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The COVID-19 crisis has increased and intensified the trend towards digitalisation which was previously observed prior to the outbreak and, in particular, using AI. The global investment in AI is predicted to double by between 2020 and 2024, ranging from USD50 billion in 2020, to over USD110 billion by 2024 (IDC 2020[11). A growing AI use in finance, in areas like asset management such as algorithmic trading, credit underwriting , or blockchain-based financial services is facilitated by the abundant supply of information and increased and cheaper computing power. Buy Panama email lists.

The introduction of AI in finance is anticipated to provide competitive advantages for banks by leveraging two major options: (a) by improving efficiency of firms by reducing costs and efficiency improvement, thus increasing profitability (e.g. improved decision-making processes and processes automated execution, benefits from the improvement in the management of risk and back-office compliance and other process optimization) as well as (b) through enhancing the quality of the financial products and services provided to consumers (e.g. new products and services, or high-customisation of the products or services). Buy Panama email lists. This competitive advantage could be beneficial to consumers of the financial sector, either by improved quality of products, the variety of options as well as personalisation decreasing their costs.

Panama mailing lists

Panama mailing lists

What makes the use of AI in finance important to policy makers? Panama b2b database

AI financial applications can cause or increase financial and non-financial risk that could lead to possible financial consumer and investor security issues. The application of AI increases the risk that could impact a financial institution’s security and stability, due to the inability to explain or ability to interpret AI models, which have the potential for procyclicality as well as risks to the system in the market.

The complexity of knowing how the model produces results can lead to incompatibilities with the existing financial supervision and internal governance structures, and it could also challenge the policy-making process that is technology neutral. Buy Panama email lists. AI can pose specific risks in terms of protection for consumers like the possibility of unfair, biased or discriminatory results for consumers or concerns regarding the management of data and usage. Although many of the risks that come to AI in finance aren’t exclusive to AI but the application of AI could increase the risk of such weaknesses because of the level of complexity of the methods employed as well as the flexibility of AI-based models as well as their autonomy levels for the most sophisticated AI applications.

Machine Learning, ARTIFICIAL Intelligence and BIG Data in Finance (c) The OECD 2021 Panama Email Lists

Governance and Accountability Panama customers database

Model governance arrangements

Lines of accountability and accountability

Models of infrastructure outsourcing

Policy Frameworks Panama Email Lists.

AI complexity poses a challenge to the technology neutral approach (e.g. explanationability, self-learning, dynamic adjustment)

Possible incompatibilities with current legal or reg frameworks

The risk of policy fragmentation (across sectors)

Employment and skills

Risks that are not financial (data Fairness, data)

Inequity, bias and results that are discriminatory (inadequate use of data , or inadequate quality data)

Privacy and confidentiality of data Panama customers database


What is the reason and how it produces results?

Inability to modify strategies during times of stress

Increase the risk of systemic instability, amplify procyclicality

Panama email lists

Panama email lists

Incompatible with regulatory/supervisory frameworks and internal governance

Very difficult to oversee AI algorithms and ML models. email marketing database Panama

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Robustness and Resilience buy Panama email database

Unintended consequences at the market/firm level

Overfitting, Model drifts (data, concept drifts),

Correlations as causal

Human involvement is crucial.

Source: OECD staff illustration.

What is the impact of AI altering some aspects of financial markets?

AI methods are utilized to asset management and buy-side market for allocation of assets and stock selection using ML models’ capability to recognize signals and to capture the underlying relationships that exist in large data. They also serve to improve operations workflows as well as risk control. The application of AI techniques can be restricted to large institutions or asset managers with the resources and capacity to invest in these techniques. Panama mailing lists.

When utilized in trades, AI adds a layer of complexity to the traditional trading using algorithms, since the algorithms learn from inputs from data and then evolve into computer-programmed algorithms that can identify and then execute trades with no human intervention. In highly digitalized markets such as FX and equity marketplaces, AI algorithms can enhance the management of liquidity as well as execute large orders, with minimal market impactby optimizing length, size, and order size in a dynamic manner dependent upon market trends. The traders can also employ AI to manage risk and to manage order flow to speed up execution and create efficiency.  Panama mailing lists.

Panama Email

Panama Email

Similar to non-AI models as well as algos, the usage of the similar ML models used in a wide range of finance professionals could result in herding behavior and one-way market, which could pose risks for stability and liquidity of the system, especially in situations of extreme stress. While AI algo trading could enhance liquidity during periods of normality, it could cause convergence, and, as a result, to periods of insolvency during times of stress as well as flash crashes. Market volatility can increase due to massive purchases or sales that are that are executed at the same time, leading to new vulnerability sources. 

The convergence of trading strategies increases the potential for self-reinforcing feedback loops which could result in abrupt price movements. The convergence of these strategies also increases the likelihood of cyber-attacks because it is easier for cybercriminals to influence other agents operating similarly. These risks are present in every type of trading algorithms, however using AI increases the risk due to their capacity to continuously learn and adapt to changing circumstances in a completely self-sufficient manner. For instance, AI models can identify signals and study the consequences of herding and adjust their behavior and learning to advance upon the first signals. 

The level of complexity and the difficulty of explaining and replicating the decision-making process of AI models and algorithms make it difficult to manage the dangers.

Machine Learning, ARTIFICIAL Intelligence and BIG Data in Finance (c) The OECD 2021  Panama mailing lists.

AI technology could increase the risk of illegal practices in trading that aim to manipulate markets and make it harder for supervisors to spot these practices when collusion between AI models is present. This is because of the dynamic adapting capability of self-learning models as well as deep-learning AI models, since they recognize interdependencies between themselves and change their behavior to match the actions and actions of market participants or AI models, and possibly reach an outcome that is collusive without human intervention, and possibly without the user having any idea.

Figure 2. Effects of AI on business models and activities in the financial sector

Asset Management Credit intermediation

Recognize signals, and capture the the underlying patterns in massive data. Panama Email Lists

Improve operational workflows, improve managing risk email marketing database Panama

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Potentially, alpha-generating

Problems with concentration, competition, and other concerns buy Panama email database

Convergence of strategies.

Reduce underwriting cost, efficiencies

Credit extension for thin file and clients with no score

The financial inclusion of SME funding insufficient . Panama email database lists.

