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51% of mining pools. Since early 2015 the majority of miners are mining via pools, and very few miners are working “solo” anymore. As of the month June 14, was the most popular mining site. It became to be so large that it was able to handle more than 50% of all capacity of the Bitcoin network. In essence, Ghash provided such an attractive price to the participating miners that the majority of them wanted to sign up. Pastors Email consumer  database

It’s something people were worried about for quite a while and caused an outrage against Ghash. In August the market share of Ghash decreased because they had shut down accepting new users. Two mining companies controlled about half the power of the network. purchase Pastors Email  lists

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In April of 2015, the situation appears much different and less focused at the very most on the surface. It is possible that pools could end up getting 51% shares is an issue in the community, however, the bad press GHash received has forced the pools to stay away from growing too much since then. With the advent of new pools and miners have entered the market , and standard protocols have increased the possibility of switching mining pools and pools, markets share for the various pools has remained largely in flux. It is still to be seen how the market will develop in the future.

It is important to note that mining pools could conceal the actual the power of mining within the control of a few major mining corporations that are able to participate in multiple mining pools at the same time to conceal their actual size. This is called laundering hashes.It is not known how well-controlled physical control over mining equipment actually is and mining pool membership makes this extremely difficult to identify from a distance.

Do mining pooling facilities are a great thing? The advantages of mining pool is that it makes mining more predictable for participants and make it much easier for miners of smaller size to be into the action. Without the mining pool the variation would render mining impossible for many smaller miners.

Another benefit for mining pools because there is a central pool manager connected to the network, and also assembling blocks it is easier to update the network. It is possible to upgrade the software that is running the management of the mining pool runs will update to the latest software all the members of the pool are running. Pastors Email lists

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The primary drawback to mining pools, obviously it is that they’re an example of centralization. It isn’t clear what power the owners of a massive mining pool actually possess. The theory is that miners have the right to exit a mining pool if they believe it’s as being too powerful, however it’s unclear when miners make that decision in actual practice.

Another issue with mining groups is it reduces the number of people operating an officially validating Bitcoin node. Prior to this, all miners regardless of their size they were, needed to run their own fully validating Node. They had to keep the entire chain of blocks and verify every transaction. Nowadays, the majority of miners delegate this task to their pool managers. This is the principal reason behind why, as have discussed in Chapter 3of this article, the number fully validated nodes could decrease within Bitcoin. Bitcoin network. purchase Pastors Email  lists

If you’re concerned by the degree of centralization brought about from mining companies, then you may think: can we rethink the mining process to ensure that there aren’t any pools, and everyone has to mine on their own? We’ll address this during Chapter 8.

Resources incentives, strategies and mining incentives

The majority of this chapter discussing how the biggest problem of a miner is acquiring the right hardware and finding inexpensive electricity, and then getting it going as quick as you can, and hoping for luck. There are some fascinating decisions that every miner needs to consider before choosing which blocks to mine.

1. Which transactions should be included. Miners can choose which transactions to add to the block. The standard approach is to include all transactions that is subject to a transaction cost greater than a certain minimum.

2. What block should I mine on.Miners can also choose the top block they would like to mine. The default for this would be to expand the length of the valid chain. Pastors Email lists

3. The choice between blocks of identical height. If two blocks are mined and declared at the same time the result is one block fork, which makes each block being admissible in accordance with the longest valid chain policy. Miners have to then choose which block to expand. The default is to add on to the block they first heard about the first time.

4. When to announce the new blocks.When they discover an unblockable block, miners need to decide when they will declare it in Bitcoin. Bitcoin network. The standard practice would be to declare it instantly however, they may decide to wait a while before announcing the block. purchase Pastors Email  lists

So miners face several choices. Each decision has an default strategy that is employed to implement bitcoin reference. Bitcoin referrer client that is utilized by the majority of miners as of writing. There is a chance that a non-default approach will yield more profit. Discovering such strategies and scenarios is a thriving area of study. Let’s take a look at some possible profitable ways to deviate from the default behaviour. In the discussion below we’ll assume there’s a non-default mining company that has control of a certain percentage of the mining power, which we’ll identify with the letters.

Forking attack. The most basic method is to fork attack , and the best way to make money is by performing a double-spend. The miner transfers money to the person who is a victim Bob to pay for a good or service. Bob is waiting and discovers that the transaction that he is paying is indeed within the chain. Maybe he uses the typical method and waits for six confirmations in order to ensure. As if he is convinced that he was compensated, Bob ships the good or provides the service.

The miner is now in the process of and works on a previous blockahead of the block contains the transaction made to Bob. In this chain that is forked, the miner inserts an alternative transaction, or double spend that will send the funds that were paid by Bob in the chain to the miner’s addresses.

In order for the attack to be successful the forked chain has to surpass the longest chain currently in use. After this it is the time that the transaction that paid Bob is no longer in the block chain consensus. This is likely to happen in the event that the miner who is attacking has the largest share of hashing power — which is, if the hash power greater than 0.5. Even although there’s lots of random variations in how blocks are found and the chain increasing faster than average will eventually get longer. Additionally, because the miner’s money has already been used (on the latest consensus chain) The transaction that was paid by Bob is no longer able to appear on blocks. Pastors Email consumer  database

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Is 51% necessary? Forking attacks are definitely possible when the number is greater than 0.5. In the real world, it may be possible to carry out this type of attack for a bit smaller than other factors , such as the network overhead. The default miners within the primary chain are likely to create stale blocks, for the most common reason being that there’s a long delay for miners to learn about the other’s blocks. However, a central attacker could communicate more efficiently and create smaller blocks that are not stale, which could result in savings of 1 percent or more.  marketing database Pastors Email

However, at a level of 50%, the attack could take a long time be successful due to random chance. The attack becomes easier and more effective the higher you get over 50 percent. It is commonplace to speak of 51% attacks as if it’s the threshold that magically permits a forking attack. Actually it’s more of a gradient.

