Optometrists Email Lists

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Our email list is divided into three categories: regions, industries and job functions. Regional email can help businesses target consumers or businesses in specific areas. Optometrists Email Lists broken down by industry help optimize your advertising efforts. If you’re marketing to a niche buyer, then our email lists filtered by job function can be incredibly helpful.

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Optometrists Email Lists
Optometrists Email Lists

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Adestra recently conducted a survey to determine which marketing channel was the most effective return on investment (ROI). 68% of respondents rated email marketing as ‘excellent’ or ‘good.

Optometrists Email Leads can be cost-effective and accessible, which will bring in real revenue for businesses regardless of their budget. It is a great way for customers to stay informed about new offers and deals and a powerful way to keep prospects interested. The results are easy to track.

Segment your list and target it effectively:

Your customers may not be the same, so they should not receive the same messages. Segmentation can be used to provide context to your various customer types. This will ensure that your customers get a relevant and understandable message to their buying journey. This allows you to create personalized and tailored messages that address your customers’ needs, wants, and problems.

Optometrists Email Lists
Optometrists Email Lists

Segmenting your prospects list by ‘who’ and what is the best way to do so. What they’ve done refers to what they have done on your website. One prospect might have downloaded a brochure, while another person may have signed up for a particular offer. A good email marketing service will let you segment your list and automate your campaigns so that they can be sent to different customer types at the time that suits you best.

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One email per week is all it takes to establish unbreakable relationships with customers.

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Optometrist Email Lists

War-Dialing Techniques

The war dialing practice of dialing the modem’s number to discover the open connection that allows the ability to connect remotely to a network that allows an attack to be carried out against the system being targeted.

Optometrists email lists
Optometrists email lists

The term”war dialing” comes in the beginning of the Internet where the majority of firms were connected to Internet by dial-up modems. War dialing can be described as a scan method since it identifies a different internet connection that could be less secure than the primary Internet connection. Many companies have set up remote-access modems that are no longer in use but haven’t yet removed the remote-access servers. 

This allows hackers to gain an easy entry point into networks with less secure security features. For instance, many remote access systems make use of security protocols like the Password Authentication Protocol (PAP) which transmits passwords in plaintext instead of the more recent technology called virtual private network (VPN) technologies that secures passwords. Buy Optometrist email lists online. 

War-dialing software works by assuming that businesses aren’t in control of dial-in ports in the same way as they do the firewall and the modems connected are all around even when the modems are no longer being used. There are many servers that have telephone lines that are connected to provide a backup option in the event that an initial Internet connection is not able to connect. The available modem connections are able to be utilized by a war-dialing software to allow remotely access to both the server as well as an internal network.

Utilizing a Forgotten Modem Connection to War Dialing

I was conducting a network security inspection for a firm that dealt in financial services in the past. They asked me to perform an audit of the site in order to perform an audit of physical security. When I was walking by on one desk of the marketing department, I noticed an unconnected phone line emerging from behind the desk that was connected to a wall socket. I inquired about the use of modems while trying to figure out the purpose behind this phone line connection. I was informed that they had previously used dial-up on a few of the computers to provide Internet access. Buy Optometrist email lists online. 

However, two years ago, they switched to a high-speed T1 network to everyone in the workplace. After further investigation the issue, we discovered that the employee who utilized the computer was still using AOL via the dial-up connection to access her personal email accounts. It was quite shocking to everyone as, after this newly installed Internet connection was set up, nobody examined to make sure all dial-up connections had been removed. Here’s a great illustration of how war dialing is still in use in certain cases.

Hacking Tools

PhoneSweep, THC-Scan PhoneSweep THC-Scan, PhoneSweep and TeleSweep are programs that can locate phone numbers and dial a number to make connection to the computer modem. These programs generally operate with a predetermined list of usernames that are commonly used and passwords to try for access into the computer system. Remote access dial-in connections typically don’t have a password or employ a basic security. Buy Optometrist email lists online. 

Banner Grabbing and OS Fingerprinting Techniques

Banner grabbing and operating system identification–which can also be defined as finger-printing the TCP/IP stack–is the fourth step in the CEH scanning methodology. Fingerprinting is a method that allows hackers to pinpoint vulnerable or valuable targets on the network. Hackers are searching for the most efficient method to gain access to a network or system. The process of grabbing banners consists to open a link and then reading the response or banner displayed through the software. 