Risques of different impacts on the outcomes of credit

Possibility of discriminatory or unfair loans and biases

Exacerbated by BigTech lending

Blockchain-based finance based on Algo Trading

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Panama email database

Increase risk management and improve the management of liquidity

Facilitate the execution of large orders, optimize flow of order

Herding behavior and one-way markets Panama business database

Bouts of illiquidity during flash crashes, stress. Panama email database lists.

Market instability and stability

Manipulation of machines, collusion

Augmenting abilities of smart contract (autonomy)

Risk management (e.g. the audit of codes)

Support for DeFi applications, and build of chains that are autonomous Panama Email Lists

‘Garbage in, garbage out’ conundrum

Enhances the risks associated with centralised finance

Source: OECD Staff.

AI models in lending may lower the costs associated with credit-related underwriting as well as facilitate the credit extension process to clients with thin file which could lead to financial inclusion. The application of AI could result in efficiencies in data processing in order to assess of the creditworthiness of potential clients, improve the underwriting process and enhance the loan portfolio management. This can also permit the provision of credit scores to clients who have low credit histories, which can help in financial inclusion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and, potentially, encouraging financial inclusion for people who are not banked. Panama email database lists.

Despite their enormous potential, AI-based algorithms and the use of inaccurate information (e.g. regarding race or gender) in lending could pose the possibility of a disparate impact on results of credit and the potential for bias, discriminatory or unjust lending. As well as inadvertently creating biases or perpetuating them in credit allocation, AI-driven models can make the discrimination in credit allocation more difficult to detect and make the outputs of the model are difficult to understand and communicate to potential customers. This is especially true for credit offered by BigTech which rely on access to huge amounts of customer information, which raises concerns about anti-competitive practices and market dominance in the technological aspect of providing services (e.g. cloud). Panama Email Lists

The application in the use of AI techniques in finance based on blockchain could increase the efficiency potential of DLT-based systems, and enhance potential of smart contract capabilities. AI could increase the reliability of smart contracts, which allows the code that runs them to adjust dynamically in response the market’s conditions. The application in the use of AI for DLT systems also brings or even increases problems that arise in traditional financial products, including the difficulty of understanding AI decision-making systems and the difficulty managing systems and networks that are based on obscure AI models. Panama email database lists.

In the present, AI is mostly being utilized to manage risk for smart contracts, as well as for detection of weaknesses inside the program. It is worth noting however that smart contracts were in existence since before the invention in AI applications and depend on simple software. In the present, the majority of smart contracts utilized in a tangible way are not tied to AI methods and the majority of the benefits that are attributed to the application for AI within DLT systems is still in the realm of speculation at the moment. Panama lists

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Panama email listing

Machine Learning, ARTIFICIAL Intelligence and BIG DATA IN Finance (c) The OECD 2021

In the near future, AI could support decentralised applications of financial decentralisation (‘DeFi’), by automatising credit scoring based upon users’ data on the internet such as investment advisory services and trading using financial data and insurance underwriting. In the future artificial intelligence-based smart contracts which can be self-learning1 and adapt dynamically without human intervention may lead to the creation completely autonomous chains. The application of AI could further facilitate disintermediation, by replacing off-chain third-party sources of information by AI inference directly on the chain. 

It is important to note however that AI-based systems cannot necessarily solve issues with the garbage in garbage out dilemma as well as the issue of poor quality or insufficient data inputs blockchain-based systems. This is what gives an opportunity for serious risks for investors and market integrity as well as the reliability of the systems according to what size market size. DeFi market. In addition, AI could amplify the many risks that are present with DeFi market, adding more complexity to already challenging to supervise autonomous DeFi networks without a single access points to regulatory oversight or governance structures that permit accountability and the compliance of the oversight frameworks.  Panama email database lists.

The most important risks and challenges and mitigation options Panama lists

The introduction in the use of AI in finance may increase the risks that exist in the financial sector due to the capacity of AI to adapt and learn to changes in the market in a completely autonomous manner and create new challenges and risk. Risks currently in place are due to the use of data in a non-optimal way and the use of low quality data, which could cause biases and discriminatory outcomes, which ultimately hurt the financial consumer. Risks of concentration and associated problems with competition could arise from the requirements for investment of AI methods, which may result in dependence on only a few major players. Panama email database lists.

Risks to market integrity and compliance may result from the absence of an adequate model governance framework which takes into consideration the unique nature of AI and the absence of clearly defined accountability frameworks. These risks also arise from supervision and oversight mechanisms that might require adjustments to accommodate the new technology. 

New risks that arise due to the application of AI are related to the unintended implications of AI-based systems and models that ensure stability in markets and market integrity. Significant risks arise from the complexity of understanding how AI-based models produce result (explainability). The increased usage for AI in finance can create a risk of increased interconnectivity in the financial markets, and several operational risks linked to these methods could threaten the stability to the system of finance during times of crisis. Panama email database lists.

The use of large data in AI-powered apps could be a major risk to the financial sector that is caused by the challenges and risks relating to the quality of information used, the privacy and security of information cybersecurity as well as fairness concerns. Based on how they are utilized, AI methods have the potential to prevent discrimination based on human interaction or increase biases, unfair treatment and discrimination within financial services. 

The discrimination and biases that are inherent in AI may result due to the use of poor quality, inadequate or flawed data used in ML models or accidentally through inferences and proxy data (for instance, determining gender based on buying activity data). Alongside the concerns of protecting consumers’ financial interests and competition concerns, there could be problems arising from the use of large information and the ML model which are related to the concentration of market players in certain markets or the risk of collusions with tacit. Panama mailing lists

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Panama email leads

The most commonly acknowledged issue that is faced by ML models is in understanding how and why the model produces results. This is usually described using the term “explainability,” which is associated with several significant risk factors. The large-scale utilization of models that are opaque can cause unintended consequences when users of models and supervisors are unable to anticipate how the decisions made by ML models may negatively impact the market. Panama email database lists. The deliberate lack of transparency from companies in order to protect their own advantage contributes to the uncertainty of explaining and raises questions about the oversight of AI algorithms and models based on ML, as well as to the capacity of users to alter their strategies when they experience low performance or during situations of pressure.