Countermeasures that can be applied in a practical manner. It’s unclear if the forking attack will work in real life. It is possible to detect the attack and it’s possible the community could choose to stop an attack and refuse accept the alternative chain, even although it’s longer. Pastors Email lists

Attacks and the rate of exchange. It’s also likely that an attack of this kind could completely ruin bitcoin. Bitcoin rates of exchange. If a miner perpetrated such a scheme, confidence in the system would decrease and the rate of exchange would drop as people attempt to take their wealth off the market. So, even though attackers with 51 percent of the hashing capacity could gain in the short run by double-spending, they could be a serious threat to their long-term earnings ability to simply mine truthfully and earn the mining profits. buy Pastors Email targeted  list

This is why the most plausible motive for a forking attack would be to specifically destabilize the currency through a drastic loss of faith. It is referred to as an attack known as a Goldfinger attack in reference to the Bond villain who attempted to destroy all the gold inside Fort Knox to make it worthless. The goal of a Goldfinger attacker’s objective could be to destabilize the currency, or perhaps to gain money either through shorting Bitcoin or having substantial stakes in a rival currency.

Forking attack using bribery.Buying enough hardware to handle all of hash power seems to be a costly and complicated task. However, it’s possible that there’s a simpler method of launching an attack by forking. Although it’s costly to buy directly enough mining equipment to be more than everyone else in the globe, it could be possible to get the individuals who control the capacity to act for you.

There are many methods to get bribed by miners. One method is to go “out of band” -Perhaps you can find some big mining companies and give them a cash envelope to work with your fork. Another method is to set up a new mining pool and operate it for a loss, providing higher incentives over other pool. Although the rewards may not last however, an attacker can keep them running for sufficient time to start a forking attack, and even make a earn a profit. Another method is to leave large “tips” in blocks on the forking chain- sufficient to force miners to quit the longest chain and begin working at the other chain with the hope that it will be the longest chain and are able to gather tips.

Whatever the mechanisms behind Bribing, the concept is the similar: instead of purchasing all mine capacity in one go, an person who is bribing gives the ones with it, to assist them in overcoming that longest chain.

Maybe miners don’t wish to contribute since it would harm the currency in which they’ve put in such a large amount of money and mining equipment. However mining companies as a whole might want to maintain the viability of the currency however, they do not act in a collective manner. Miners may be deviant and pay a bribe, when they believe they could earn greater profits in the short-term. This is an example of a tragic loss for the commons from a financial standpoint. buy Pastors Email targeted  list

Nothing has occurred and it’s an open debate as to whether the bribery scheme described here is even possible. Pastors Email lists

Block-withholding attack that is temporary. Imagine that you’ve just discovered an attack. The standard procedure is to immediately announce the block to the network. However, when you’re executing the temporary block-withholding method and you’re not able to announce it immediately. Instead, you attempt to gain an advantage by performing additional mining over this block, hoping to find two blocks before the rest of the network can even find one, while making sure your blocks remain secret all the time.

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Pastors Email b2b database

In the event that you are ahead of the general chain by two blocks, all the mining efforts of the other network members will be in vain. Others are likely to mine on top what they consider to be the longest chain but when they discover an acceptable block, you are able to announce the two blocks you’d been keeping. This would immediately be the latest longest valid chain. The block that others in the network has worked so hard for was immediately abandoned and separated to the largest chain. This has been dubbed selfish mining. By causing other members users to use up energy trying to find an undiscovered block that you could then cause it to become outdated, you can increase the amount of mining reward. Pastors Email  database free

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The problem is that you must be lucky to spot two blocks in one row. It’s likely that someone else in the network will announce an actual block, even though you’re just one block ahead. In the event of this happening, you’ll need to announce your block’s secret. It creates a one-block fork, and each miner has to decide which block which to focus their efforts on. You hope that a significant portion or other players will be aware about your block and decide to take action. The success of this plan depends on your capacity to be victorious in these races, which is why the position of your network is vital. You can try to peer at every node to ensure that your block can reach the most of the nodes first.  marketing database Pastors Email

It turns out that when you think that you will only have 50 percent of winning the races, then selfish mining can make a difference over the usual strategy if you have you have a value of .25. Even if you’re unable to win every race however, selfish mining is more profitable when you’re able to win more than .333. The existence of this type of attack is quite shocking and in contrast to the widely-held belief that there’s no such thing as the major portion of the networkswhich is the case with the=

.5 In the end, there was no more efficient mining strategy than the default. It’s therefore not an appropriate assumption to conclude that a miner who does not control the majority of the network won’t have something to gain from switching to an alternative strategy.

At the moment, the temporary withholding of blocks is an idea and hasn’t been observed in actual. Selfish mining is fairly simple to spot since it will increase the number of close-to-simultaneous announcements. buy Pastors Email targeted  list

Forking with a punitive or blacklist. A miner might want to block transactions coming from address X.In this case, they would like to block the account with that address, rendering it inaccessible to spending. Maybe you plan to make money from this via an extortion or ransom exortion scheme that demands that the person on your blacklist pay you to be removed from your blacklist. The blacklisting process could also be something that you’re required to do due to legal obligations. Some addresses may be designated as a threat by the government. Law enforcement authorities could demand that miners operating within their area try to block these addresses. Pastors Email lists

The conventional wisdom is that there’s no method to block addresses from Bitcoin. If some miners aren’t willing to add certain transactions to blocks, others will. If you’re mining and you want to blacklist a transaction you may want to go for something more robust, such as punitive forking. You could declare that you’ll not work on any chain that contains a transaction which originates via this email address. If you’re able to hold the majority of the hash power it will be enough to ensure that the transactions on blacklists will not be published. Other miners would likely give up, as this would result in their blocks to slide into forks.

