combo of numbers, letters and special characters taking longer as a dictionary attempt due to the size of the sheer number of combinations. Exercise 8.6 shows you how to use a password cracker known as Brutus.
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Making use of an Password Cracker
Install and download Brutus at www.hoobie.net.
Open Brutus and type in the web server’s address into the field that is targeted.
Click Start and check for your passwords within the Positive Authentication result field that is located at the lower right on the page.
Webcracker is an application which uses a wordlist in order to try to connect to the web server. It seeks out an “HTTP 302 object changed” response in order to guess regarding the password. The tool will identify the type of authentication it is using and attempt to connect into the computer system. Buy Physicians mailing lists online.
The best way to stop password-cracking is to use solid passwords, which are at minimum eight characters (the previous standard of six characters)) and contain alphanumeric characters. Passwords and usernames should be distinct because a lot of usernames are sent in plaintext.
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Web servers and attacks on web applications are of constant worry with the growing usage of Internet. Web servers as well as the Internet are utilized by users to search for businesses, make online purchases and access databases of banks and investment companies as well as perform a variety of other database searches. With the increase in usage the information that could be targeted is becoming more important. Personal information, credit card numbers, information as well as Social Security num-bers are the ideal targets for hackers and all of this data is stored in web-based databases of applications. Buy Physicians mailing lists online.
Web server hacking and web application hacking are techniques hackers employ to try to break into the security of web servers and distribute exploits that give valuable data. A CEH must be knowledgeable about spotting weaknesses and countermeasures that can be used to protect against attacks on web servers.
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Know the various types of server weaknesses. Operating system and application flaws and bugs, standard installation for operating systems, web server software, absence of patch management and insufficient security procedures and policies are all vulnerabilities on the web server.
Be aware of common security threats for web applications. The cross-site scripting technique, SQL and command-injection cookies, cookie poisoning and snooping overflow, hijacking of authentication, along with directory traversal commonly encountered threats in web applications.
Know about Google hacking. Google hacking is the process of employing Google’s Google engines to find passwords as well as credit card numbers medical records, and other private information. Buy Physicians mailing address lists online.
Know the best practices for managing patch management. Patch management is essential to ensure that your system is updated with the most recent security updates. A procedure for testing, applying and recording patches to the system must be established and adhered to.
Be aware of the different authentication methods to authenticate webservers. HTTP simple and digest-based authentication tokens, NTLM, biometrics and certificate are just a few ways for authenticating to a server.
Know how password crackers function. Password crackers make use of an encrypted dictionary file to break a password.
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SQL injection as well as buffer overflows can be hacking methods employed to attack vulnerabilities in applications. As programs are created, there are certain parameters that are utilized during the development of the application
Cation code may leave holes in the code. SQL injection as well as buffer overflows are discussed inside the exact same book as they are both methods that attack applications and are typically result of programming errors. The main purpose to use SQL injection is force that the application to execute SQL code that is not designed to be. Buy Physicians mailing address lists online.
SQL injection refers to a technique employed to hack SQL databases, while buffer overflows are a possibility in a variety of software. SQL injections and buffer overflows are both similar attacks in that they’re typically delivered through an input field. Input fields are where users can enter the username and password of the internet, or add information to an URL or search for a specific keyword within another program. The SQL injection vulnerability is caused by unauthenticated or unclean user input through these fields. Buy Physicians mailing address lists online.
The two SQL vulnerability to buffer overflow and Server injection result from the same problem: incorrect parameters that aren’t confirmed by the software. If programmers do not make the effort to verify the variables that users can input to a variable fields the consequences could be grave and uncertain. Hackers with sophisticated skills can exploit this flaw, leading to an execution failure and the shut-down of the application or system or command shell that can be executed by the hacker.
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SQL infiltration and buffer-overflow protections have been designed to use secure programming methods. By altering the variables used by the program code and implementing these countermeasures, the weaknesses of applications are greatly reduced.
This chapter will outline how to execute an SQL injec-tion as well as buffer overflow attack. We will also examine the most effective countermeasures to stop the attack.