Incompatibility of explanations is not only not compatible with the existing regulations and laws, but as well as internal governance, control and risk management frameworks that financial services providers use. It hinders the ability to make decisions. email marketing database Panama

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Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG DATA in Finance (c) The OECD 2021

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the ability of investors to comprehend the impact of their models on the market or cause disturbances, and could increase systemic risks associated with procyclicality. In addition, the inability of users to modify their strategies during periods of stress can cause increased market volatility and a recurrence of liquidity when there is a high degree of stress, which can trigger flash-crash type events. The problem of explainability is exacerbated by a widening lack of technical literacy and the inconsistency between the complexity typical to AI model and the requirements of human-scale reasoning, interpretation and reasoning that match human cognition. There are regulatory issues in relation to transparency and auditing for these models in various applications of financial services. Panama mailing lists.

Financial market professionals that use AI-powered models need to keep working to improve the ability of their models to explain in order to understand their behavior during normal market conditions as well as in times of stress and to manage the risks associated with it. There are varying opinions on the degree of explainability that is attained by AI-powered models dependent on the kind of AI employed. A balance has to be found between the accuracy of the model as well as its predictability. The implementation of disclosure requirements regarding using AI-powered systems and models can help ease the burden that arise from explaining as well as provide greater peace of mind and bolster trust for consumers who are using AI-powered services. Panama Email Lists

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Panama email Profile

Risks that could be posed to AI systems should be continuously monitored and evaluated in order to make sure that AI systems operate in a reliable and durable manner. The resilience of AI systems can be enhanced through careful training and retraining of ML models using datasets that are large enough to be able to detect the non-linear relationship and tail events within the data (including artificial models). 

Monitoring, testing, and validating AI model models over their lifetimes as well as based on their intended goals is essential to spot and correct “model drifts”2 (concept shifts, or drifts in data) that affect the accuracy of the model’s predictions. Model drifts can occur as tail effects, like the COVID-19 crisis cause discontinuities in the data and are very impossible to eliminate, since they aren’t replicated within the information used to create the model. Human judgement is vital at all times during AI implementation, from the input of data to the evaluation of the model’s outputs. 

It helps to avoid the danger of misinterpreting the meaningless correlations that are observed from activity patterns as causal relations. Automated control mechanisms or “kill switches’ may also be utilized as a last resort of defense that allows you to stop AI-based systems in the event they fail to work in accordance with their intended function but this is ineffective as it introduces operational risk and ensures insufficient resilience when the existing business system is required shutdown in the event that it is stressed. Panama mailing lists

Explicated governance frameworks that define distinct lines of accountability for AI-based systems all the way through their lifespan, from creation to deployment, can enhance existing models’ governance structures. Model governance committees within the internal model or model review boards for financial service providers are charged with establishing models’ governance standards and procedures to build models, as well as documentation and validation at any stage of the model. They are expected to be more prevalent as more firms adopt AI by financial institutions and possibly a ‘upgrading’ in their roles, competences as well as some of the processes required to handle the complexity of the AI models (e.g. the frequency of validation of models).

The need for clear accountability mechanisms is increasing important, especially because AI models are being used in highly-valued decision-making scenarios (e.g. the ability to access credit). There are also risks when outsourcing AI techniques to third-party companies with respect to accountability and the dynamics of competition (e.g. concentration risk, risk of dependency). The outsourcing to AI structures or models might cause risks related to the chance of convergence in market positions. This could cause herding behavior and the convergence of trading strategies. There is also the possibility that a large portion of the market could be affected simultaneously which may cause a period of inliquidity during periods of tension. Panama Email Lists

The non-technological approach used by a variety of jurisdictions to regulate financial markets products is likely to become a challenge due to the growing complexity of some of the most innovative applications that make use of AI within finance.

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Panama business database

Possible inconsistencies between current legal and regulatory frameworks could result from the use of modern Panama quality email

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG Data IN FINANCE (c) The OECD 2021

AI techniques (e.g. due to the inability to explain or the re-adapting nature of the deep-learning models). Additionally, there could be a an increased risk of fragmentation in the regulatory landscape related towards AI at the international, national and sectoral levels.

The development of skills to build and manage new risk associated with AI is essential as AI applications become more commonplace in the finance industry. The use of AI in the financial sector could result in substantial job losses throughout the entire industry, leading to challenges in employment. Panama mailing lists.

AI in finance needs to be considered a technology which enhances human abilities rather than replacing them. Combining ‘human’ machines’ in which AI aids human judgment instead of replacing the human judgment (decision-aid rather than decision maker) can allow the benefits of AI to be realized while ensuring accountability and control over the final decision-making process. A proper emphasis should be given to human supremacy in the process of making decisions, particularly when it comes to more valuable applications (e.g. lending decisions). Panama quality email.

Considerations on policy

Regulators and policy makers play an obligation to ensure that the application in the use of AI within finance will be in line with the regulatory goals of maintaining financial stability, protecting the financial consumer, and promoting competitiveness and market integrity. The policy makers must think about the possibility of supporting AI innovations in the financial sector while protecting financial consumers as well as investors, and encouraging an orderly, fair and transparent markets. 

New risks arising from the implementation of AI methods must be identified as well as mitigated in order to encourage and support the adoption of ethical AI. The existing requirements for supervision and regulation might need to be clarified and sometimes modified, depending on the need, to resolve some of the perceived contradictions of current agreements with AI applications. Panama Email Lists.

The implementation of supervisory and regulatory guidelines regarding AI methods could be viewed in an appropriate and contextual framework, based on the significance of the technology and its potential impact on outcomes for consumers and the market’s performance. This is likely to increase the application of AI without restraining the development. But, applying proportionality must not jeopardize the most fundamental prudential or stability safeguards, nor safeguarding investors or financial consumers, which are all crucial obligations of policy makers. Panama quality email.

Policymakers should think about increasing their attention on improved data governance in financial firms, with the aim to increase consumer protections across AI financial applications. Specific specifications and best practices in managing data using AI-based methods might be considered, focusing on the quality of data, the adequateness of the dataset utilized based on the application by an AI model, and security measures that guarantee the reliability of the model in relation to avoiding biases. 