Feather-forking. Punitive forking does not appear to function without the majority of network’s hash power. In announcing that you’ll not mining on any network that contains specific transactions, if the chain comes to existence and is recognized by the majority of the network as the longest chain you’ll have cut yourself out of the consensus chain for ever (effectively creating the concept of a hard fork) and all your mining will be wasted. The worst part is that those transactions on the blacklist will be included in one of the largest chains.

Also threats to blacklist certain transactions by punitive forking in this way isn’t credible so for the mining companies are involved. However, there’s a better way to go about it. Instead of declaring that you’ll forever fork as soon as you discover a transaction at address X, you announce you’ll try to fork when you spot a block that includes a transaction that originates at address X, but that you’ll stop after a few minutes. For instance, you could announce that once K blocks confirm that the transaction came at address X, you’ll switch to your longest chain.

If you stop after a single confirmation, your probability of being unable to merge the block is high. The transaction of X a2

It is . The reason behind this is that you’ll need to discover two consecutive blocks to remove the block

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the transaction that originates from the address X prior to the time the entire network discovers a block . It is the possibility that you’ll be lucky two times.

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The odds of getting a2m may not sound very promising. If you have control of 20 percent of the hashpower that’s a mere 4percent chance of eliminating the transaction you don’t want on the blockchain. However, it’s more likely than it appears as you may be able to convince other miners to join in with you. If you’ve been open about your intentions, other miners will know that if they add an address-based transaction, they have a chance that the block they discover could be wiped out due to your feather-forking attack. When they lack significant reason to make this transaction on account X and the transaction doesn’t incur a an excessive transaction fee that could result in them losing their mining reward could be more compelling than obtaining an amount for the transaction.Pastors Email  database free

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There is a possibility that other miners might rationally decide to join you in enforcing the blacklist so you are able to make a blacklist enforceable even if you have a score of .5. Its success tactic will depend on how convincing to other miners you’ll definitely split.  marketing database Pastors Email

Moving to mining rewards, which are which are mostly dominated by transaction fees. Since the year 2015, transactions fees do not have much significance as block rewards comprise the largest portion — more than 90% of the profits miners earn. However, every four years, the block reward is set to be cut in half in the near future, and eventually the reward for block mining will be so low that transactions fees will be the primary source of revenue for miners. It’s not clear how miners will function as transaction fees become their primary source of revenue. Will miners be more determined in enforcing fee-for-transaction minimums. Will they cooperate in enforcing that?

Open-ended problems. In short Miners can adopt any strategy they wish, however in the real world we’ve observed very little other than using the standard strategy. There isn’t a complete model of miners’ behavior that suggests that what strategy to use is best. In this chapter, we’ve looked at specific instances of deviations that can prove profitable for miners with enough hash power. Mining strategies are an area where the actual practice is superior to the research. In our experience, in a scenario where most mining users do opt for the most popular approach, Bitcoin seems to work very well. We’re not certain whether it’s working in the abstract. Pastors Email lists

It is also impossible to be certain that it will remain in good working the real world. The realities are likely to change for Bitcoin. Mining is becoming more centralized and professional, while the capacity of the network is growing. In the future Bitcoin has to deal with the change from fixed rewards for mining to transaction charges. We aren’t sure how this will unfold and using game theory models to attempt to predict the future is an extremely interesting field of study.

Bitcoin and Anonymity

“Bitcoin is a secure and anonymous digital currency”

— WikiLeaks donations page

“Bitcoin won’t hide you from the NSA’s prying eyes”

— Wired UK

The most controversial aspects concerning Bitcoin is the claim to its anonymity. In the first place, is Bitcoin secure? As you will see from the contradictory statements above There’s a bit of confusion over this. The second question is, do we want a cryptocurrency which is truly private? The pros and cons for anonymity. This leads to the following questions: is an unidentified cryptocurrency good to all parties involved? Does it benefit the society? Do you know how to remove the positive aspects of anonymity and do away of the negative ones? buy Pastors Email database for marketing

The questions are difficult since they depend on one’s moral values. We will not address them during this article, however, we’ll examine arguments in favor of as well as against the concept of anonymity. We’ll mostly focus on various technologies — including those already in Bitcoin and others that are being proposed to be added in order to enhance the security of Bitcoin. We’ll also examine proposals for alternative cryptocurrency that offer distinct anonymity characteristics in comparison to Bitcoin. These technologies pose new questions. How do they function? What would be the difficulty to implement? What trade-offs must be considered when the process of adopting them?

Anonymity Basics

Definiting anonymity. Before we can debate whether (or in what degree) Bitcoin is anonymous, we must define the term “anonymity. It is important to understand what we mean by “anonymity” and the connection between anonymity and other terms such as privacy.

On a more literal level the word “anonymous” means “without a name.” If we translate this concept to Bitcoin it is possible to come up with two possibilities: either interacting with no real name, or not having any identity at all. The two interpretations can lead to completely different conclusions regarding the degree to which Bitcoin is a shady transaction. Bitcoin addresses are public keys that have been hashed. It is not necessary to have a real name to connect with the system. However, you will utilize the public key hash to establish your identity. According to the first theory, Bitcoin is anonymous as you don’t use your real name. However, according to this second view, it’s not. The email address uses is considered to be a pseudonymous identity. In the world of computer science this middle option of using an identity that’s not actually your name is known as pseudonymity. Pastors Email lists

You are entitled to make the number of Bitcoin addresses as you want. In this light it is possible that you are thinking that Bitcoin addresses are really pseudo-identities since you are able to create any number of pseudonyms as you want. As we’ll discover, this isn’t enough to mean that you can make Bitcoin private.