Many FTP, email and web servers react to the telnet request with the name and the version of the application. This helps hackers in identifying the OS and the application software. For instance an example, for example, a Microsoft Exchange email server would only work on the Windows OS. Buy Optometrist email lists online. 

The most popular type of fingerprinting. It involves sending data to a computer to determine how it responds. This is based on the fact that different operating system manufacturers use the TCP stack in different ways and the responses can differ depending upon the OS. Responses are evaluated and compared with databases to identify which operating system. Active stack fingerprinting can be detected since it is able to repeatedly connect to one target.

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Fingerprinting on the stack is less obvious and involves looking at the networks for traffic to identify which operating system. It makes use of sniffing methods instead of scanning methods. Passive stack fingerprinting is usually unnoticed by an IDS or another security systems, but it is more inaccurate than active fingerprinting.

Optometrists email address lists
Optometrists email address lists

Diagrams of Network Diagrams for Hosts with vulnerabilities

Although it’s not an CEH test objective, knowing the tools utilized in the 6th step in the CEH scanning process–drawing an outline of the network structure of vulnerable hosts — is essential. There are a variety of network management tools will help you in this step. These tools are generally employed to control network devices , however they could be used against security managers by hackers who are savvy. Buy Optometrist email address lists online. 

SolarWinds Toolset, Queso, Harris Stat, and Cheops are tools for managing networks which can be utilized for discovering operating systemsand mapping diagrams of networks and listing the services that are running on networks, carrying out generic port scans, and more.

These tools show entire networks with an GUI interface that includes hosts, routers, servers and firewalls. A majority of these tools find hosts, IP addresses and services operating systems, as well as versions of the software.

Netcraft as well as HTTrack are two tools that can fingerprint the operating system. Both can be utilized to identify the OS and the version number of web server software. Buy Optometrist email address lists online. 

Netcraft is a site which periodically examines web servers in order for information about the operational system version as well as the web server software version. Netcraft is a useful resource hackers can use for finding security holes in the software for web servers. Additionally, Netcraft has an antiphishing toolbar as well as a web server verification tools you can utilize to make sure you’re using a real web server, not fake web servers. Exercise 3.3 illustrates how you can utilize Netcraft to detect the OS or web server.

HTTrack organizes the original website’s relational link structure. When you open a webpage of the mirrored website on your browser. Then, you can browse the website from link to link just as like you would if you were browsing it on the internet. HTTrack is also able to update an existing mirror site , and restart interrupted downloads.

Make use of Netcraft to identify the OS of the Web Server

Use a web browser to access visit the Netcraft web site at www.netcraft.com. Buy Optometrist email address lists online. 

Enter a name for a website in the What’s That Website Running? field that is located in the upper-left right-hand corner on the display.

Click down Hosting History to see what OS and web server software are currently running on the server.

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Scanning Anonymously

Making proxy servers constitutes the most important stage of the CEH scan method. The proxy server can be described as a type of computer which serves in the role of an intermediary hackers and the target computer.

Optometrists email id lists
Optometrists email id lists

A proxy server could let hackers become completely anonymous on the internet. The hacker initially establishes an connection through the proxy server, and then seeks to connect to the computer targeted by the connection already established to the proxy. In essence, the proxy demands access to the computer in question and not the hacker’s. This allows hackers to surf the Web without revealing their activity. Buy Optometrist email id lists online. 

Hacking Tools

SocksChain is a program that provides hackers with the capability of attacking via a chain of proxy servers. The purpose behind this is to conceal the hacker’s IP address, and thus reduce the possibility of being detected. When hackers use many proxy servers simultaneously it’s much harder to find the hacker. Finding the attacker’s IP address by analyzing the logs of multiple proxy servers can be a complicated and time-consuming. In the event that one log files of the proxy servers is damaged or not complete the chain breaks which means that the attacker’s IP remains hidden. Buy Optometrist email id lists online. 

Anonymizers are services which attempt to hide web browsing through the use of a website that functions like a proxy server to the web browser. The first software tool for anonymizing was created by Anonymizer.com and was developed at the end of 1997 with the help of Lance Cottrell. The anonymizer eliminates all personal information associated with a user’s computer while he browses the Internet which ensures the security that the person using the internet enjoys.