As an CEH is essential that you are able to identify SQL injection and comprehend the steps hackers follow to carry out the SQL injection attempt. Additionally, you must be aware of SQL Server vulnerabilities, as and countermeasures for SQL infiltration attacks.
SQL injection happens the moment an application process input from users to produce the SQL expression without verifying the input. The input of the user is transferred to a web-based application database server to execute. If exploited successfully, SQL injection could provide an attacker with access to data stored in databases or permit hackers to execute remotely system commands. In the worst case scenario, the attacker could take over the control of the server that hosts the database. Buy Physicians mailing id lists online.
This vulnerability could give hackers the ability to access a remote server into the server’s file system. The impact of SQL injection attack is contingent upon the location of the vulnerability in the code as well as the ease with which for hackers to take advantage of the flaw and the degree of access an software has access to databases. In theory, SQL injection can be found in any kind of application however, it is often associated with web-based applications since they are the most frequently targeted.
As we have previously mentioned in chapter 8, “Web Hacking: GOOGLE, Web Servers, Web Application Vulnerabilities and Web-Based Password Breaking Techniques,” web applications are easy targets due to their very nature they’re easily accessible from the Internet. It is essential to have a good knowledge of how databases operate and the way SQL commands can be used to gain access to the data stored within the databases prior to taking the CEH test. Buy Physicians mailing id lists online.
When a web application is a victim of SQL injection attack in which malicious code is put into web form fields or into the code of the website to cause a system to run a command shell or other arbi-trary command. Similar to how a user who is legitimate makes additions and queries into the SQL database through web forms, a attacker can inject commands to the SQL Server via the same form field. For instance, a random request from a hacker could start a command prompt or show a table from the database.
A table in the database may include personal information like credit card numbers or social security numbers or passwords. SQL Servers are extremely popular databases and are used by many businesses to keep confidential information. This means that an SQL Server a highly valuable attack target and, consequently, an extremely attracted by hackers. Buy Physicians mailing id lists online.
Determining SQL Injection Vulnerabilities
When conducting a penetration test using black-hat techniques on a corporate network security tester Tom discovered a customized application running on one of the public web servers. Because it was a test that was black-hat, Tom did not have access to the source code to determine how the application was developed. After a bit of information gathering He was able to confirm that this server ran Microsoft Internet Information Server 6 in conjunction with ASP.NET This suggests it was one of Microsoft’s SQL Server.
The login page for the website application contained an account name, password field, as well as the link to forget password, which turned out to be the simplest way to enter the system. A link for forgotten passwords works by searching in the database of users for the email address of the user and then sending an email with the password to that email address. Buy Physicians mailing id lists online.
In order to find out whether the link to the forgotten password was susceptible for SQL injections, Tom entered a single quote in the information in the field for forgotten password. The intention was to test whether the application could create the SQL string in a literal way without sanitizing input from the user. After submitting the form, using a quote in the email address, the user received 500 errors (server failure) This indicated that the input was being processed literally.
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The base SQL code for the form could have looked like this:
The fieldlist of SELECT
From the table
Field WHERE value is ‘$EMAIL’
Tom entered his email address, followed by a single quotation mark in the field for forgotten email links.
The SQL parser for the application on the web detected the quote mark in addition and threw up an error in syntax. When Tom was confronted with this error message it was possible to discern that the user’s input wasn’t being cleansed properly , and the application was vulnerable to attack.
In this instance the attacker did not have to hack into the application because the error message proved sufficient to show that the application was susceptible to an SQL injection attack. In the wake of an attack on the application, this user was successful in repairing his SQL Server vulnerability. Buy Physicians mailing directory lists online.
Finding a SQL Injection Vulnerability
Before initiating an SQL injection, the hacker checks what configuration in the database as well as associated tables and variables is vulnerable. The steps for determining the vulnerability of SQL Server are as below:
Utilizing your browser on the web and search for a website which has an login page, or any other query or database input field (such such as the “I have forgotten your password” form). Find websites which display both the POST and GET HTML commands, by examining the source code of the site. Buy Physicians mailing directory lists online.