In computer science, anonymity refers to pseudonymity together with unlinkability.Unlinkability is a property that’s defined with respect to the capabilities of a specific adversary. Unlinkability implies that, if a person engages in a series of interactions with the system the different interactions must not be be linked from the viewpoint of the adversary being considered. buy Pastors Email database for marketing

Sidebar.The difference between anonymity and pure pseudonymity is something you may have heard about from various different contexts. A good example of this is forums on the internet. For a forum such as Reddit where you can choose an identity that is long-term and you participate for a long period of time using the chosen pseudonym. It is possible to make multiple pseudonyms, or create a new one every time you post, but it could be extremely tedious and frustrating and the majority of people do not do it. Therefore, interacting with Reddit is generally pseudonymous but it’s not completely anonymous. 4Chan is, however, is an online forum on which people post their posts anonymously, without or no attribution whatsoever.

Bitcoin is pseudonymous, however, the fact that it is pseudonymous does not mean your aim is to gain the privacy you desire. Remember the fact that Bitcoin’s block chain remains publicly accessible and anyone is able to look up any Bitcoin transactions that involve an address. If someone is able to connect the Bitcoin account to your actual identity that means every transaction you make -both present and in the future be linked to your personal identity.

To add insult to injury connecting an Bitcoin account to a physical identity is typically simple. If you are involved with an Bitcoin company — whether an online wallet service exchange, or another merchant , they are typically going to need your real name for them to let you do business with them. For instance exchanges may require the details of your credit card as well as a business will require your address for shipping.

Perhaps you’ll visit a cafe and purchase your coffee using bitcoins. Because you’re physically in the shop the barista is aware of something about your identity, even if they don’t inquire about your actual name. Your identity as a physical person is connected in one way or another to those Bitcoin transactions, which means that all other transactions that were based on that address linked to you. This is definitely not anonymous. Pastors Email  database free

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Side channels. Even if a direct connection isn’t possible the profile of your pseudonymous account could be removed from anonymity due to the side channels or indirect leaks of information. For instance, someone could check out a profile with fake Bitcoin transactions and observe at what hours of the day the user is online. It is possible to correlate this information with other public information. Maybe they’ll find that a Twitter user is active at the same times and can create a link with the pseudonymous Bitcoin profile and the real identity (or at the very least, an actual Twitter account). The fact is that pseudonymity cannot ensure privacy or security. To achieve these we need the more powerful property of unlinkability , too. buy Pastors Email  database

Unlinkability. To comprehend the unlinkability of Bitcoin context Let’s look at the key characteristics that are necessary to allow Bitcoin activity to be non-linkable:

1. It is likely to be difficult to link multiple addresses belonging to one user.

2. It is likely to be difficult to connect multiple transactions performed by the same person.

3. It isn’t easy to connect the person who made the payment to its recipient.

These two property types are obvious, however the third one is more difficult. If you think of “a payment” as a Bitcoin transaction then that third attribute is obviously not true. Every transaction involves inputs and outputs which means that these inputs and outputs will to be part of the block chain and publically connected. What is meant by a “payment” isn’t a one-off Bitcoin payment, but any transaction that is capable transfer of bitcoins between the payer and the receiver. It may involve a circular sequence of transactions. The thing we must ensure is that it’s not possible to connect the sender and the final recipient of the money by studying the chain of transactions.

Anonymity set. In the broad sense of payments this third property is impossible to achieve. If you purchase something that is priced at a certain amount of bitcoins, and then you make the payment via a loopy transaction route. Anyone who is looking through the chain may be able to draw an idea from the facts that particular quantity of bitcoins went through at one address, and the same amount (minus fees for transactions, maybe) were deposited at an different address. Furthermore, despite the tangled method, the initial transfer and final receiving will take place within the same timeframe because the merchant would like to receive payments without much of an interruption. Pastors Email lists

Due to this issue We don’t usually try to create a complete lack of linkability between all the possible addresses or transactions within the system instead, rather, some kind of limit. If you have a specific adversary, the anonymity set of you transaction will be the list of events that can’t be distinguished by your transaction. Even if they know you’ve made a transaction they’re able to tell there is a transaction within this set but not know which one it’s. We attempt to increase your anonymity setthat is, the list of addresses or transactions that we are able to hide. Pastors Email database for sale

The process of calculating the anonymity set can be challenging. Since the anonymity set can be specified in relation to one particular adversary or group of adversaries, it is necessary to first define precisely the model of your adversary. It is important to think about what your adversary’s knowledge is about them, what they aren’t aware of and the details that we want to conceal from our adversaries — or what they don’t know in order for your transaction to qualify to be classified as anonymous. There is no standard method to accomplish this. It’s a matter of carefully studying every system and protocol on a case-by case basis.

Analysis of taint. The Bitcoin community, users frequently conduct intuitive analyses of anonymity-related services without strict definitions. Taint analysis is a popular method: it’s a method of determining the degree to which “related” two addresses are. If bitcoins that are sent from the address S always land at an address R either directly or via various intermediate addresses, S along with R will be able to have a good score on taint. The formula takes into account transactions that have multiple inputs or outputs, and outlines the method of distributing the taint.

The problem is that taint analysis does not an accurate indicator of Bitcoin anonymity. It assumes implicitly that the attacker is using the same calculation method to connect addresses. A more sophisticated adversary could employ different methods for example, such as looking at time of transactions or utilize the peculiarities of wallet software, as we’ll explore in the following chapter. Therefore, taint analysis may indicate that you’re enjoying an extremely high level of anonymity in a particular scenario, but you may not.