A proper sense-checking of the model’s results against baseline data and other tests that consider the possibility of protected classes being determined from other attributes of this data is two instances of the best methods to reduce the risk of discrimination. The need for greater

Panama customers database

Panama customers database

transparency regarding how personal information and opt-out choices regarding the use of personal data may be considered by the authorities. email marketing database Panama

Panama email database

Policy makers must consider the need to disclose requirements regarding how they use AI methods in the supply of financial services and how they could affect the outcome for customers. Financial customers should be educated about the potential use of AI techniques for the production of a service, and also the possibility of involvement with an AI system rather than an individual human being so that they are able to make informed decisions about other products. Information that is clear about AI’s capabilities and limitations should be provided. AI technology’s strengths and weaknesses must be provided in this information. The introduction of requirements for suitability for financial services based on AI should be considered by regulators to assist firms in determining the degree to which potential customers have a clear understanding of how using AI influences the performance of the service. Panama email id list.

Regulators must consider ways to address the perception that AI is incompatible with lack of clarity in AI with the existing law and regulation. It may be necessary to revise and/or modify the current frameworks used for models of Governance and Risk Management for firms that provide financial services.

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG Data in Finance (c) The OECD 2021

to tackle the issues that arise from the application of AI-based models to address these issues. The supervisory focus may be changed from documenting the process of development and the way in the model’s development in its prediction, to the model’s behavior and outcomes. In addition, supervisors might want to investigate more technical methods to manage risks, including stress testing for adversaries to the model or outcomes-based indicators (Gensler and Bailey 2020[2[2]). Panama quality email.

Policy makers should look into the necessity of clear model governance frameworks and the assignment of accountability in order to increase trust in AI-driven technology. Extensive governance frameworks that establish clearly defined lines of accountability in the design and supervision of AI-driven systems throughout their entire lifecycle, from creation to deployment, can be drafted by financial service providers to enhance existing procedures for operations that are that are related to AI. The internal model governance frameworks can be modified to better reflect risks that arise due to using AI as well as to reflect the desired results for consumers as well as an evaluation of whether and how these outcomes can be achieved using AI technology. A thorough documentation and audit trail of these processes can aid in the supervision of this activities by supervisors. Panama Email Lists

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Panama b2c database

The increased confidence offered from financial institutions about the reliability and strength of AI models is crucial as policymakers seek to protect against the accumulation of risks to the system, and can help AI financial applications build trust. The effectiveness of models has to be evaluated in the most extreme market conditions to avoid the risk of systemic vulnerabilities and risks that could arise during situations of stress. Automated controlling mechanisms (such such as the kill switch) that issue alarms or turn off models during times of stress can help in limiting risks, however they can expose the firm to risks that could be new to operations. Backup plans, models and processes must be implemented to ensure continuity of operations in the event that models fail or react with unexpected consequences. Additionally, regulators may look at adding buffers or minimum buffers for banks if they were to establish capital weights or risk using AI algorithmic models (Gensler and Bailey 2020[22). purchase Panama email list

Frameworks that allow for proper training, retraining, and thorough tests of AI models can be developed or reinforced to ensure ML model-based decision-making functions exactly as it was intended and is in line with all applicable laws and regulations. The data used to train models must be sufficient to record non-linear relations and tail-related events in this data set, regardless of whether it is it is synthetic in order to improve the reliability of models during times of uncertainty and emergencies. Continuous testing of models based on ML is essential to find and correct models that drift Panama Email Lists.

Regulators must consider promoting regular monitoring and verification of AI models that are essential to their security, and are one of the most efficient methods to increase the resilience of models to prevent and correct models that drift. Standardised practices for monitoring and validation can help in increasing the strength of the model and determine if the model requires modification, redevelopment, or replacement. Validation of models, as well as the required approvals and sign-offs should be separate from the design of the model, and recorded as accurately as is possible for the purpose of supervision. The timeframe for tests and validations would have be determined according to the appropriate criteria, based on the level of complexity of the model as well as the significance of the decisions taken by this model.
A proper focus could be put on the primacy of human beings in decision-making in the case of high-value uses-cases like the decision to lend, which can directly affect consumers. purchase Panama email list.

Authorities should look into the implementation of processes that permit clients to challenge the outcomes that are generated by AI algorithms and demand redress. This would aid in building trust with these AI systems. The GDPR is one illustration of these policies that provide individuals with the right to’request human intervention’ as well as to voice their opinions in the event that they want to challenge the decision taken through an algorithm (EU 2016[3[3]). Panama Email Lists

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The decision makers of the future should be aware of the increasing technological difficulty of AI and whether resources will have be put in place in order to keep up with advancements in technology. Because of the revolutionary impact of AI on specific financial market transactions as well as the new kinds of risks that arise from its use, AI has become a major concern for policymakers over the last few years. The funds should be allocated to research and development of skills as well as for financial sector players as well as for enforcement authorities. Panama consumer email database

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The function of policy makers is vital in encouraging technological innovation in the field and ensuring that financial customers and investors are adequately protected , and that markets surrounding these products and services are free, efficient and transparent. It is important for policy makers to think about enhancing their current arsenal of protections against the risks arising from, or increased by AI. AI. A clear and transparent discussion of the use of AI and the security measures put that are in place to safeguard it and the users will aid in establishing trust and confidence and encourage the use of these innovative methods. With the ease of trans-border financial services, an inter-disciplinary dialogue between policy makers and business community could be encouraged and maintained at both national as well as international levels. purchase Panama email list

The COVID-19 crisis has intensified and intensified the trend towards digitalisation that was evident prior to the outbreak that was a result of the widespread application of AI. The growing AI adoption in the finance sector, particularly in areas like the management of assets, algorithmsic trading credit underwriting, as well as financial services that are blockchain-based are facilitated due to the wealth of information and increased and cheaper computing power. purchase Panama email list

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AI4 is integrated into products and services across a range of industries (e.g. automobiles, healthcare consumer products, automobiles Internet of Things (IoT)) which is becoming increasingly used by financial service providers across the financial industry: in the corporate and retail banking (tailored products chat boxes for customer service credit scoring and underwriting forecasting of credit losses AML, fraud monitoring and detection and customer service) Asset management (robo-advice managing risk-management strategies for portfolios) Trading (algorithmic trading) as well as insurance (robo-advice and the management of claims). AI is also being used for RegTech as well as SupTech applications within the government sector (e.g. Natural Language Processing (NLP) and procedures for ensuring compliance).