Check the SQL Server by using single quotes. (”). This indicates whether the input field of the user has been cleaned up or is being interpreted in a literal manner in the database. If the server replies with an error message that states”use ‘a’ = ‘a’ (or the equivalent) is it most likely to be vulnerable to an SQL injection attack.
Use the command SELECT to extract information from the database. You can also use the INSERT command for adding data into the database. Buy Physicians mailing directory lists online.
These commands and other variations could allow users to bypass logins based on the database’s structure. If entered into an input field on a form these commands could result in many rows of tables or the entire table of a database because the SQL Server interprets the meanings literally. The double dashes that appear near to the conclusion of the commands inform SQL to disregard the remainder of the command in the form of comments.
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Here are a few examples of how to utilize SQL commands to gain control:
To access an index listing you need to type this into an online form field:
Blah’;exec master..xp_cmdshell “dir c:\*. * /s >c:\directory.txt”–
To create a new file, enter the following information in the field on a form:
Blah’;exec master..xp_cmdshell “echo hacker-was-here > c:\hacker.txt”–
To send a ping to an IP address enter the following information in an input field on a form:
Blah’;exec master..xp_cmdshell “ping 192.168.1.1”–
The purpose of SQL Injection
SQL injection techniques are utilized by hackers to obtain certain outcomes. Certain SQL exploits can produce important user information stored in databases, while others are just the precursors to other attacks. Here are the most commonly used motives of an SQL injection vulnerability:
Identification of SQL vulnerability is to test an online application to determine which user input and parameter fields are susceptible for SQL injection. Buy Physicians mailing outlook lists online.
Conducting Database Finger-Printing. The objective is to identify the nature and version of the database that a web-based application is using , and then “fingerprint” it on the database. Knowing the kind and version of the database utilized by the web application allows attackers to develop attacks that are specific to databases.
The process of determining the schema for a database to extract data from a database the attacker typically needs to know the database schema like column names, table names and the column data types. This information could be used to carry out the case of a follow-up attack. Buy Physicians mailing outlook lists online.
Extracting Data These attacks use techniques to remove data from databases. Based on the type of web-based application, the information may be highly sensitive and desirable for the attacker.
Making or modifying data The goal is to update or modify data within databases.
performing Denial of Service attacks are carried out to block access to web applications and thus block access to other users. Attacks that require dropping or locking databases are also included in this category.
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Evading Detection This class is comprised of certain techniques used to prevent detection and audits.
Bypassing Authentication to permit an attacker the ability to circumvent application and database authentication mechanisms. In this way, it is possible for attackers to take on the rights and privileges of the user of another application.
Remote Command Execution These kinds of attacks are designed to run arbitrary com-mands against the database. These commands could be stored as procedures or even functions accessible the database’s users.
Performs the act of Escalation These attacks make use of the implementation error or logical errors in the database order to raise access rights of attackers.
SQL Injection Using Dynamic Strings
Most SQL applications do a specific, predictable job. Many of the functions of the SQL database are based on unchanging input from the user, where the only variable is input fields of the user. The statements don’t change between execution and execution. They are generally referred to as”static” SQL statements. But, certain programs have to create and process a range of SQL statements in time of execution. The full content of the statement is not known until the application executes. The statements may be, and likely will alter between execution and execution. Therefore, they are called”dynamic” SQL statements, also known as dynamic SQL. Buy Physicians mailing database online.
Dynamic SQL can be described as an improved version of SQL that, in contrast to the standard SQL allows for the automated production and execution statements. Dynamic SQL is an expression used to describe SQL code generated by the web-based application prior to execution. Dynamic SQL is an adaptable and powerful tool to create SQL strings. It can be useful in situations where you need in writing code that is able to adapt to different database, conditions or servers. Dynamic SQL is also a great way to automate processes that are repeated several times in web applications. Buy Physicians mailing database online.