To access a site in anonymity, the user inputs the URL into the anonymizer software and then the software anonymizes an attempt to connect to specified website. All requests and pages are transmitted through the anonymizer website which makes it impossible to identify the real requester of the page. Use Anonymouse to surf the web anonymously during Exercise 3.4. Buy Optometrist email id lists online. 

Make use of Anonymouse to browse Websites Anonymously

Open a web browser to the http://anonymouse.org website and select English at the top of the page.

Input a website’s address into the Enter Website Address field and hit to click the Surf Anonymously option.

This is particularly useful in the event that you are aware of websites that are blocked. Buy Optometrist email id lists online. 

One method for bypassing IDS or firewalls is to pass an unrestricted protocol (such like SMTP) via an accepted protocol (such as HTTP). Most firewalls and IDS serve as proxies between the PC of the user as well as the Internet and will only pass protocols that are permitted.

The majority of companies permit HTTP traffic since it’s generally harmless access to the internet. But, hackers using an HTTP tunneling tool could thwart it by hiding destructive protocols, like IM and chat inside an unassuming protocol packet.

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Hacking Tools

HTTPort, Tunneld, and BackStealth are programs that redirect traffic via HTTP. They enable access to an HTTP proxy which prevents certain protocols from connecting to the Internet.

Optometrists email id directory
Optometrists email id directory

These tools allow for the below potentially harmful software protocols to be utilized through using an HTTP proxy:







A hacker is able to spoof an IP address while searching for targets to reduce the likelihood of being discovered. One disadvantage of the spoofing of an IP address, is the fact that the TCP session isn’t accomplished. Buy Optometrist email id directory online. 
Source routing allows attackers to define the path that the packet follows through the Internet. It also reduces the risk of detection by avoiding IDS as well as firewalls which could stop or detect an attack. Source routing utilizes an address for reply in the IP header to redirect the packet to the spoofed address, instead of the attacker’s actual address. Source routing is a method to circumvent IDSs will be addressed in greater specific detail in Chapter 13 “Evading the IDS, Honeypots as well as firewalls.” To determine IP address Spoofing, you need to compare with live time (TTL) values for the attacker’s

TTL will differ from the fake address’s TTL.


The process of enumeration takes place following the scanning process and involves gathering and assembling user-names as well as machine names networks resources shares, services, and other resources. It is also a term used to describe active querying or connecting to the target system in order to obtain the information. Buy Optometrist email id directory online. 

Hackers must be systematic in their methods of hacking. These steps are an example of the steps hackers might follow to prepare for hacking an intended system:

Find usernames by an enumeration.

Find out information about the host with no-sessions.

Perform Windows Enumeration with SuperScan. SuperScan tool.

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Create user accounts with the GetAcct tool.

Perform SNMP port scanning.

Enumeration’s purpose is to determine an account of a user or a system account that might be useful to hack into the system targeted. It’s not necessary to locate an administrator account on a system since most accounts can be elevated to give the account greater access than it had previously been granted.

Optometrists email id directory
Optometrists email id directory

The procedure of privilege escalation will be discussed in the next chapter. Buy Optometrist email id outlook online. 

A variety of hacking tools are created to scan IP networks to discover NetBIOS details about the name of the computer. For each host responding the tools show the the IP address along with NetBIOS user name for the PC, the username of the user who logged in, as well as the MAC address details.

In an Windows 2000 domain, the net view tool built into the OS is a tool that can be used to perform NetBIOS the enumeration. To count NetBIOS names, using net view and enter the following command at the prompt for command:

net view/domain

nbtstat -A IP address

Hacking Tools

DumpSec is an NetBIOS tool for enumeration. The tool connects with the system of choice as a non-null user using the net user command. Then, it lists users and groups, NTFS permissions, as well as the information about ownership of files. Buy Optometrist email id outlook online. 

Hyena is an instrument that can count NetBIOS shares. It also has the ability to exploit the null session vulnerability in order to access the target system , change the share path , or modify the Registry.

SMB Auditing Tool SMB Auditing Tool It is an auditing tool that checks passwords for Windows as well as Server Message Block (SMB) platforms. Windows utilizes SMB to exchange data between the server and client. SMB Auditing Tool SMB Auditing Tool is able to detect usernames and passwords that are cracked for Windows systems. Buy Optometrist email id outlook online.

NetBIOS Auditing Tool NetBIOS Auditing Tool can be described as a different NetBIOS tools for enumeration. It’s utilized to conduct different security tests on remote servers running NetBIOS file sharing services.