The use of AI and ML made with big data is predicted to increase in significance (see 1.2.1). 1.2.1) The potential dangers arising from its use in the financial sector are growing more alarming and warrant additional scrutiny by policy makers. Panama Email Lists

The Committee on Financial Markets has included an analysis of AI, ML and big data in the Programme of Work and Budget of the Committee for the period 2021-22 [C(2008)93/REV2The Committee on Financial Markets has included analysis of AI, ML and big data in its.

This report looks at how AI/ML and big-data impact specific financial sectors which have adopted these technologies in the early stages and how these new techniques are altering their business models; outlines the benefits and risks associated with the application of these technology in finance. It also provides an update on the regulatory activities and strategies of regulators with regard to AI and ML in the financial sector in certain markets, and details on debates that are currently being held with IOs along with other officials; and identifies areas where purchase Panama email list

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These issues remain a source of concern and require more debate are still a matter for further consideration by The issues remain unanswered and warrant further consideration by Committee and the Committee’s Experts Group; and provides some preliminary considerations for policy in the subject matter. The report doesn’t discuss how to use AI or big data within the insurance industry as has been previously discussed in experts from the OECD Insurance and Private Pensions Committee (OECD 2020[66). buy Panama targeted email list

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The goal of the discussion and analysis on this topic is two-fold: first providing an analysis that can inform the ongoing debate between the IOs and policy makers, and secondly, to investigate questions that arise in the interplay of AI finance, policy and AI which are largely unexplored. This is the latter, which involves analysis of the ways in which AI, ML , and big data impact certain aspects of market activities (such such as asset-management, algorithmic trading, credit underwriting and financial products that are based on blockchain) and their respective business models, and how these technologies impact current risks (such as volatility, liquidity and convergence, and liquidity). Panama consumer email database

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The report was prepared through the committee’s Experts Group on Finance and Digitalisation and was examined in members of the Committee on Financial Markets at the meetings in April. Delegates are requested to accept the declassification process of this report via a written procedure or make any final remarks before July 23, 2021, and accept the publication of the report. Panama email id list

1.2. AI , machine learning, and using big data

A AI machine, as defined in the report of the OECD’s AI Experts Group (AIGO) is a computer-based system which can, for an established set of human-defined goals, formulate predictions, suggestions or even decisions in relation to virtual or real environments (OECD 2019[4[4]). It makes use of human and/or machine inputs to assess the real and/or virtual environment; transform such impressions to models (in an automated way, e.g. by using ML or manual) and then use models to determine alternatives for information or actions. Artificial Intelligence systems can function with different degrees of autonomy (OECD 2019, 2019[4[4]). Panama Email Lists

Figure 1.1. AI systems

Note as defined and accepted by the OECD AI Experts Group (AIGO) in February of 2019.

Source: (OECD, 2019[4]).

The AI phases of the lifecycle of a system include (i) design and planning collecting and processing data and modeling and interpretation, (ii) the verification process and its validation (iii) deployment and deployment; and (iv) operating and monitoring (OECD 2019, 2019[4[4]). A AI research taxonomy differentiates AI software (e.g. NLP) and techniques used to instruct AI algorithms (e.g. neural networks); optimisation (e.g. one-shot-learning) as well as research that addresses the social implications (e.g. transparency). Buy Panama targeted email list.

ML can be described as an AI subset, and it defines the capacity for software programs to take lessons from relevant data sets in order to improve itself without having to be specifically programmed by human programmers (e.g. recognition of images predictive of the default of a borrower fraud, AML recognition) (Samuel 1959, [77). The various kinds of ML comprise the following: Learning that is supervised (‘classical ML’, which consists in advanced regressions, and categorizations of data utilized to improve Panama Email Lists.

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG Data in Finance (c) 2021 OECD

prediction) or unsupervised (processing input data in order to understand how data is distributed and create, for example segmentation of customers that is automated) and the reinforcement and deep learn (based in neural networks that could be applied to non-structured data, such as voice or images) (US Treasury 2018, [8(US Treasury, 2018[8). buy Panama targeted email list

Figure 1.2. Illustrations of AI subsets

Source: (, 2020[9]).

The neural networks of deep learning are attempting to model the way that neurons interact inside the brain by using many (‘deep’) layers of virtual interconnectedness (OECD 2019, 2019[4[4]). Panama email id list. The models make use of multi-layer neural networks5 to understand and identify intricate patterns in data being influenced by how the human brain functions. Deep learning models can recognize and classify data input without the need to write specific rules (no requirement to define particular detectors) and are able to detect new patterns that no human would have thought of or developed (Krizhevsky, Sutskever and Hinton 2017[1010). These networks are believed to be more tolerant of noise and be able to operate on multiple levels of generality derived from sub features.

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ML models make use of huge amounts of different sources of data and data analytics, which is known as ‘big data’. The term”big data” was first coined in early 2000s , when Big Data was used to define “the increase in the amount (and sometimes, the quality) of accessible and relevant data, mostly due to new and unimaginable advances in data storage and recording technology” (OECD 2019, [4]). The Big Data ecosystem includes data sources and software, analytics software as well as statistics and programming along with data science experts who synthesize the data in order to eliminate the noise and generate meaningful outputs. Buy Panama targeted email list.

Big data’s attributes include the four ‘Vs’: Volume (scale of information) as well as speed (high-speed process and analysis data streams) as well as diversity (heterogeneous data) and reliability (certainty of the data, reliability of sources and authenticity) along with other qualities such as exhaustivity, extensionality and complexity (OECD 2019[44) (IBM 2020[11[11, 12]). Veracity is a crucial aspect because it can be challenging for the user to judge whether the data used is accurate and reliable, and could need to be assessed on a case-by basis. Panama Email Lists.

Big data could include information about climate satellite images, electronic images and videos and transition records, GPS signals, as well as personal datalike names, photos or email address, banking details as well as posts on social network websites, medical information or an IP address of a computer (OECD 2019, 2019[4[4]). The data can challenge the current methods due to their magnitude and complexity or speed of availability. They require advanced digital methods, like ML models to study the data. The increased usage of AI in IoT applications is also creating massive amounts of data that feed in AI applications. buy Panama database for marketing

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG Data in Finance (c) 2021 OECD

Infographic 1.1. the four Vs that make up Big Data

Source: (IBM, 2020[11]).