Hackers can infiltrate an authentication form on the web by using SQL injection using the utilization of dynamic strings. For example, the core code of a web-based authentication form on a Web server could look something as follows:
SQLCommand is “SELECT the Username from Users WHICH Username is “
SQLCommand = SQLComand + strUsername
SQLCommand = SQLComand ” password =”
SQLCommand = SQLComand and strPassword
SQLCommand = SQLComand and “‘”
strAuthCheck = GetQueryResult(SQLQuery)
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An attacker can exploit vulnerability SQL injection security vulnerability simply by typing in the login password on the web form which utilizes the variables listed below:
Password Graves” OR ”=’
The SQL application will create an command string from the input in the following manner:
Find Usernames FROM Users
Where Username is “kimberly”
and the password must be ‘graves’ or ”=”
This is an illustration of SQL injection. This query will retrieve all rows in the database of the user regardless of whether the username kimberly exists in the database, or graves is a genuine pass-word. This is because of the OR statement added in the WHERE clause. The test ”=” does always yield an accurate result, which makes the WHERE clause overall evaluate to be true for all rows within the table. The hacker will be able to login using every username or password. Buy Physicians mailing id leads online.
Utilizing HP’s Scrawlr to test the possibility of SQL Injection Vulnerabilities
Download Scrawlr on www.HP.com.
Installation of Scrawlr onto your Windows Lab PC.
Start your Scrawlr program.
Input a URL of the website you want to scan in the URL of Site to Scan field:
When it is determined that the SQL vulnerability scanning is completed, Scrawlr will display additional hosts that have been linked to the site that was scanned. It is best to examine the linked sites in addition to the main website to ensure that there are no SQL injection vulnerabilities are found. Buy Physicians mailing id leads online.
SQL Injection Countermeasures
The reason for SQL vulnerability to injection is simple and easily understood the insufficient validation of input from users. To combat this issue security-conscious coding techniques, such as encryption of inputs and validating them, are a good option when developing applications. It’s a lengthy and time-consuming procedure to examine all programs for SQL injection weaknesses.
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If you are making SQL injection countermeasures sources for programming flaws:
Invalidation of inputs is not validating
The most effective countermeasures to stop the possibility of a SQL injection attack is to limit the user’s privileges access to the SQL Server as well as making sure that strong passwords are enforced to SA as well as Administrator account.
It is also recommended to disable the any explanatory or verbose error messages to ensure that only the information required is provided to hackers; this data could aid them in determining whether or not the SQL Server is vulnerable. Keep in mind that among the goals for SQL injection is gather more information about the parameters that are vulnerable to attack. Buy top Physicians email lists online.
Another method of preventing SQL injection is to verify the user’s input data and verifying the input prior to sending the data to the application to process.
Certain measures to counter SQL injection can be taken.
Rejecting inputs that are known to be bad
Validating and sanitizing the input field
As an CEH is required to be able recognize various kinds of buffer-overflows. It is also important to be aware of the signs of vulnerabilities in buffers, and know the techniques that hackers may employ to carry out a stack-based attack. We’ll discuss these subjects in detail, and also explain the buffer-overflow-related techniques, in the sections below. Buy top Physicians email lists online.
Different types of buffer overflows as well as Methods to Detect
Buffer overflows are exploits hackers employ against an operating system or program; as with SQL injection, they are usually focused on input fields of users. A buffer overflow vulnerability causes an application to fail due to overloading memory , or by running commands or other software on the system being targeted. The vulnerability of buffer overflow is due to a lack of bounds checking or the absence of input validation sanitization variable field (such for example, on a web form). If the application does not verify or validate the size and form of a variable before sending it to memory An overflow vulnerability will be triggered. Buy top Physicians email lists online.
The two forms of buffer overflows are stack-based and heap-based.
The heap and the stack are the storage areas for variables that are supplied by the user in a run-ning application. Variables are stored on the heap or stack until the application needs them. Stacks are static areas of memory space while heaps, on the other hand, are memory addresses that change dynamically and happen when a program is running. A heap-based buffer overload happens in the lowest portion of the memory and can overwrite other variables that are dynamic. Refer to Figure 9.1.
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The call stack also known as a stack is used to record the location in the program code the execution pointer will return after each section of the program is completed. A buffer overflow that is based on a stack (Figure 9.2) is when the memory allocated to each routine’s execution is overflown.