Morality of anonymity.There are many significant (though often ignored) reasons behind anonymity which we often overlook in the case of traditional currencies. The majority of people do not want to share their income with their family, acquaintances and colleagues. If addresses on the blockchain can be identified but they also receive their pay in Bitcoin it could be easy to determine the amount they earn by looking for a significant regular monthly installment. There are also privacy issues with regard to financial transactions. For example, if the video game console maker were to be spotted in the blockchain settling the subcontractor who makes virtual reality glasses this could alert the general public (and their rivals) regarding a new product they’re planning to launch. Pastors Email database for sale

There is a legitimate concern that completely anonymous cryptocurrency can be used to finance money laundering, or for other criminal actions. The positive side is that although cryptocurrency transactions can be anonymous or pseudonymous but the link between fiat and digital currency is not. Actually, these transactions are strictly controlled and monitored, as we’ll discover later in this chapter. Thus, cryptocurrencies cannot be a solution to money laundering or other financial crimes. Pastors Email lists

But one could think: why don’t we design the technology in that only best privacy benefits are permitted and the ones that are not in some way prohibited? This is actually a frequent request for privacy and computer security researchers. However, it isn’t turned into a possibility. The reason is because use situations that we consider to be ethically acceptable or not from an moral standpoint are actually technologically similar. In Bitcoin there isn’t any clear idea what we can do to assist miners with making moral choices regarding which transactions should be included.

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We believe that the potential benefits created by the anonymity of cryptocurrencies justify their existence, and that we should be able to separate the properties of technical anonymity of this system and the legal guidelines that we follow in the use of the currency. It’s not an entirely satisfactory alternative, yet it’s the most efficient way to reach an acceptable trade-off. Pastors Email business  database free download

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Sidebar: Tor. The moral problem of how to deal with a system that has both positive and negative uses isn’t specific to Bitcoin. Another anonymity-based system that is a source of controversy is Tor which is an anonymous communications network. buy Pastors Email  database

On one side, Tor is used by regular people looking to keep themselves safe from being monitored online. It is used by activists, journalists and dissidents to express their opinions freely online without fearing consequences from oppressive regimes. Tor is also utilized by law enforcement agencies who wish to observe people online without disclosing their IP addresses (after all, the ranges or blocs of IP addresses allocated to various organizations, such as police agencies, are widely known). Evidently, Tor has a number of functions that could be morally acceptable. But there are also clearly negative uses. It’s utilized by botnet operators to give commands to computers that are infected under their control, and also to spread child sexual images of abuse.

Differentiating between these applications on a technical basis is almost impossible. The Tor developers as well as members of the Tor community have been wrestling with this dilemma. Society has also grappled with the issue to a certain extent too. It seems that we’ve concluded that, in the end, it’s better for all of humanity that technology is available. One of the primary funding sources for Tor Tor program is U.S. State Department. They are keen on Tor because it allows the freedom of speech online to those who are opposed to oppressive regimes. While law enforcement agencies appear to accept Tor’s existence and have devised methods to circumvent it. The FBI is regularly able to stop websites operating that were on”the “dark net” that distributed images of sexual assault on children and videos, even though the sites were hidden behind Tor. Most of the time, this happens because the site’s operators fell over. It is important to remember that technology is merely an instrument, and that the those who commit crimes are within the world, and they can leave physical evidence behind or make human errors while using technology. Pastors Email lists

Anonymization vs. decentralization.We’ll see a recurring theme throughout this chapter that the design criteria of anonymization and decentralization are often in conflict with one another. If you remember Chaum’s ecash in its preface you will notice that it gained absolute anonymity however, it was achieved through an interactive protocol for blind signatures with a central authority the bank. As you’ll see, these protocols are extremely difficult to remove from central control. If we decide to are decentralizing, we need to maintain some kind of system to track transactions and avoid double spending. The public tracking of transactions can be a risk to the privacy of those who transact.

In this chapter, we’ll be looking at Zerocoin and Zerocash as anonymous, decentralized cryptos with a few similarities to Chaum’s ecash however they need to deal with a number of difficult cryptographic challenges due to these two drawbacks.

How to De-anonymize Bitcoin

We’ve stated numerous times that Bitcoin is a pseudonymous currency which means that all your accounts or transactions might be linked. Let’s take a review of how this could be happening.

Figure 6.1 illustrates a small portion of an excerpt from the Wikileaks contribution webpage (including that quote near the start in the first chapter). You’ll notice the refresh button right next to the donor’s address. Like you would expect, clicking this link will change the address of donation with a brand newaddress that has been created. If your browser refreshes, or shut it down and then return later, it will be displaying an entirely new address that has never been had. This is because Wikileaks is determined to ensure that every single donation they receive will be credited to a unique public key that they created specifically for this goal. Wikileaks is making the most of the possibility to make new pseudonyms. This is, in fact, the most secure method of anonymity employed in Bitcoin wallets. Pastors Email address lists

It’s easy to think that the different addresses are not linked. Wikileaks receives every donation in a separate way and, presumably, they could also spend those donations on a separate basis. However, things can quickly go downhill.

Linking. Imagine that Alice is looking to purchase teapots that cost eight bitcoins (more likely, 8 centi-bitcoins at exchange rates of 2015). Imagine, in addition, that her bitcoins are three distinct outputs that are not spent at various addresses, whose totals are 3,5 and 6 bitcoins, respectively. Alice isn’t in fact able to have an address that has eight bitcoins and therefore she has to mix two outputs to create a single transaction she then pays the store.

This is a clue. The transaction is permanently recorded on the blockchain and anyone who reads it could infer from it that two of the inputs in the transaction are controlled by the same person. This means that shared spending is proof that the two input addresses are under the control of each other. diverse input addresses. There may be certain exceptions. Maybe Alice and Bob have a roommate and decide to purchase the teapot each by providing an input for one transaction. However, generally speaking it is a sign of that they control each other. Pastors Email lists

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However, it doesn’t end there. An adversary could repeat this procedure to transitively link an entire group of transactions to one entity. If a different address is linked to any of Alice’s addresses this way and we can conclude that each address is part of the same entity. it is possible to apply this knowledge to group addresses. If, in general the output at a different address is used in conjunction with an output from one address in the cluster, this new address could become part of the cluster. Pastors Email business  database free download

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In the next chapter, we’ll look at an anonymity method known as CoinJoin that is based on this assumption. For now If you believe that the majority of users use regular Bitcoin wallet software, without specific techniques to protect their privacy the clustering is likely to be fairly robust. We’ve not yet discovered how to connect the clusters to authentic identities but we’ll look into this in the near future. buy Pastors Email  database