Figure 1.3. Big data sources

Source: Dell Technologies.

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG Data in Finance (c) The OECD 2021


The availability of data lets ML models to be more effective due to their capacity to learn from the experiences that are fed to the models during an iterative procedure known as the process of training models (US Treasury, 2018, [88). buy Panama database for marketing. Buy Panama targeted email list.

Figure 1.4. AI System lifecycle

Note as defined and confirmed by the OECD AI Experts Group (AIGO) in February of 2019.

Source: (OECD, 2019[4]).

1.2.1. Research is a rapidly growing area in research and development for businesses.

Increased use of AI applications is evident by an increase in global investment in AI from the commercial sector, along with increased research regarding this technology. The world’s spending on AI is predicted to double in the next four years, increasing to $50.1 billion by 2020 to over $110 billion by 2024 (OECD 2019[44). According to IDC projections, the investment in AI technology will grow in the coming years, with an estimated CAGR of c.20 percent from 2019-24, as businesses implement AI in their digital transformation strategies as well as to stay relevant in the current digital economy.  Buy Panama targeted email list.

Private equity investments in AI companies has increased by more than a third in 2017 on basis of year-to-year as well as attracted around 12% from worldwide private equity investments in the first quarter of 2018 (OECD 2019[5[5]). In the same way the rate of growth in AI-related research is significantly higher than the growth in general research or computer science papers, which further demonstrates of growing interest in this revolutionary technique (Figure 2.1). Panama Email Lists

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Figure 1.5. Research on AI is growing and investments in AI startup companies

Publications from artificial Intelligence only Computer science-related publications only. All Research Publications Panama consumer email database

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1 1980 1982 1984 1985 1987 1988 1990 1991 1995, 1993 1996, 1997, 1999, 2000, 2001 2003, 2004 and 2005 in 2006 2009, 2010 and 2011 2013 2016 2017-2018 2019 Panama email id list

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Note: Financing of cyber-based startups that employ AI as the primary differentiator of their product.

Source: OECD.AI (2020), Microsoft Academic Graph, Insights.

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG Data in Finance (c) The OECD 2021


1.2.2. AI in supervisory and regulatory technology (‘Regtech” and “Suptech”)

Financial market regulators are increasingly looking at potential benefits of application of AI insights in tools that are referred to as “Suptech,” i.e. applications that use FinTech to assist authorities for supervisory, regulatory and monitoring purposes (FSB 2020[1212). Additionally, regulated institutions are developing and implementing FinTech applications to meet compliance and regulatory requirements as well as reports (‘RegTech’).  Buy Panama targeted email list.

Financial institutions are using AI software for internal control and risk management too as the integration of AI technology with behavioral science can help large financial institutions stop misconduct and shift the focus away from post-mortem resolution to proactive prevention (Scott 2020[13(Scott, 2020[13]). buy Panama database for marketing

The increase within RegTech as well as SupTech applications is mostly due to supply-side drivers (increased access to information, including machine-readable ones as well as the advancement of AI methods) as well as demand side drivers (potential to increase effectiveness and efficiency in regulatory procedures, the potential to gain better insights into the development of compliance and risk) (FSB 2020[12[12]). Panama Email Lists

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Despite the benefits and opportunities of using AI to supervise and regulate reasons, authorities are still cautious due to the risks that come with the use of these technology (resourcing cybersecurity risk, risk to reputation data quality concerns, and insufficient access to information and interpretation) (FSB 2020[12[12, 13]). These are the same risks that are inherent in the use of AI by participants in the financial markets as well as those that are addressed in greater depth in the report. Panama email database free

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2 AI/ML Big Data in Finance The benefits and the impact on the business model/activity of financial sector players buy Panama database online

The use of AI in finance is fueled by the growing and large quantity of financial data available to services, as well as the anticipated advantages that AI/ML could bring to financial service companies. The explosion of data available in the form of analytical data (big data) and cheaper computing capacity (e.g. cloud computing) can be analysed using ML models to detect patterns and underlying relationships in the data in a manner that is beyond the capabilities of human beings. The adoption of AI/ML as well as big data by companies in the financial sector will continue to increase the competitive advantages of firms by enhancing the companies efficiency through cutting costs and increasing the quality of the financial services products that customers demand (US Treasury 2020). Panama database for sale.

This article examines the possible impact that application for AI or big data might impact certain financial market transactions which include asset management and trading, investing, banking; and blockchain application in the field of finance. Panama Email Lists

Figure 2.1. Some examples of AI applications in certain market-related activities

The application of AI and ML in asset management could be able to boost the effectiveness and precision in operational workflows. It can increase efficiency, improve risk management and enhance customer experience (Blackrock 2019, 2019[1414) (Deloitte 2019[1515). Natural Language Generation (NLG) is a subset within AI can be used by financial advisors in order to “humanize the analysis of data and to make it simpler for and report to clients (Gould 2016[1616).  Panama database for sale.

Since ML models are able to track hundreds of risks on a regular basis and assess the performance of portfolios in a myriad of economic and market scenarios The technology could improve the management of risk for asset managers as well as other big institutional investors. With regards to operational benefits, the application of AI can cut back the costs that investment management firms incur, substitute manual reconciliations by automated reconciliations and could reduce the cost of reconciliation and improve speed. Panama database for sale

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Incorporating ML models with large data may offer asset managers suggestions that impact the decisions made regarding allocation of stocks and portfolios depending on the AI technique employed. Data from big data have replaced conventional databases that are nowadays regarded as a commodity that is easily accessible to all investors and is used for asset management to get insight into their investment processes. For investors data was always the most important factor and data has always been the foundation of various investment strategies, starting with fundamental research to quantitative and systematic trading strategies in all. While structured data was at the core of such ‘traditional’ strategies, vast amounts of raw or unstructured/semi-structured data are now promising to provide a new informational edge to investors deploying AI in the implementation of their strategies. AI lets asset managers absorb massive quantities of data from many sources and gain insights from their data to guide their strategies in very short durations. Panama Email Lists.

Figure 2.2. AI usage by hedge funds (H1 2018)

Utilization of AI by hedge funds

Note Based on research into industrial processes conducted by Barclays as of July 2018. Panama email database free

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Source: (BarclayHedge, 2018[17]).