In the event of the two types of buffer overflows could open a shell command prompt, or even stop the program’s execution. The next section discusses the stack-based attack on buffer overflow.
To identify buffer overflow vulnerability that result from poor source code writing, hackers transmit massive amounts of data to the program via the form field, and then observes what the application does in response. Buy top Physicians email address lists online.
The steps below are what hackers follow to carry out an overflow that is based on stacks:
Input a variable in the buffer to use up the memory capacity of the stack.
Input more information that the buffer has already allocated in memory for the variable that will cause the memory to become overflowing or to fill up the memory space needed for the next step. Add another variable, and replace the return pointer which informs the program what it should return to after the execution of the variable.
A malicious program is executed by a code variable, and then utilizes the return pointer to go on to the following line of executable code. If the hacker is successful in overwriting the pointer, the program will execute the hacker’s code , not the program’s code. Buy top Physicians email address lists online.
Many hackers don’t have to be so knowledgeable about the details of buffer overloads. There are prewritten exploits available in the Internet and shared among hackers’ groups. Exercise 9.2 describes how to use Metasploit to carry out an Buffer Overflow attacks.
The memory register which is replaced by the return address of the exploit is referred to by the EIP. Buy top Physicians email address lists online.
Implementing a Buffer-Overflow Attack using Metasploit
Launch Metasploit, the framework for Metasploit.
Start the test machine and run Windows Server with IIS.
From Metasploit use Metasploit to run Metasploit, and then run the IIS Buffer Overflow attack against the test machine which is running IIS. Buy top Physicians email address lists online.
Select a payload that you want to send to the IIS to be delivered via an exploit called buffer overflow.
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Countermeasures to prevent buffer overflow
As you can see, hackers may transition from normal buffer overflows by redirecting return points to code they want to execute.
Hackers must be aware of the specific memory address and amount of memory to allow the return pointer to execute their program. A hacker could use the NOP (No Operation (NOP) instruction that acts as padding to shift the instruction pointer but doesn’t run any program. It is typically added prior to the malicious code is executed.
In the event that an intrusion detection device (IDS) is within the network, the IDS will deter a hacker sending an assortment of NOP instructions that forward to an instruction pointer. To bypass the IDS hackers are able to randomly alter the NOP instructions with similar parts of code, for example x++,x-;?NOPNOP. This is an example of a mutated buffer overload attack is able to bypass any detection from an IDS.
Programmers should not utilize the strcpy built-in() or strcat() as well as strcat() and() C/Cfunctions since they can be vulnerable to buffer-overflow occurrences. Alternately, Java can be used as a programming language because Java isn’t susceptible for buffer overloads. Buy top Physicians email id directory online.
SQL injection, buffer overloads and other buffering techniques are methods of hacking employed to attack applications. Web-based applications are more vulnerable to attacks because they provide easy access to hackers via input fields for users, like username password, username, passwords that have been forgotten or price fields. In the strict interpretation, unfiltered input can directly communicate with databases and could make the database reveal sensitive information.
Buffer overflows are of two kinds, stack based and heap-based, that target different parts of memory allocation. SQL infiltration and attacks on buffers are prevented through confirming input from users and by limiting the size of the user input field. These two measures can be used to fix many vulnerabilities that affect applications and safeguard the application against SQL attack and buffer overflow. Buy top Physicians email id directory online.
Find out the ways in which SQL injection attacks and buffer overflows are comparable. SQL injection and buffer overflows have a lot in common in that both attacks are executed through web forms fields.
Learn about the purpose of SQL injection. The goals for SQL injection attacks may be to extract user data from a database , or to gather information about vulnerabilities in the application and database. Buy top Physicians email id directory online.
Know SQL injection measures. Making use of correct programming code without single quotes, and checking inputs and bounds is SQL injection-related countermeasures.
Learn the distinction between a stack-based buffer overflow and a heap-based buffer overload. Stacks are fixed locations in memory address space, while heaps have dynamic address space.
Find out how you can get around an IDS by using a buffer overflow attack. The IDS is looking for a sequence of instructions from NOP. By changing the NOP instruction by additional code segments, hackers is able to override an IDS.
