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Buffer overflows can be described as hacking attempts that exploit a weakness in the application’s code. In essence, the buffer-overflow attack is when a user sends too much information to a variable field in the application, which could cause an application to fail. Most of the time it is because the application does not know what next action to take because it’s overwritten by the data of the overflow.
So, it executes the command stored in the data overflow or shows the command prompt, allowing users to type in another command. The command prompt, also known as shell is the main tool used by hacker, and it can also be employed to execute different applications.
Buffer overflows will be addressed more in depth in Chapter 9 “Attacking applications: SQL Injection and Buffer Overflows.”
A rootkit is one type of program that is used to hide utility programs on compromised systems. They also include backdoors to aid an attacker in gaining access to the system in a more efficient manner. For instance, a rootkit could conceal an application that creates an executable shell whenever the attacker connects to a certain connection port in the network. Buy Orthopedic email lists online.
A backdoor can also allow processes initiated by a user who is not privileged to perform functions that are normally reserved for administrators. Rootkits are often utilized to permit the programmers of the rootkit access and gain access to usernames and login information for websites that need them.
There are various types of rootkits, such as the ones listed below:
Kernel Level Rootkits Kernel level rootkits modify code or replace a section of kernel code that helps conceal a backdoor from computers. This is typically done by adding new code the kernel through an loaded module or device driver for example, loaded kernel modules for Linux or driver drivers for devices for Windows. Kernel-level rootkits can be particularly dangerous because they can be hard to identify without the right software. Buy Orthopedic email lists online.
Library-level rootkits usually patch, hook or replace system calls by versions that conceal information which could permit the hacker to be tracked down.
Application-level Rootkits These rootkits could replace normal application binaries by introducing Trojanized fakes or alter the behavior of applications by using hooks, patches or injected code, or by other methods. Buy Orthopedic email lists online.
In the next section we’ll examine the process of infecting a system using rootkit.
Installing Rootkits to Windows 2000 and XP Machines
It is the Windows NT/2000 rootkit is built as a kernel mode driver that can be loaded dynamically during time of execution. The rootkit operates with privileges granted to the system at the heart of the NT kernel, and therefore is able to access all capabilities that the OS. It can also conceal files, hide processes and Registry entries. It can also take keystrokes entered on the console of the system, trigger an interrupt for debugging that causes an unintentional blue screen as well as redirect EXE files.
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The rootkit is comprised of kernel mode device drivers known as _root_.sys as well as a launcher program named DEPLOY.EXE. After accessing the system of the target the attacker copies _root_.sys and DEPLOY.EXE onto the system and runs DEPLOY.EXE. This installs the driver for rootkit devices, and then begins the process. The attacker then deletes DEPLOY.EXE from the machine being targeted.
The attacker can shut down and then start the rootkit as needed through the command net stop _root_ and start _root. When the rootkit is launched it will ensure that the file _root_.sys is no longer visible in directory listings. The rootkit blocks system requests for listing of files and hides all files starting with _root_.
Rootkit embedded TCP/IP stack
A new feature that is part of the Windows NT/2000 rootkit is a stateless TCP/IP stack. It determines the status of the connection based upon the information in the packet. The rootkit has a coded IP address (10.0.0.166) to which it can respond. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email address lists online.
The rootkit makes the raw Ethernet connection to connect the network card of the system and is therefore extremely effective. The port of the target doesn’t matter the hacker is able to connect to any port within the system. Furthermore, several users can access the rootkit simultaneously.
All rootkits require access by an administrator to the system they are targeting So the security of passwords is crucial. If you find an infection, you must backup your important data and then reinstall the operating system and programs from a reliable source. The administrator must also have available a well-documented, automated installation process and a reliable restoration media. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email address lists online.
Another alternative is to employ the MD5 checksum tool. The MD5 checksum of a file is a 128-bit number which is similar to the fingerprint of the file. (There is a slight chance of having two checksums that are identical for two distinct files.) The algorithm is constructed so that even a single change within the file’s data results in the checksum to differ. This feature is useful to compare files and ensure their integrity. Another feature that is beneficial is the check-sum’s length that is fixed, no matter the file’s size. file source.