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The application of AI/ML as well as big data could be restricted for larger asset managers or institutional investors with the resources and capacity for investing in AI technology, which could create obstacles to the use of these methods by smaller players. A significant investment in technology and expertise is needed to analyze and transform huge volumes of unstructured data of large data, and create models using ML. In the event that the implementation of AI and proprietary models gives the advantage in performance over rivals which could, in consequence, restrict participation of smaller players that can’t adopt AI/ML in-house or use big data data sources. 

This could exacerbate the tendency of concentration on a handful of bigger players that are evident in the hedge fund industry since larger firms outperform the smaller competitors (Financial Times 2020[18and 2020[18]). Panama database for sale

The limited participation of smaller players is likely to continue at least until the market gets to a point at which such tools are widely available or offered as services by third-party vendors. In the meantime the third party data may not be held to the same level across all industries. those who use third party tools will need to establish trust in the reliability and accuracy of the data they use (‘veracity of large data) to achieve an amount of confidence for them to accept them. Panama Email Lists.

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The utilization of the same AI model by a vast number of asset managers may result in herding behavior and single-way markets. This could create risks for liquidity as well as the reliability of the financial system, particularly in times of crisis. The volatility of markets could rise due to large purchases or sales that are executed at the same time, leading to new vulnerability sources (see section 2.2). Panama database for sale.

It is possible to argue that the application of AI/ML and big data investing could alter the trend of passive investing. If the deployment of such cutting-edge technologies proves to generate alpha in a way that suggests a cause-and-effect relationship between the application of AI and the performance that it provides (Blackrock 2019, [14]) (Deloitte 2019[15[15, 16]) The active investors could profit from this opportunity to reenergize active investing and to provide potential alpha-boosting opportunities for their clients.

2.1.1. The performance of hedge funds powered by AI and ETFs

Hedge funds are on the forefront of FinTech users and utilize large data sets, AI and machine learning algorithms in the execution of trades and back office processes (Kaal 2019[19[19). A category of ‘AI pure-play’ hedge funds have developed in recent times which are entirely based around AI as well as ML (e.g. Aidiyia Holdings, Cerebellum Capital, Taaffeite Capital Management and Numerai) (BNY Mellon, 2019[20]). Panama email database free.

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There is no research or analysis of the performance of funds powered by AI from an outside source, and looking at the different funds that claim to be powered by AI. Fund managers utilize different levels of AI in their business and strategies, and are unwilling to reveal their methods to ensure their competitive edge. Although many funds are advertising their products as AI engineered’ but the extents of AI employed by fund managers and the level of maturity of AI differ greatly, this makes it hard to evaluate performance among the various claims of AI products. buy Panama database online

Indices from the private sector of AI-powered hedge fund indices demonstrate an outperformance of AI-powered hedge funds over traditional hedge fund indices offered from the exact same source (Figure 2.2). Indices supplied by third party sources are susceptible to a variety of biases like self-selection and survivorship bias of the constituents of the index, or back filling as well, and should be handled with care. Panama address lists.

Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning and BIG DATA IN the field of finance (c) 2021 OECD


Figure 2.3.Some AI-powered hedge funds have outperformed traditional hedge funds

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Eurekahedge AI Hedge Fund Index

Note This is the Eurekahedge Hedge Fund Index represents Eurekahedge’s most popular index that is equally weighted comprised of 2195 funds. The index was created to be a comprehensive measurement of the performance of the hedge fund managers that are the underlying funds regardless of their regional mandate. The index is based on a base weighting at 100 as of December 1999, and does not include duplicate funds and is calculated in local currency. It is the Eurekahedge AI Hedge Fund Index is an index that is equally weighted composed of 18 fund constituents. The index was designed to be a broad measurement of the performance of the fund’s managers who employ AI and ML theories in their trading strategies. The index was weighted base at 100 as of December 2010 and does not contain duplicate funds and is based in USD. It is the Credit Suisse Hedge Fund Index is an hedge fund index that is asset-weighted that includes closed and open funds. Panama address lists.

Source: Eurekahedge; Datastream, Thompson Reuters Eikon.

ETFs that are powered by AI that are based on AI, where investments are made and executed by models aren’t at a significant dimension as of. The AuM total of this group of ETFs is believed to be c. USD 100 million by the end of the year (CFA, n.d.[21]). The efficiency gained through the use AI AI in automated ETFs reduces the management fee (estimated to be an average annual fee of 0.77 percent at the time of closing of the year). Regarding forecasting There is growing evidence that ML models beat conventional forecasts for macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP and inflation (Kalamara and others. 2020[22[22.). Actually, these gains are evident most during times of economic stress , when it is believed that forecasts are the most important. Evidence is also available on the advantages of AI-driven methods in detecting meaningful, previously undiscovered relationships within the financial crisis as well as ML models typically surpassing logistic regression in out-of-sample forecasts and forecasting (Bluwstein and co. 2020[2323). Panama address lists.

2.2. Algorithmic Trading

AI is used in trading, both to provide

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recommendations for trading strategies and to create automatic trading software that can can make predictions, decide on the best path to take and then perform trades. AI-based trading platforms operating on the market are able to identify and carry out trades by themselves, with no any human intervention. This is done making use of AI techniques like deep learning, evolutionary computation as well as probability logic (Metz, 2016[2424). 

AI-based techniques (such such as the algo wheel) can assist in preparing every trade that is coming up in a structured manner, through enabling an “if/then” method of thinking to be used as an aspect of the procedure (Bloomberg 2019[25[25.) (see the box 2.1). With the increasing interconnection between different asset classes and geographical regions using AI provides predictive power that is rapidly surpassing the ability of traditional algorithmic trading and finance. Panama business email database free download

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AI-powered trading systems are also able to assist traders in their risk management and managing how they move their order. For instance, AI-based software can analyze risk exposure and modify or close the position based on the requirements of the customer, in a completely automated way and without programming re-training, since they train by themselves and can adapt to market changes without (or using minimal) any human involvement. They could help traders control their flow between brokers for trades that have been decided on, and manage the cost of liquid allocation to various pockets (e.g. regional market preferences, currency decisions or other aspects of processing of orders. Panama database for sale..