Null Sessions

Null sessions occur when you login to a system without a password or username. NetBIOS Null session are a security flaw that can be found inside the Common Internet File System (CIFS) or SMB depending on the operating system.

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Microsoft Windows uses SMB, and Unix/Linux systems rely on CIFS.

If a hacker makes the NetBIOS connection through the null session on the system, they will easily access a complete list of all usernames, groups shares as well as permissions, policies services, and much more by using an account known as the Null username. It is important to note that the SMB as well as NetBIOS standards for Windows provide APIs to retrieve details about a system through TCP port 139.

Optometrists email leads
Optometrists email leads

One way to connect to a NetBIOS session that is not active to an Windows system is by using this hidden Inter-Process Communication share (IPC$). This share is accessible by using Net Use command. As previously mentioned using the command net use is built-in Windows command which connects to a share from another computer. The blank quotation marks (“”) signify that you are connecting using no username and without password. Buy Optometrist email leads online. 

To establish an NetBIOS null session with an account with the IP address with the built-in anonym user account and a non-existent password, using Net Use it is possible to use the following syntax:

C:> use net \\ IPC”$ “” /u “”

When you have completed the command net is successfully executed, the hacker will have an avenue can use various hacking tools and methods.

As an CEH As a CEH, you must be aware of how to defend yourself against NetBIOS Enumeration and Null Session. We’ll go over that in the next section. Buy Optometrist email leads online. 

NetBIOS Enumeration and Countermeasures to Null Session

This NetBIOS null session is based on specific port numbers that are available on the target machine. These sessions need access TCP ports 135, 137, 139 or 445. A possible solution is to shut down this port on the system you want to target. This can be done by deactivating SMB services on specific hosts by debinding the client TCP/IP WINS to the interface of the properties of the connection to the network. To take this countermeasure into effect take the steps below:

You can access to the settings of your connection to the network. Buy Optometrist email leads online. 

Click on TCP/IP, then click click the Properties button.

Hit to the Advanced button.

Under the Wins tab, click to disable NetBIOS over TCP/IP. Buy Optometrist email leads online. 

Security administrators are also able to modify the Registry directly, thereby preventing users that are anonymous from accessing the registry. To put in place this countermeasure take these steps:

Open regedt32 and navigate to HKLM\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\LSA.

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Select to Edit and Add Value. Enter the following values:

Value Name: RestrictAnonymous

Optometrists mailing lists
Optometrists mailing lists

Data Type Reg_WORD

Value: 2

In addition, the system can get upgraded Windows XP and the latest Microsoft security patches. This helps to prevent any NetBIOS Null Session vulnerability that can occur.

Enumeration of SNMP

SNMP Enumeration is the procedure of making use of SNMP to count user accounts on a system. SNMP utilizes two main kinds of software components to facilitate communication with the SNMP agent that is installed on the network device as well as the SNMP management station that interacts with the agent. Buy Optometrist mailing lists online.

Most networks infrastructure gadgets, like switches and routers, and even Windows systems, include an SNMP agent that is used to control the device or system. This SNMP management station makes requests to agents, and agents reply. The responses and requests are related to the configuration variables available to agents’ software. Management stations also can make requests to set values for specific variables. Traps alert the management station to know that something important occurred in the agent software, for example reboots or interruption in the interface. Management Information Base (MIB) is the configuration database variables which is located on the network device. Buy Optometrist mailing lists online.

SNMP offers two passwords that which you are able to use login and set up your SNMP agent through the control station. The first one is referred to as an read-community string. This password allows you to view your device’s configuration or the system. The second one is known as the read/write community string. it’s used for editing or changing the settings on the device. In general, the standard read community string will be public , while that of the read/write community is public. A security flaw is common in the event that community string settings remain in the default settings. Hackers could use these default passwords to gain access to or modify the device’s configuration.

If you have any questions about how easy it is to locate the default pass-words of devices, look at the website www.defaultpassword.com. Buy Optometrist mailing lists online.

Hacking Tools

SNMPUtil as well as IP Network Browser are SNMP tools for enumeration.

SNMPUtil collects Windows user account details via the SNMP protocol in Windows systems. Certain information, such as the routing table, ARP tables the IP address, MAC address TCP as well as UDP active ports, accounts for users and shares can be read from the Windows system with SNMP enabled by using software like the SNMPUtil tools.