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Learn about buffer overflow as well as SQL injection security countermeasures. Sanitizing and checking for bounds from a web-based form could stop a buffer overflow as well as SQL injection security vulnerability.
Wireless Network Hacking
Wireless networks are an additional access point to the network of hackers. A lot has been written about hacking and security in wireless networks because wireless is a relatively recent technology that is a hot topic.
that are vulnerable to security issues. The rise of Wi-Fi hotspots and the increasing number of mobile cellphones, PDAs, and laptops equipped with Wi-Fi radios wireless security is an increasing concern for many companies. Buy top Physicians email id outlook online.
Due to its broadcast nature, wireless radio (RF) wireless network, and the rapid spread of wireless technologies in both business and home networks There are many opportunities for hacking with wireless network. Even for companies that have the “no wireless” policy, which means they don’t support Wi-Fi connectivity–rogue Wi-Fi access points connected to the network are a growing risk. The price of Wi-Fi equipment is falling and a lot of organizations are pushing IT professionals to establish wireless networks in order to supplement or replace wired networks.
Wi-Fi as well as Ethernet
It is crucial to understand the fact that WiFi networks are distinct in comparison to Ethernet networks. While in an Ethernet network, data is transmitted via frames over copper or fiber-optic cabling in a WiFi network, data is transported in open air. Furthermore, any encryption that is used in wireless networks only protects the data and leaves the header portion that is the frame’s header vulnerable to a variety of threats. The details of wireless threats and defenses to them will be addressed in this section, but first, you must understand the fundamentals of 802.11 protocols and standards. Buy top Physicians email id outlook online.
802.11 Wireless LANs operate on the layers 1 , 2 and 3 of the OSI Model. This implies that the protocols in the use of a WLAN are the same as Layer 3 (usually IP) through Layer 7 (the layers of application). Check out the figure 10.1.
A lot of people refer to 802.11 wireless networks “wireless Ethernet,” which is a huge mistake. 802.11 is a totally different frames format for Layer 2 as compared to 802.3 (Ethernet). For instance Ethernet layer 2 frames contain the smallest number of MAC addresses, whereas 802.11 frames contain fields that can accommodate 4 MAC addresses. Ethernet simply specifies destination and source addresses, whereas
An 802.11 frame can be used to define the source, destination the transmitter, and the receiver. 802.11 frames also include the frame control field within the MAC header, which is used to show information about the frame for example, whether it is encoded. Check out 10.2. 10.2. Buy top Physicians email id outlook online.
There are three kinds of 802.11 frames:
Management–used for notification, connection to disconnection, information, and notification.
Control–Used to determine the station that has connectivity to wireless networks.
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Data is used to carry the upper layer of data.
The majority of wireless networks (WLANs) are built in the IEEE 802.11 standards and amendments, including 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g and 802.11n. The amended letters are now incorporated into the definitive 802.11 standards and known by the section or clause number in the 802.11 standard.
However, as the amendments that are lettered are often used to distinguish between parts of the 802.11 standard and will be utilized in this chapter too. Table 10.1 compares the 802.11 standard modifications.
The original 802.11 standard was a basic set of security features, and was plagued with security flaws. The 802.11i amendment is the most recent security technology that fixes the 802.11 vulnerabilities. The Wi-Fi Alliance developed additional security certificates known as Wi-Fi Secured Access (WPA) and WPA2 to bridge the gap between the old 802.11 standards and the newest 802.11i modification. The security weaknesses and security solutions presented throughout this article are built on the IEEE or Wi-Fi Alliance standards. Buy top Physicians email id database online.
Cracking and Authentication Techniques
Two ways are provided by the 802.11 standard to authenticate wireless LAN clients to access point either through open system or shared-key authentication. Open system does not offer any security measures, it’s an attempt to make connections to the network. Shared-key authentication combines an encryption key for the client that is and a string of challenge texts with WEP, the Wireless Equivalent Privacy (WEP) encryption key for authenticating the client with the network. Table 10.2 examines the Wi-Fi security standards for authentication and encryption. Buy top Physicians email id database online.