The MD5 checksum ensures that the integrity of a file hasn’t been altered. This can be helpful in testing the integrity of files when a rootkit has been discovered on the system. Tools like Tripwire utilize MD5 checksums to determine if files are that have been affected by rootkit. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email address lists online.
Tripwire is an integrity-checking software for the file system designed for Unix as well as Linux operating systems. Alongside one or two cryptographic checksums that represent the contents of every directory and file the Tripwire database also includes details that allow you to verify access rights and configurations for file mode, including your username as the owner of the file along with the date and the when that the files was used as well as the date and time the last change was made to the file.
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Hackers may wish to hide the files within a system to avoid their detection. The files could be used to launch an attack against the system. There are two methods to conceal files within Windows. The first method is using the command attrib.
To block a file using the attrib command, type in the following command at the prompt:
attrib +h [directory/fileattrib +h [file/directory
Another way to hide files in Windows is through NTFS alternative data stream. The NTFS file system utilized for Windows NT, 2000, and XP include a feature known as alternate data streams, which allow data to be saved in hidden files and linked to a standard, visible file. Streams don’t have a limit on size and more than one stream can be linked to a regular file.
NTFS File Streaming
NTFS stream of files allows an unidentified file to be created inside the legitimate file. The hidden file doesn’t show up in a directory listing but the genuine file will. Users are unlikely to believe that the file is legitimate however the hidden one could be used to store or transfer information. In Exercise 4.2 you’ll discover ways to disguise files with NTFS streaming of files.
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Note this exercise can only work on systems running the NTFS file system.
To test and create the performance of an NTFS streaming file:
In the command line input notepad test.txt.
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On your command prompt, type dir test.txt and then note the file’s size.
On your command prompt, type Notepad test.txt:hidden.txt. Enter a text in Notepad Save the file, and then close it.
Recheck the file’s size (it must be the same size as step 3.).
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Type test.txt:hidden.txt on in the Command Line. An error in syntax will be displayed.
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makestrm.exe is a tool which transfers the data from the file to an alternative data stream that is linked to the primary file.
NTFS Stream Countermeasures
To delete a stream files Copy the stream file onto a FAT partition before copying it into the NTFS partition.
Streams disappear after the file is transferred to a FAT partition due to the fact that they’re an attribute of NTFS and thus only exist in the NTFS partition.
You can use lns.exe to detect NTFS streams. LNS will report the location and existence of files with other streams of data. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id directory online.
Understanding Steganography Technologies
Steganography is a method of hiding data within other kinds of data, such as text or images files. The most common method for hiding information in files is by using graphics as concealing spaces. Hackers can put any data in an image file through the technique of steganography. Hackers can conceal directions to make a bomb the secret bank account number or even answers to a question. Every word you can think of could be hidden inside an image. In exercise 4.3 you will be using Image Hide to conceal text in an image.
ImageHide is a Steganography software that conceals huge quantities of text within images. After adding bytes of data, there isn’t an growth in the size of the image. The image appears identical in a standard graphic program. It is loaded and saved to files, which means it can be able to evade most email sniffers. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id directory online.
Blindside is an steganography program which hides information within BMP (bitmap) image files. It’s a command-line tool.
MP3Stego conceals information from MP3 files when they are compressed. The data is encrypted, compressed and then hidden inside the bitstreams of MP3.
Snow is a whitespace steganography software which hides messages from ASCII text by adding whitespace at the end of lines. Since spaces and tabs typically aren’t visible to text viewers this means that the message is invisible to casual readers. If the built-in encryption feature is employed, the message won’t be read, even if discovered. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id directory online.
CameraShy is compatible alongside Windows as well as Internet Explorer and lets users share sensitive or censored information that is stored in a normal GIF image.
Stealth is a filtering program to filter PGP files. It strips the identifying data from the header. This is after which the file is used to perform steganography.
Hiding Data from an Image by using ImageHide
To obscure data within an image, use ImageHide:
Install and download it. Install the ImageHide program. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id directory online.
Include an image in Image Hide. Image Hide application.
Enter text into the field at the lower right on the ImageHide screen.