Sidebar: Randomization of Change Address. A prior version of the bitcoin QT program had an error that would always show the address for the change at the beginning of the output of the transaction that has two outputs. This meant it was easy to recognize the change address in a lot of transactions. This issue was resolved in 2012, however it highlighted an important aspect: wallet software has a vital part to play in protecting security and anonymity. If you’re working on applications for wallets, be aware of numerous dangers to be aware of. In particular, you must select the location that the address of change is in a random manner to ensure that you don’t give too much to the adversary! Pastors Email address lists

In our case imagine that the price of the teapot has increased between 8 and 8.5 bitcoins. Alice cannot discover a set of unspended outputs she could combine to create the exact amount required for the teapot. In lieu, Alice exploits the fact that transactions may have multiple outputs as shown in figure 6.3. One output is the payment address for the store and the other one is an “change” address owned by Alice herself.

Take this scenario from the perspective that of an antagonist. They could conclude that both input addresses belonged to the exact same individual. It is possible an output address belongs to the same user however, they don’t have a way to be certain which one is. Although there is a 0.5 output is less doesn’t mean that it’s a alter address. Alice could hold 10,000 bitcoins in an account and then she could spend 8.5 bitcoins in the teapot and transfer all the rest of 9,991.5 bitcoins to herself. In this scenario, the larger output is actually an address change.

An alternative could be the case that the teapot cost just 0.5 bitcoins, Alice didn’t need to make a transaction using two inputs. This is because the input of 3 bitcoins or the input of 6 bitcoins would have been enough all by itself. However, the efficiency of this algorithm is dependent on the specifics of implementation for popular wallet software. There’s nothing to stop users (or their users) from joining transactions, even when they aren’t strictly required. Pastors Email lists

Idioms of use.Implementation specifics of this type are referred to as “idioms of use”. A 2013 team of researchers discovered an idiom of usage that was applicable to all wallet software. This resulted in a powerful heuristic to identify the change address. In particular, they discovered that wallets usually generate a new address each time it is necessary to change the address. Because of this type of usage changing addresses are typically addresses that never been seen on the blockchain. Non-change outputs on the contrary, are usually not brand new addresses, and could have been previously seen in the chain. A hacker could make use of this information to differentiate between changes addresses and associate them with input addresses. Pastors Email address lists

Utilizing the idioms of use could cause errors. Change addresses are fresh ones just happens to be an inherent feature that wallet programs. This was true in 2013 when researchers looked into the feature. Perhaps it’s still the case, however, it could be false. Users could choose to modify the default behaviour. The most important thing is that anyone who is aware of this method can easily take advantage of it. Even in 2013, researchers observed that the technique produced numerous false positives. In this case, they were able to cluster addresses that were not actually related to the same company. They found that they required substantial supervision and intervention in order to cut down the false positives.

Connecting real-world identities to clusters. On Figure 6.4. We can see how Meiklejohn and colleagues. clustered Bitcoin addresses by using the simplest usage idioms as algorithms. The graph isn’t yet labeled, as we’re still not able to assign names for the groups.

It is possible to draw some educated guesses on the information we have about bitcoin and Bitcoin economy. Back in 2013, Mt. Gox was the biggest Bitcoin exchange and we can guess that the large purple circle is the address controlled by the exchange. You may also be able to see that the brown circle on the left is very little Bitcoins despite having the highest amount of transactions. This pattern is similar to the betting service Satoshi Dice, which is one of the most popular games in which you pay a small amount of bitcoins in exchange for a bet. In the end, this isn’t a good method to determine clusters. It’s a guesswork and knowledge-based approach and is only applicable to the most popular services. Pastors Email  database providers

Tags that are transacted through transactions. What about visiting the site for every merchant or exchange and finding the address that they provide to receive bitcoins? This isn’t working however, as most services will announce a new address for each transaction, and the address that is shown to you is not part of the chain of blocks. There’s no reason to wait for that, as the address won’t be revealed to anyone else. Pastors Email lists

The only method to reliably determine addresses is to deal with the service provider — putting down bitcoins, buying an product, and so on. If you transfer bitcoins in the direction of or received bitcoins by the provider you’ll now have the address of the service provider, which will be soon on the blockchain (and within one cluster). You will then be able to tag the entire cluster by identifying the identity of the service provider.

That’s precisely what Fistful of Bitcoins researchers (and others in the past) have accomplished. They purchased a range of things, joined mining pool as well as Bitcoin exchanges as well as wallet services and gambling websites, as well as engaged in many different manners with the service provider, which resulted in 344 transactions total.

In Figure 6.5 In Figure 6.5, we show the clusters in Figure 6.4 and 6.4, only this time with labels attached. Although our predictions regarding Mt. Gox as well as Satoshi Dice were right The researchers were able to find a number of additional service suppliers that might be difficult to find without interacting with them.

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The process of identifying individuals.The second question to ask is whether we can do similar things for individuals? This is to say could we link small clusters of people to their actual identities? Pastors Email business  database free download

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Transacting directly. Any person who transacts with any individual — whether an online or offline retailer or an exchange someone who divides the bill for a meal with Bitcoin is aware of at least one of the addresses belonging to them.m Pastors Email  id list

With service providers. When using Bitcoin over the course of a few months or years, the majority of users will eventually interact with an exchange or a central service provider. The majority of these service providers will require users to provide their personal information and often are legally obliged to do so, as we’ll learn in the next section. If law enforcement officials want to find a person they may turn to the service provider.