WEP was the initial security option available for 802.11 WLANs. WEP can be used to secure data transmitted through the WLAN and may be combined with shared-key authentication in order for authenticating WLAN clients. WEP makes use of an RC4 64-bit or 128-bit encryption keys to encode the Layer 2 payload of data. The WEP key is a 40-bit or even 104-bit user-defined key together with a 24-bit initialization Vector (IV) which makes the WEP key 64 or 128 bits.
Ta b le 10 . 2 Wi
Security comparison for -Fi
Wireless Safety Authentication Cipher Encryption
WPA-Personal Key TKIP RC4 Preshared Key
WPA-Enterprise 802.1X/EAP TKIP RC4
Personal Preshared WPA2-Personal Key (default), CCMP (default) AES (default), buy top Physicians email id database online.
TKIP (optional) Optional RC4 (optional)
WPA2-Enterprise 802.1X/EAP CCMP (default), AES (default),
TKIP (optional) Optional RC4 (optional)
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The method by which RC4 utilizes IVs is the main flaw of WEP because it allows hackers the chance to break an WEP key. The technique, also known by known as the Fluhrer, Mantin, and Shamir (FMS) attack employs encrypted output bytes in order to identify the most likely key bytes. The capability for exploiting WEP vulnerability was built into the products AirSnort, WEPCrack, and Aircrack. While hackers can try to hack WEP with force, the most commonly used method involves using the FMS attack.
WPA utilizes an implementation of the Temporal Key Integrity Protocol (TKIP)–which is a more secure RC4 implementation for data encryption. It also uses it can use either WPA Personal or WPA Enterprise to authenticate users. WPA Personal uses an ASCII passphrase to authenticate users, while WPA Enterprise uses a RADIUS server to authenticate users. WPA Enterprise is a more secure and robust security choice, however, it is dependent on the creation and complicated configuration of a RADIUS server. TKIP rotates the encryption key to avoid the vulnerability in WEP and, as a result hacking attacks. Buy top Physicians email id leads online.
WPA2 is identical to 802.11i and utilizes it’s Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) to secure the payload of data. AES is considered to be an indestructible encryption algorithm. WPA2 also permits using TKIP in a transitional time known as mixed-mode security. This transitional mode implies that both TKIP as well as AES can be used to protect data. AES requires a speedier processing that means lower-end devices such as PDAs might only support TKIP.
WPA Personal WPA2 Personal and WPA2 Personal make use of the passphrase for authentication WLAN clients. WPA Enterprise and WPA2 Enterprise authenticate WLAN users through an RADIUS server that uses an authentication protocol that is based on the 802.1X/Extensible authentication protocol (EAP) protocols. Figure 10.3 illustrates the 802.1x/EAP procedure and the process of communication that is used to authenticate a user with 802.1x/EAP. Buy top Physicians email id leads online.
802.11i and WPA utilize similar encryption as well as authentication mechanism similar to WPA2. The difference is that WPA2 isn’t a requirement for vendors to use preauthorization. Preauthorization allows for fast, safe roaming that is crucial in extremely mobile environments that have time-sensitive applications like wireless VoIP. Buy top Physicians email id leads online.
Aircrack is a WEP cracking software tool. It doesn’t take packets in; it is used to carry out cracking once another tool has gathered the encrypted packets. Aircrack is compatible with Win-dows and Linux.
WEPCrack along with AirSnort are both WEP-cracking applications that run on Linux.
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NetStumbler along with Kismet are tools for identifying WLANs. Both of them can discover that the Media Access Control (MAC) address as well as the Service Set Identifier (SSID) and security mode as well as the channel for the WLAN. Furthermore, Kismet can discover WLANs that have hidden SSIDs as well as collect packets and also provide IDS functions.
Be careful where you go Drive
As of 2003, hackers made use of an internet connection at the home improvement retailer Lowe’s to take credit card information. Three hackers found a weak WLAN located in the Lowe’s store located in Southfield, Michigan while scanning for connections that were open, or “war driving” in the vicinity. The hackers used the access point that was open to attack the entire network of the company that sells home improvements by hacking into stores across California, Kansas, South Dakota as well as other states over several weeks.