The text will be hidden within the image by using ImageHide.
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Steganography can be identified by certain programs, but the process is not easy. The first step of detection is to find files that have hidden text. This is done by looking at patterns in the images , and adjustments in the colors palette.
Stegdetect can be described as an algorithmic tool that detects Steganographic content within images. It can detect different ways to embed steganographic information within JPEG images.
Dskprobe is a program that comes with the Windows 2000 installation CD. It’s a low-level scan of the hard-disk that detects steganography. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id outlook online.
Disguising Your Tracks and Erasing Evidence
Once hackers have gained administrator access to an system, they will attempt to hide their tracks in order in order to hide their presence (either present or in the previous) in the systems.
A hacker might also attempt to erase the evidence of their identity and actions on the system to avoid tracing their identity or their location by the authorities. To avoid being detected, the hacker typically removes all error messages or security events that were recorded. Enabling auditing and clearing the log of events are two strategies employed by hackers to hide their tracks and prevent being detected. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id outlook online.
The first thing that intruders do when they gain administrator privileges is deactivate auditing. Windows auditing logs specific instances in the log that is kept within Windows Event Viewer. Windows Event Viewer. The events can involve log-in to systems, an application or even an event log. Administrators are able to choose the degree of logging to be applied to an application or system. Hackers need to know the amount of logging they have that is in place to determine whether they have to delete instances that reveal that they are present on the computer.
Auditpol is a program that is included inside the Windows NT Resource Kit for administrators of systems. This tool allows you to disable or activate auditing via through the Windows commands line. It is also able to evaluate the amount of logging that is implemented by the administrator of the system. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email id outlook online.
Hackers can easily wipe out the security logs from Windows Event Viewer. A log of events that contain only a handful of events is suspect because it is usually a sign that other events were removed. It is still essential to clear the log of events after deactivating auditing since the Auditpol tool, you can create an entry in the log of events indicating that auditing is removed. There are several tools available to clean the log of events, or hackers can clear it by hand in Windows Event Viewer. Windows Event Viewer.
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The elsave.exe utility is a straightforward tool to clear the log of events. It is a command line-based.
WinZapper is a program that an attacker could make use of to erase events specifically from the security logs in Windows 2000. WinZapper will also make sure that security events are not recorded when the application is running.
Evidence Eliminator is an evidence-cleansing software for Windows PCs. It stops unwanted data from being stored permanently in the system. It clears out the Recycle Bin, Internet cache and system documents, temporary folders and more. Evidence Eliminator is also employed by hackers to erase evidence from systems following an attack. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email leads online.
The hacking process of a targeted system can be broken into a few simple steps. Cracking or guessing passwords, escalating privileges concealing files, and covering tracks are all part of hacking. These are the steps that generally reveal the most valuable data for hackers. However, the information-gathering and scanning steps should not be forgotten as they are critical in getting the most information about a target and its weaknesses. A thorough information gathering process can significantly increase the efficiency and effectiveness of hacking actions.
Learn about the importance of security for passwords. Implementing strong passwords, password change inter-vals, alphanumeric passwords, as well as other measures to protect your password is essential to the security of networks. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email leads online.
Learn about the different kinds of password-based attacks. Passive online attacks can include sniffing, man-in the-middle and replay. Active online attacks consist of the use of automated and passive pass-word guessing. Offline attacks can be classified as hybrid, dictionary or brute force. Non-electronic attacks comprise shoulder surfing, sniffing keyboards and social engineering.
Learn about the different types of password attacks that are offline. Dictionary, hybrid, and brute force attacks are all password attacks that can be done offline.
Learn how to protect against guessing passwords. Biometrics and smart cards are two options to enhance security and guard against guessing passwords. Buy Orthopedic surgeon email leads online.
Know the difference between kinds of non-electronic attacks. Social engineering, shoulder surfing or dumpster diving all forms of non-electronic attacks.
Find out the methods by which evidence of hacking is wiped out by hackers. The clearing of event logs and the disabling of auditing are techniques that hackers use to conceal their trails.