Carelessness. Many people share their Bitcoin addresses on forums that are open to the public. One reason for this is to solicit donations. If someone makes this request, it establishes a link to their personal identity with their addresses. If they don’t utilize the services for anonymity that we’ll examine in the sections to follow They risk having all of their transactions wiped out. Pastors Email lists

The situation gets worse as time passes. The past has shown that deanonymization algorithms generally improve as the data becomes made public and more researchers investigate the issue and find new ways to attack. In addition, more information is made available to attackers that they are able to use to link names to the cluster. This is something you should be concerned about if you are concerned about privacy. Pastors Email  database providers

The techniques for deanonymization we’ve studied to date are all based on analysing transaction graphs that are part of the chain. They’re collectively referred to by the term transaction graph analysis.

Network-layer deanonymization. There’s a different way that users can be anonymized, and it doesn’t depend in the transactions graph. Remember that to add a transaction the blockchain, one usually transmits the transaction to bitcoin’s Peer-to-Peer network, where messages are passed around but don’t always get permanently registered within the chain.

In the world of networking blocks are referred to as the application layer and the peer-to-peer networks is known as the network layer.Network-layer identification was initially spotted by Dan Kaminsky at the 2011 Black Hat conference. He noted that whenever the node is involved in an transaction it connects to multiple nodes at the same time then broadcasts that transaction. If enough nodes in the network collaborate with one another (or are controlled by the same antagonist) it is possible to determine the first node that broadcasts any transaction. It’s likely to be the node operated by the person who originated the transaction. The adversary can then link transactions to IP address of the node. The IP address can be akin to an actual identity, and there are many methods to de-identifie the person who is behind the IP number. Therefore, de-anonymization of the network layer is a major privacy risk.

It’s a good thing that this is a matter of anonymity in communications, and has already been the focus of extensive research. As we’ve seen in Section 6.1 it’s possible to use an extensively used system known as Tor that can be used to communicate anonymously. Pastors Email lists

There are some cautions when making use of Tor as a security layer on the network alternative for Bitcoin. There are small interactions with it and other protocols. For instance, there could be subtle interactions between the Tor protocol and the protocol that is layered onto it, which can result in new ways of compromising privacy. In fact, research has revealed vulnerabilities in security when using Bitcoin-over-Tor. Therefore, this should be handled with extreme care. There are other technologies for communication that are more anonymous and for use with Bitcoin. Tor is designed to be used to be used for “low-latency” activities such as surfing the internet where you don’t want wait for long. It has some compromises in order to ensure anonymity while maintaining low latency. Bitcoin however is a latency-intensive system since it takes time for transactions to be verified within the chain. Theoretically, at a minimum it is possible to utilize an alternative method to anonymity such as a mixnet, but at the moment, Tor has the advantage of being a system with a huge number of users and which has been rigorously examined. Pastors Email  database providers

So far, we’ve discovered that multiple addresses may be linked through the analysis of transaction graphs and they could also be linked to an identity in the real world. Also, we’ve seen that a transaction might be connected to an IP address that is based on peer-to peer networks. This is fairly simple to resolve although it cannot be considered to be solved completely. The first problem is complicated, and we’re going to spend the remainder of this chapter discussing methods to resolve it.


There are a variety of methods that make the analysis of transaction graphs less efficient. One of them is mixing. the logic behind it is quite easy: if you’re looking for anonymity, you should use an intermediary. This isn’t limited to Bitcoin and can be useful in all instances where anonymity is the desired goal.

Online wallets are mixed. If you remember our previous discussion about electronic wallets, then they could appear to be suitable intermediaries. Online wallets are services that allow you can save your bitcoins online and then withdraw them at a later date. Most of the time, the money you withdraw won’t be exactly the exact same as the ones that you deposit. Are online wallets able to provide efficient mixing? Pastors Email  database free download

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They do offer the possibility of linking, which can thwart attempts to conduct transaction graph analysis . in one instance, prominent researchers were forced to retract an assertion that received lots of attention because they believed that the link they discovered was not real due to the online wallet.

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However there are some crucial limitations to mixing money with online wallets. Firstof all, the majority of online wallets aren’t really able mixing users’ money however they do this as a way to simplify the process. There is no guarantee they will not change their practices. In addition, the case that they mix funds, they’ll most likely keep documents internally that permit them to link your account with your withdraw. This is a sensible option for wallet providers because of safety and compliance with the law. If your threat model involves an element of provider tracking you or being hacked, or being required to give the information they have and data, you’re back at the beginning. Thirdly, aside from keeping records internally, trustworthy and Pastors Email  id list authorized services also have to record your identity (we’ll go over regulation in more depth in the following chapter). You can’t just create an account using an account name and password. In a way, it makes you more vulnerable than having no wallet service. This is why we highlighted the conflict between anonymity and centralization in the first section. Pastors Email lists

The security offered through online wallets are comparable to the privacy offered by traditional banks. Centralized intermediaries are aware of our transactions, however from the perspective of a non-person with no privileged information, we have an acceptable level of privacy. However, as we’ve discussed the fact that the block chain is public the block chain implies that in the event of a problem (say that a exchange or wallet service is compromised and data is exposed) the risk to privacy is higher than in an ordinary system. In addition, the majority of users who use Bitcoin for anonymity use it because they are dissatisfied with the privacy features of the conventional system and would like more (or an alternative) security for their privacy. These are the reasons for the use of dedicated mixing services.

A dedicated mix is a set of services.In contrast to wallets on the internet dedicated mixes do not promise to keep any records and do not require your personal information. It is not even necessary to have an account name or any other pseudonym to communicate with the mix. Bitcoins are sent to an address specified by the mix. You provide the mix with a destination address where you can send bitcoins. The mix should give your (other) bitcoins to the address you have specified. It’s basically an exchange.

While it’s nice that dedicated mixes pledge not to keep track of their transactions, you must trust them to honor their promise. Also, you must be confident that they’ll return your coins in the event that they are lost. Since mixes aren’t the place in which you can store your bitcoins like wallets, you’ll want to get your coins quickly returned so the number of other coins that your deposits can be mixed in with are smaller compared to those which were put in at around at the exact same moment. buy Pastors Email database online

Sidebar: Terminology. In this guide, we’ll use the word mix to describe an individual mixing service. A similar term that many users would prefer to use is mixer.