IP Network Browser, part of the SolarWinds Toolset also uses SNMP to get more details about devices that have been equipped with an SNMP agent. Buy Optometrist mailing lists online.
SNMP Countermeasures to Enumeration

The easiest way to block SNMP enrollment is to delete the SNMP agent on potential targets systems, or to disable the SNMP service. If turning off SNMP isn’t feasible you can modify the default name of the read community and the read/write one.

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Additionally, administrators can enable in addition, administrators can implement Group Policy security option Additional Restrictions for Anonymous Connections, which blocks SNMP connections.

Optometrists mailing address lists
Optometrists mailing address lists

The Group Policy feature is launched by the Windows Domain Controller. Network administrators must be familiar of how to accomplish this. It’s not covered in this guide, as a lot of steps are involved in completing this job.

Windows 2000 DNS Zone Transfer

In the Windows 2000 domain, clients utilize services (SRV) documents to find Windows 2000 domain services, for instance, Active Directory and Kerberos. This means that each Windows 2000 Active Directory domain requires an DNS server in order for the network to function properly. Buy Optometrist mailing address lists online.

A simple zone transfer made using the nslookup command could provide a wealth of fascinating network data. The command used to count them by using the command nslookup works as the following:

nslookup ls domainname -d

In the nslookup results the hacker is able to look closely at the following data, as they contain additional information regarding the network’s services:

Global Catalog service (_gc._tcp_) NN Domain controllers (_ldap._tcp)
NN Kerberos authentication (_kerberos._tcp)

To prevent this as a measure of countermeasure, zone transfers may be blocked within the settings that are associated with DNS servers. Windows DNS server. Buy Optometrist mailing address lists online.

The Active Directory database is a Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)-based database. This allows users and groups within this database listed using a simple LDAP search. The only requirement for this enumeration process is to set up an authenticated session through LDAP. The Windows 2000 LDAP client called the Active Directory Administration Tool (ldp.exe) connects to an Active Directory server and identifies the content of the database. You can find ldp.exe on the Windows 2000 CD-ROM in the Support\Reskit\Netmgmt\Dstool folder.

To carry out the Active Directory enumeration attack, hackers follow the following steps:

Join any Active Directory server using ldp.exe using port 389. When the connection is complete the server’s information is visible in the upper right-hand pane. Buy Optometrist mailing address lists online.

In the Connection menu, select Authenticate. Enter the password, username and the domain name into these boxes. You can access the Guest account as well as any other account for a domain.

After authentication has been successful, you can enumerate the users and groups that are built-in when you select the Search option in the menu called Browse.

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Hacking Tools

User2SID and SID2User are command line tools that can look up Windows Service Identifiers (SIDs from username inputs and reverse).

Enum is an enumeration command-line utility. It makes use of null sessions and is able to find user names machines names, user names shares, group names, password lists, membership lists along with Local Security policy information. Enum is also able to perform brute-force dictionary attacks against individuals’ accounts.

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Optometrists mailing id lists

UserInfo is a tool for command-line use that is used to collect usernames. It also can use to establish user accounts. Buy Optometrist mailing id lists online.

GetAcct is a GUI-based application that lists the accounts of users on a.

Smbbf is an SMB brute-force tool which attempts to identify the user’s accounts as well as accounts that have passwords that are not complete.
Scanning and enumeration are the next steps in the hacking process after the information-gathering phase has been completed. Scanning and enumeration tools are most often active information-gathering tools and therefore allow the hacker to be detected. This is why a variety of tools and methods are available to limit the possibility of detection, and to reduce the likelihood of being identified by hackers. Buy Optometrist mailing id lists online.

In the scanning and enumeration phases that the host’s information and network of the target is discovered. In the next phase, the host and network details that are gathered can be used to hack into the targeted computer or the network. The following chapter will focus on hacking system vulnerabilities and gain access to the target system.

Exam Essentials

Learn about the three different types of scanning as well as countermeasures against scanning. Port scanning, network scanning, scans, and vulnerability are three different types of scanning. Set up firewalls that stop the internal system from getting scanned through stopping ping sweeps and port scanning tools like Nmap. IDSs and IPSs are able to notify an administrator of scanning taking place within the network. Buy Optometrist mailing id lists online.

Learn how to identify the systems that are active on the network. Be aware of how to use ICMP queries to run Ping sweeps to find out which systems respond. Ping sweeps are not without limitations, and certain systems may not be able to respond to ICMP queries.