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Know that hiding files are a method used to steal sensitive information. Steganography,
streaming, and the attrib command , are just a few methods hackers use to hide and take files.
Trojans, Backdoors, Viruses and Worms
Backdoors and Trojans are two methods hackers can use to gain access to a targeted system. They are available in a variety of types and share one thing that they have to be installed by
Another program, or the user is fooled into installing another program, or the user must be tricked into installing Trojan or backdoor onto their system. Backdoors and Trojans can be dangerous tools in the toolkit of ethical hackers and must be utilized with caution to assess the safety of your network or system. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing lists online.
The worms and viruses can be as destructive to networks and systems just as backdoors, Trojans and Trojans. Indeed they carry Trojan executables that may infect systems, creating a backdoor to hackers to gain access. This chapter will examine how they differ of Trojans and backdoors, viruses and worms. All of these forms of malware or malicious code are essential to ethical hackers since they are often employed by hackers to hack and attack systems and.
Trojans and Backdoors
Backdoors and Trojans are two kinds of malware that are used to cause harm to computers. Trojans and backdoors are malware that can infect or compromise computer systems. Trojan is a harmful program disguised as a benign program. In most cases, the Trojan may appear to serve an important function for the user, but it actually permits hackers to access the computer system of the user. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing lists online.
Trojans are usually downloaded with other programs or software package. Once they are installed on a system they could cause data theft and loss as well as system crash or slowdowns. Trojans may also serve as launchpads for other types of attacks, like distributed denial of services (DDoS). There are a variety of Trojans can be used to alter files on the victim’s computer control processes, remotely execute commands, intercept keystrokes, monitor images on the screen, and then start or stop the operation of affected hosts. Highly sophisticated Trojans can connect to their creator or even announce the Trojan infection via the Internet Relay Chat (IRC) channel. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing lists online.
Trojans run on the backs of other programs and are generally installed on systems without the knowledge of the user. A Trojan may be sent to the victim system in a variety of ways like the following:
A Instant Messenger (IM) attachment
An attachment to an email
NetBIOS file sharing
Downloaded Internet program
A variety of fake programs that claim to legitimately legitimate applications, such as freeware, spyware-removal software screen savers, system optimizers images, music games, and video could install the Trojan on a system simply by downloading. Advertising on Internet websites for free software music files, videos can lure users to install the Trojan software; the application will then gain access to the system level on the targeted system, where it could cause damage and be extremely destructive.
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A backdoor is a software or set of related programs that hackers install on a target system in order to let an access point to the target system later. A backdoor could be embedded into a dangerous Trojan.
The purpose for installing backdoors onto an system is to grant hackers access to the system at the date and time they choose. It is crucial that hackers know how to gain access to the backdoor unnoticed and can use it to hack into the system further and search for vital data.
In addition, adding a new service the most popular method used to cover up backdoors on Windows. Windows operating system. Before installing an attack, hackers needs to look into the system in order to identify the programs that are running. Again the use of good information-gathering techniques is critical to knowing what services or programs are already running on the target system. Most often, hackers install backdoors and then adds a brand new service, and then gives its name in a subtle manner or, more importantly picks a service which is never used and is activated by hand or totally disabled. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing address lists online.
This method works since when a hacking attack is detected, the administrator of the system generally focuses on identifying something unusual within the system, leaving the current services unchecked. The backdoor approach is straightforward yet effective. The hacker can gain access back to the system with the lowest amount of transparency in server logs. The backdoored software allows hackers to access greater privileges, in most cases, as it is a System account.
Remote Access Trojans (RATs) are a type of backdoors designed to allow remote control of the compromised computer. They offer a variety of functions to the user , and simultaneously opening ports for network connections on the computer victimized. When the RAT has been started it functions as an executable file communicating with certain Registry keys that are responsible for starting processes and even developing its own system service. Contrary to common backdoors, RATs connect into the operating system that is being targeted and are always packaged with two files which are the client along with the server. Server is installed on the affected machine, while it is the user that allows the attacker to manage that compromised machine. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing address lists online.
RATs let hackers be able to take over a targeted system at any point. In reality, one of the signs that a system is targeted is the abnormal behavior that occurs on the system, for example the mouse moving in its own or pop-up windows that appear on systems that are not being used.