There are also instances where you will encounter the term laundry.We aren’t a fan of this phrase as it imposes an ethical value to an entirely technical term. As we’ve learned there are many compelling reasons to prefer to safeguard your privacy using Bitcoin and make use of mixes to protect your daily privacy. Of course, it is important to be aware of the negative usages, but laundry can have a negative connotation because it implies that your money is filthy and you have to wash them.

Also, there is the term tumbler.It is unclear if it refers to the mixing process of tumbling drums, or their cleaning effects (on stones and other items). However, we’ll keep mixing as a term. Pastors Email lists

An entire group of scientists, which includes all five of the authors in this book examined mix-related issues and came up with the following principles to improve the manner in which mixes function both in terms of the improvement of anonymity and of the security that comes with entrusting your funds into the mixture. We will review each of these rules.

Utilize a sequence of mixes. The principle behind this is to make use of a sequence of mixes each one following the next rather than one mix. This is a popular and well-known principle. such as Tor as we’ll discover in the next section, employs three routers to ensure anonymity in communication. This makes it less reliant on the credibility of any particular mix. If any of the mixes from the series is faithful to its word and erases its archives, you have the right to believe that no one of them will be able to connect your initial input to the final product that you will receive.

Uniform transactions. If the transactions of different users were based on different amounts of bitcoins, mixing would not be as effective. Because the value of the bitcoins entering the mix and flowing from a mix has to be protected, it would allow linking the coins of a user to into the mix or, at the very least significantly reduce the volume of the anonymity set. buy Pastors Email database online

In contrast, we would like mixing transactions to have consistent in their value so that linkability can be minimized. Mixes should all agree on an agreed upon size for chunks, a predetermined value that all mix transactions must be. This could increase the security that is provided since all transactions passing through any mix would appear identical and not be distinguished based on their values. Additionally, having a consistent dimensions across every mix will make it easier to make use of the mix without the need to split or combine transactions.

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In reality, it may be challenging to decide on the size of a chunk that will work for everyone. If we decide to pick the size that is too big and users who wish to mix a tiny amount of money won’t be able. If we choose the wrong size and users who wish to mix large amounts of money would have to split the amount into a large number of pieces, which can cost a lot of money and are inefficient. A variety of standard sizes could improve performance, but they also separate the anonymity sets by the size of the chunk. Perhaps a set of three or two increasing sizes of chunks will offer an acceptable trade-off between privacy and efficiency. Pastors Email  database free download

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The client side must be automated. Alongside trying to connect coins in accordance with transaction value an espionage expert could try a variety of other methods to disavow anonymity, such as using the transaction’s timing. The attacks are averted by taking the necessary precautions, however they are complex and difficult for normal users. Instead, the client-side functions for interfacing with mixes must be automated and integrated into wallet software that is privacy-friendly. Pastors Email  id list

Fees should be all or nothing. Mixes are businesses , and they expect to be paid. One method for mix owners to collect charges is to take the cost of every transaction made by users. However, this can be problematic in terms of anonymity because mixed transactions cannot be in the standard size of chunks. (If users attempt to separate and combine their smaller chunks back to their initial size of the chunk this can create grave and difficult to assess anonymity risks due to the new links between the coins implemented.)

Do not confuse mixing fees with transactions fees that are gathered by miners. Mixing fees are different from and are in addition to transaction fees.

To avoid this to avoid this issue, mixing fees should be all-or-nothing and used probabilistically. This means that the mix should either swallow the entire chunk of data with a low probability, or return it completely. For instance, if a mix is planning to charge an 0.1 percent mixing fee, then one out of every 1,000 times the mix must consume the entire chunk however, 999 times out of 1,000, the mix should return the entire chunk , without paying any mixing fees. Pastors Email lists

This isn’t easy to do. The mix has to take a probabilistic approach to convince the customer it wasn’t cheating: that it didn’t skew it’s random numbers generator such that it can have (say) 11 percent chance of holding the amount as a fee instead of 0.1 percent. Cryptography is a method to achieve the latter, we’ll point you to the Mixcoinpaper’s Additional Reading section for more details. The paper also discusses different ways that mixing can enhance their reliability.

Mixing in the real world. In 2015, there’s not a operating mix community. There are numerous mix service that are available, but they are not popular and consequently, smaller anonymity sets. In addition, a number of mixes have been accused of stealing bitcoins. Maybe the difficulties to “bootstrapping” such an ecosystem is one of the reasons it hasn’t been able to get off the ground. With the bad reputation associated with mix-ups, few people are likely to want to utilize them, which results in lower transactions and consequently low security. There’s a saying that anonymity is the best company.That means that the more users who use an anonymity service will be, the more security it will offer. Additionally since there isn’t the money that could be earned from the advertising services Mix operators could be enticed to steal money instead, thereby perpetuating the untrustworthy mix cycle. buy Pastors Email database online

The present mixes don’t follow any of the guidelines we set out. Each mix functions independently and usually has an online interface through which the user can use a manual interface to enter the address of the recipient as well as any other parameters that are required. The user can choose the amount they’d want to combine. The mix will receive part of each deal as an mixing fee , and transfer the remainder to the address of the destination.

We believe it’s essential for the mix (and the wallet applications) to shift to the model we described to gain solid anonymity, withstand malicious attacks, create an accessible interface, and draw large volume. It remains to be seen whether the mix ecosystem is robust enough to ever change.

Decentralized Mixing Pastors Email lists

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A decentralized mix is the notion of removing mixing platforms and replacing them by a peer-to -peer protocol that allows a group of users mix their currencies. As you can see this method is more conceptually compatible with Bitcoin. Pastors Email  database free download