Learn to conduct scans of ports using the nmap command. Learn the various switches to perform scans using nmap command. For example, nmap-sS will perform an SYN scan.

Learn about the limitations and uses of different types of scans. Be comfortable of TCP connect, SYN NULL IDLE, FIN and XMAS scans, and how each type of scan should be used. Buy Optometrist mailing id lists online.

Learn about the TCP handshake that is three-way. The TCP connection process begins with the sending of a SYN packet being sent to the system that is to be targeted. The target system replies by sending a SYN+ACK message and the source system returns with an ACK packet back to its destination. This is the end of the successful TCP connection.

Learn about the functions that war dialing can serve. It is used for testing remote access dial-in security for the system. Telephone numbers are dialed randomly in an effort to create an unsecure connection to the modem as well as gain entry to the internet. Buy Optometrist mailing id lists online.

Learn how to conduct operating system fingerprinting with passive and active methods. Active fingerprinting is the process of sending an request to a system and seeing what response it gives (banner grab, for example). Passive fingerprinting is the process of analyzing data sent to and from the system in order to identify how the system operates.

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Learn how to make yourself anonymous with the anonymizer HTTP tunneling as well as IP spoofing. Utilize a website anonymizer to hide the origin address and make the computer using the Web appear to be anonymous.

Optometrists mailing directory
Optometrists mailing directory

HTTP tunneling as well as IP spoofing are two ways to hide the physical address or the protocols that hackers could use. They can be useful in bypassing firewalls and concealing the identity of hackers or their location.

Learn how to count user accounts. Enumeration is the process of connecting to systems using the use of either NetBIOS weaknesses and then searching the system for information.

Take note of the types of information that may be recorded on your system and the countermeasures against enumera-tion. The kind of information that is that hackers can enumerate includes shares and network resources as well as groups and users, as well as banners and applications. Make use of firewalls to stop ports 135 and 139 or modify the Registry to block null sessions. You can turn off SNMP service, and alter the default name of the community for read and write. Buy Optometrist mailing id directory online.

Know about null sessions. Connecting to a system with an unprotected password is referred to as null session. Null sessions are commonly utilized by hackers to gain access to systems, and then use tools for enumeration to attack the systems.

Learn about the various Enumeration tools and learn how to recognize the accounts that are vulnerable. NetBIOS

and SNMP and SNMP enumerations are possible by using tools such as SNMPUtil or Enum. Tools like User2SID, SID2User, and UserInfo can be utilized to detect vulnerable accounts of users.

Learn to do an DNS zone transfer with Windows 2000 computers. NSlookup is a tool that can carry out an DNS zone transfer. Buy Optometrist mailing id directory online.

The Most Simple Way to get an Password

Most hacking attacks begin by finding a password to the targeted system. Passwords are the primary piece of information required to gain access to a system and people often choose passwords that are simple to determine. A lot of people reuse passwords or select one that is easy–like an animal’s name to help remember it. Due to the human element the majority of password guessing attempts are successful when certain details are well-known about the target. Information gathering and recon-naissance could provide information that could aid a hacker in guessing the password of a user. Buy Optometrist mailing id directory online.

If a password is discovered or broken, it could serve as the launchpad for increasing privileges, executing applications, hiding files and even covering tracks. If the guessing of a password doesn’t work it is possible to get passwords compromised manually or by using automated tools like the brute-force method or dictionary and are discussed later in this chapter.

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Different types of Passwords

Different types of passwords can be utilized to gain security to the systems. The characters that make up the password may fall under any of the following categories:

There are only numbers and letters.

Optometrists mailing id outlook
Optometrists mailing id outlook

Only characters with special meanings
Numbers and letters
Only special characters and letters
Only special characters and numbers
Numbers, letters and other special characters

A secure password is less vulnerable to being hacked by hackers. These rules, proposed by the EC-Council to be followed when making a password to defend it from hacking attempts:

Do not include any portion of the username of the user’s account. Buy Optometrist mailing id outlook online.

The minimum number of characters must be eight characters

The characters must be that fall within at least three of the following categories Three categories of characters must be present: NN Nonalphanumeric symbol ($,:”%@!#)

Uppercase letters

Lowercase letters

A hacker can use various types of attacks to determine a password, and gain access to the system. The different types of password-related attacks are the following:

Passive Online Eavesdropping on network password exchanges. Attacks that passively online include man-in-the middle, sniffing as well as replay attack. Buy Optometrist mailing id outlook online.