A Word of Caution regarding practicing with Trojans
We deliberately left all step-by step exercises in this section about Trojans and backdoors as I don’t want to recommend anyone installing these on production systems and noticing data loss. But, the most effective method of learning how to utilize this software and its capabilities is to download them, then try the capabilities. Here is my suggestion to master the art of ethical hacking with malware and backdoors. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing address lists online.
Use an older laptop or computer you don’t have any plans to use in the future, or get an additional computer with a hard disk (this is the method I used). Installation of Windows XP. Install the Windows XP operating system with no updates or service packs activated. Don’t install any virus scanning software or firewall. Next, you must take a frenzied approach to installing all of the Trojans as well as rootkits and back-doors tools mentioned in this section. This will allow you the opportunity to study and explore your tools and avoid being hindered by a virus scanner or personal firewall that is trying to safeguard your computer. After you’ve finished you are able to reinstall Windows or simply swap off the hard drive to the production disk.
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One final suggestion for those who want to purchase a smaller affordable computer to serve as a test computer is to buy a cheap netbook running Windows XP and use it to test and install tools.
Covert and Overt Channels
A covert channel refers to a normal and legal way in which programs communicate inside a computer network or system. A covert channel is when a program uses communication paths or programs in ways that are not designed to be.
Trojans are able to use covert channels in order to exchange information. Certain Trojans for clients employ covert channels to transmit messages to the server of the affected system. This can make Trojan communications difficult to understand and comprehend. Unaware intrusion detection systems (IDS) looking into the communications between the Trojan server and client would not detect something that is unusual. With the help of the hidden channel the Trojan could communicate with the server or “phone home” without being detected and hackers can transmit commands to the client component without being detected. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing id lists online.
Utilizing the Covert Channel
Jeremiah Denton, a prisoner of war during the Vietnam War, used a secret channel to communicate with his captors being aware. Denton received an interview from an Japanese TV reporter, and then an audio recording of the interview was sent through the United States. When American intelligence officers watched footage, one observed that Denton had been blinking his eyes in a peculiar manner. They found Denton was blinking letters in Morse code. The letters were T-O-R–T-U-R–E, and Denton was flashing them over and over. This is a real-world illustration of how a hidden channel could be used to transmit an unnoticed message to another. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing id lists online.
Another way to use computers to transmit information through an obscure channel is to use of a particular feature of the file to provide information, not an individual file. A computer-based illustration of a covert channel is the creation of an innocent computer file of 16 bytes wide. The file could contain any information as long as it is not what matters. The file could then be sent to someone else. This may seem innocent enough, but the actual email is actually a number 16. The size of the file is the primary data point and not the contents in the files.
Some of the covert channels use tunneling, a method that allows one protocol to be carried over a different protocol. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) tunneling is a technique of making use of ICMP echo-request and echo-reply in order to carry any payload attackers might wish to utilize, in order to gain access to or manage the compromised system. The Ping command is a widely recognized tool for troubleshooting and it utilizes an ICMP protocol. This is why a lot of firewalls, routers, switches as well as other filtering devices allow for the ICMP protocol to pass by the gadget. This is why ICMP is a good choice for tunneling protocols. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing id lists online.
Loki is a hacking tool that gives access to the shell via ICMP and is harder to identify as compared to TCP and UDP-based backdoors. When networks are concerned, it appears that a set of ICMP packets are being transmitted through the network. However, the hacker actually sending commands via the Loki client, and then running these commands via the server.
Different types of Trojans
Trojans are created and utilized to carry out various attacks. Here are a few of the most commonly used kinds of Trojans:
Remote Access Trojans (RATs) They are used for remote access to systems. Buy Orthopedic surgeon mailing id lists online.
Trojans for Data-Sending that search for information on a computer and then send the data to hackers.
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Destructive Trojans are used to erase or corrupt files from an system.
Trojans for denial of-service that are used to launch an attack that is known as a denial of-service.
Proxy Trojans used to tunnel traffic or to launch hacking attacks through other systems.