They then accessed an application for processing credit cards called tcpcredit, which scanned credit account information for each transaction made in a particular Lowe’s store. The hacker’s idea was believed as a means to steal thousands of credit card numbers using an insecure backdoor that was built into the company’s proprietary Lowe’s program. Buy best Physicians email lists online.
One of the individuals who were involved in the hacking attack was found guilty of four counts of wire fraud as well as an unauthorized access to a laptop computer after he and his two partners hacked into Lowe’s network. In 2004, he was found guilty and is currently being sentenced to nine years in prison however there is no evidence to show that he collected any credit card information. In the course of the investigation, there were only 6 credit card details discovered in the data file made from the modified TCPcredit program. This incident shows that even a harmless war drive can attract unwanted attention Be aware of the WLAN that you connect. Buy best Physicians email lists online.
Utilizing Wireless Sniffers to find SSIDs
An attack that is commonplace on a WLAN is to eavesdrop or sniff. It is a simple attack to carry out and typically occurs in hotspots or every default access point (AP) due to the fact that packets are typically sent unencrypted over the WLAN. Passwords for access protocols like FTP, POP3, and SMTP could be retrieved in plaintext (unencrypted) by hackers using a wireless network that is not encrypted. Buy best Physicians email lists online.
It is the Service Set Identifier (SSID) is the name given to the WLAN and is usually found in probe frames and bea-con response frames. When two networks physically near and are physically close, SSIDs serve to identify and distinguish between the two networks. The SSID is usually transmitted as a clear beacon frame and other frames, like Probe response frames. The majority of APs permit users to allow the WLAN administrator to block the SSID. However, this isn’t the most secure security option because certain software tools can decode the SSID from other packets for example probe requests or other client-side data packets.
Installation and Use of the WLAN Sniffer Tool
Download a free trial version of Omnipeek at www.wildpackets.com. You’ll need an adapter for wireless networking that is compatible with Omnipeek when it is in the promiscuous mode in order for Omnipeek to be able to take in all the data that is transmitted by a wireless network.
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Create a new image by pressing the New Capture button at the Omnipeek start screen.
Choose the wireless adapter in the options for capture.
Select the 802.11 tab, and then select to look at all channels. After that, once you’ve identified a specific wireless to track, you can opt to only monitor the traffic for that channel.
Click OK to begin the capture. The window for capture will display frames being taken. Double-click a frame to see more detail.
Click the stop button to stop recording. Choose the Display filter drop-down button (it appears to be funnels) on the toolbar below the frame. Choose POP from the drop-down list. It is only POP emails will be shown. You can set dis-play filters to display only certain kinds of frames. The POP frames, SMTP, FTP, TELNET and HTTP frames are all filled with plain text data. The passwords and other data can be obtained from these frames. Buy best Physicians email id database online.
To locate access Points (AP) or Stations connected, simply click the WLAN menu located on the left-hand right side of your screen. There are four options: APs BSSID, STA MAC, Channel, and SSID can be found on the screen for WLAN of Omnipeek. APs that are not communicating the SSID will display 0x00 as the SSID until a station is connected and Omnipeek is able to determine the SSID by analyzing the probe frames. After that, if Omnipeek is able to identify the SSID it will then show it on the WLAN display.
Mac Filters and MAC Spoofing
The first security option that was used in WLAN technology employed MAC address filters. A network administrator would create the list of acceptable MAC addresses for systems that were allowed to connect with an AP. MAC filters can be difficult to configure and don’t scale in a network that is enterprise-wide because they have to be set up on every AP. MAC Spoofing is simple to do (as you’ll discover in 10.2) 10.2) and reduces the need to set up MAC filters. Hackers can detect an authentic MAC address since MAC headers don’t have encryption. Buy best Physicians email id database online.
MAC Address Spoofing
Install and download TMAC at www.technitium.com.
Select the wireless adapter in the list of connections to networks in TMAC. Press the change MAC button.
Use 00:11;22:33:44.55 for the MAC address. Click on the Edit Now button, and then confirm the changes done to your MAC address.