In highly digital markets, like the ones for FX and equities product, AI solutions promise to give competitive pricing, control liquidity, and improve execution. Additionally, AI algorithms deployed in trading can help improve liquidity management and the execution of large orders, with the least amount of impact on markets, through optimizing length, size, and order size in a dynamic manner dependent the market’s conditions.

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The application of AI and big data for sentiment analysis to find patterns, themes or trading patterns is advancing an approach that isn’t new. Traders have mined news reports and management announcements/commentaries for decades now, seeking to understand the stock price impact of non-financial information. Nowadays the use of text mining and analysis of social media content and Twits and satellite data with the application and analysis of NPL algorithms is a prime illustration of how cutting-edge technologies that help aid in trading decisions as they can automate data collection and analysis , and to identify and track down persistent patterns or patterns at a scale that human can’t comprehend. Panama address lists

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What distinguishes AI-managed trading from automated trading strategies is reinforcement-learning and adjustments to adapt the AI model to the changing market conditions. Traditional systems would take longer to modify parameters due to the significant human involvement involved. Traditional back-testing strategies built on historical data could not yield good results in real-time as the trends that were previously recognized are unable to be sustained. 

The application algorithms shifts analysis to forecasting and the analysis of trends in real-time such as using “walk forward” tests9 rather than back testing. Panama database for sale. These tests are able to predict and adjust to changes in real time , which can reduce the risk of over-fitting (or the fitting of curves, refer to section 3.5.1.) for back tests that are that are based on the historical data and the trends (Liew 2020[26[26, 27]).

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Box 2.1. AI-based Algo wheels Panama Email Lists

Algo wheels are a broad concept which covers all automated solutions that are mostly a trader-driven flow. A computer-driven algo wheel is an automatized process for routing using AI methods to assign an algorithm for brokers to orders based on an algorithmic list that is pre-configured options (Barclays Investment Bank 2020[27[27.). In other words, AI-based wheel models determine the most efficient strategy and broker Panama email database providers.

through which to route the order, depending on market conditions and trading objectives/requirements.

Algo wheels for two reasons: first, to gain efficiency gains through improved execution performance; and second, to improve workflow efficiency by the automation of small order flows or standardizing broker algorithms to standard name conventions. Market participants claim that using algo wheels can reduce market biases of traders regarding the choice of the broker and the broker’s algorithm used on the market.

The estimate is that around 20% of all trading transactions are currently going through algorithm wheels. The system is gaining more acceptance as a method of sorting and measuring the most efficient broker algorithms (Mollemans 2020[28[28.]). But, those who utilize it, do so to make up 38% of the flow.  Panama database for sale. The potential for widespread adoption of algo wheels may cause growth in the general quantity of electronic trading which could be beneficial to the marketplace of online brokerage (Weber 2019, 2019[29[29, 30]). Panama business email database free download

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The application in the use of AI for trading been through several levels of development as well as corresponding level of complexity, adding an additional layer of traditional algorithmic trading in each stage of the process. The first generation algorithms were comprised of buy or sell orders based on basic parameters, then and then algorithms that allowed to dynamically price. Second-generation algorithms employed strategies to break huge orders and limit market impacts, which helped to get higher prices (so-called “execution algorithms”). Strategies based upon deep neural networks have been developed to offer the most efficient execution and order placement that minimizes market impact (JPMorgan 2019[30[30]). Deep neural networks are modeled after the human brain using an array of algorithms that are designed to recognize patterns and they are not dependent on human input to perform and learn (IBM 2020[31[31]). Utilizing these techniques can benefit market makers to improve the management of their inventory , and lower the costs of their balance sheets. As the technology of AI is advanced, AI algorithms evolve into computer-controlled, automated algorithms that can learn from the input of data and are less dependent on human interaction. Panama email database providers.

In actual practice, the most advanced versions of AI nowadays are mainly utilized to recognize signals that come from ‘low-informational value’ events in flow-based trading11, which are made up of events that are less apparent that are difficult to detect and deduce value from. In addition to assisting with the speed of execution, AI is employed to separate signals from the noise of data and transforms that information into decisions about trading. The less advanced algorithms are typically used in ‘high-informational events’. These are made up of financial news that are easier to all parties to comprehend and for which execution speed is essential. Panama Email Lists

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At the moment of their development, models based on ML do not intend to the frontrunners in trading and are not able to benefit from the speed of action like HFT strategies. Instead, they’re restricted to use offline in the context of calibration of algorithm parameters or to improve algorithms’ decision-making logic instead of for execution purposes (BIS Markets Committee 2020[32[32]). In the near future, however as AI technology improves and becomes utilized in more scenarios that could enhance what is possible with traditional algorithms for trading, which will have implications for the financial markets. It is likely to happen in the near future, when AI techniques are deployed in the execution phase of trades.

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This will provide greater capability for automated execution of trades , and supporting the entire chain of actions starting with the detection of signals, to generating strategies, and then carrying them out. Algorithms based on ML will permit the automatic and dynamic modification of their own algorithms when trading. In this scenario the existing requirements to algorithms in trading (e.g. Panama email database providers

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protections in the systems for risk management prior to trading (e.g. automated control mechanisms to turn off the algorithm if it is over the limit built into the risk management model) could be extended to algorithmic trading using AI. Panama email database providers.

2.2.1. Unintended consequences and dangers Panama Email Lists

The adoption of similar or identical models by a lot of traders can cause unintended negative effects for the market, and also result in the increase of market stress. The introduction of models that are widely used will naturally decrease the opportunities for arbitrage offered, which could reduce margins. It will ultimately benefit consumers as it reduces bid-ask spreads. However it could cause convergence, herding and single-way markets with potential implications to the stability of market as well as for liquidity conditions , particularly in times of extreme stress. 

Like any algorithm the widespread usage that is similar to AI algorithms can lead to the possibility that feedback loops self-reinforcing themselves which could, in turn, result in sharp price swings (BIS Markets Committee 2020[32[32.]).
The convergence of these systems could increase the likelihood of cyber-attacks as it is easier for cyber-criminals to influence agents who behave in the same manner than autonomous agents that have distinct behaviors (ACPR 2018, [33]). In terms of cyber-security when AI is employed in a way that is malicious it is able to carry out offensive attacks autonomously (without the intervention of humans) against vulnerable systems in trading, but also in financial market systems and on participants (Ching TM 2020[34[34]). Panama business email database free download.

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