Active Online Guessing the Administrator password. Active online attacks can include automated password guessing.

Offline Dictionary, hybrid, and brute-force attacks.

Electronic Hands-free surfing, keyboard sniffing or social engineering. Buy Optometrist mailing id outlook online.

We’ll take a look at each one attack in greater depth in the sections below.

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Passive Online Attacks

A passive online attack sometimes referred to as sniffing the password of an internet-connected wired or wireless. Passive attacks are not discernible to the user.

Optometrists mailing leads
Optometrists mailing leads

The password is recorded during authentication and is then compared to an encrypted dictionary or wordlist. Passwords for user accounts are typically encrypted or hashed before being shared on networks to stop unauthorised access and use. In the event that the password was secured with encryption or hashing specially designed tools within the hacker’s toolkit could be used to defy the encryption algorithm.

The cracking of the password-hashing algorithm will be covered in the next chapter in”Attacks” in the “Attacks” Section.
A different type of online attack that is passive is referred to as man-in-the middle (MITM). In an MITM hack, the attacker is able to intercept the authentication request and then forwards this request back to the server. In the event of inserting sniffers between the user and server the hacker is able to monitor both connections and steal passwords during the process. Buy Optometrist mailing leads online.

Replay attacks are also an online-based attack that is passive. it happens when the hacker intercepts the password on its way through the authentication servers, and then resends and captures the authentication packets to be used later for authentication. In this manner, the hacker doesn’t have to break the password or learn the password through MITM but rather captures the password and reuses the password-authentication packets later to authenticate as the client.

Active Online Attacks

The simplest method of gaining access to an administrator level device is through guessing a straightforward password, assuming that the administrator has used an easy password. Password guessing is a serious online attack. It is based on the human factor in the creation of passwords and only works with weak passwords. Buy Optometrist mailing leads online.

in Chapter 3 as we spoke about the enumeration part of hacking systems and the vulnerabilities of NetBIOS Enumeration and Null Sessions. Assuming there is a problem with the NetBIOS TCP 139 port is open, the best method of gaining access to the Windows NT or Windows 2000 system is to guess passwords. 

This is accomplished by trying accessing an encrypted shares (IPC($ or C$) and then attempting to guess a username and password. The most frequently used password and administrator account combinations include words such as Administrator, Admin, Sysadmin, or Password or a non-existent password. Buy Optometrist mailing leads online.

Hackers may try to connect to an administrator default($), C($), or C:Windows share. For connecting to the secret C drive sharing, as an instance you can type this command into the Run field (Start Run):


Automated software can create word lists, dictionary files and any possible combination of numbers, letters or special characters. They attempt to login using the credentials. The majority of systems stop this kind of attack by limiting the minimum amount of attempts to login that can be attempted on an account before it is shut down. Buy Optometrist mailing leads online.

In the subsequent sections, we’ll look at the ways hackers can use automated password guessing with greater precision and also ways to stop such attacks.

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Performs Automated Password The process of guessing passwords

To accelerate the process of guessing passwords, hackers utilize automated tools. A simple method to automate the process of guessing passwords is to make use of an application of Windows shell commands that are based on the stan-dard NET-USE syntax.

Optometrists mailing id database
Optometrists mailing id database

To build a basic automated password guessing program, follow these steps:

Create a basic password and username file with Windows Notepad. Automated tools like Dictionary Generator Dictionary Generator are available to make this list of words. Save the file to the C drive with the name credentials.txt.

This file can be piped using this command: FOR command:

C:\> FOR /F “token=1, 2*” %i in (credentials.txt)

Type net and use targetIPIPC$ * %i/u: %j make use of the credentials.txt file in order to connect to the shared share of the target system. Buy Optometrist mailing id database online.

Another way in which the FOR command could be utilized in the hands of an attack is to clean out the content of the drive using zeros by with the command syntax

((i=0; i<11; i++)); do dd if=/dev/random of=/dev/hda && dd if=/ dev/zero of=dev/hda done. The command wipe can also be used for the wipe of data off the hard drive using the command $ wipe -fik/dev/hda1.

Protection Against Password The Art of Guessing

Two options are available to guard against password guessing and attacks. Both biometrics and smart cards offer a level of security to the vulnerability that is inherent when people create themselves their passwords.