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BENEFITS OF CAD
There are numerous advantages of computer-aided design, just certain of these can be easily quantified. Certain benefits are not tangible and can be seen in higher quality of work and more relevant and useful information.
Certain advantages are tangible and are described below.
1. Improvement in productivity of design: CAD helps in increased design efficiency by reducing the time needed to create conceptual designs, analysis, and drawing. It also allows you to cut down on the number of people required for a specific project. Improvement in productivity in the computer-aided design processes is contingent upon aspects like
Complexity of drawing
The degree of repetition of features on the created parts. Asymmetry of the components
A wide range of library of user-defined shapes and common entities
2. Faster lead times Interactive CAD is more efficient than manual design processes. Marketing Directors email lists. Tools for CAD reduce the number of times iterations. They make it easier to complete the job of creating reports and bill of materials by using the CAD system. A complete set of components and documents can be completed in a short amount of time. The shorter lead times for design will result in a reduction of length of time between the reception of an order from the customer to the completion of the product. The increased productivity of designers working in the CAD environment can reduce the importance of engineering analysis, design and drafting as crucial components of the overall lead time of manufacturing.
3. Design analysis The design analysis tools that are available in CAD systems aid in optimizing the design and create an optimal functional work pattern. Utilizing design analysis software like finite element analysis as well as Kinematics analysis can reduce the duration of the analysis and enhances the accuracy of the design. Instead of having discussions between the design and analysis teams designers are able to perform the analysis while using the CAD computer. This can increase the concentration of designers as the analysis is an interactive process and calculations of properties related to mass can be done nearly instantly. Buy Marketing Directors email lists online.
4. Less design mistakes Interactive CAD systems are equipped with built-in capabilities to prevent mistakes when designing, drawing, and documentation. These errors occur during manual handling. The errors are prevented because interactive CAD systems can perform routine and time-consuming functions like multiple symbol placements,
5. Design flexibility Interactive CAD systems apart from creating designs that have repeated accuracy has the benefit of allowing design modifications to meet customer’s requirements.
6. Standardization of drafting, design and documenting: A one operating system and database that is that is used in CAD provides a common foundation for analysis, design and drafting using interactive CAD software, drawings are “standardized” because they’re drawn. It’s also possible to reuse modules from previous versions to create a variety of products. Buy Marketing Directors email lists online.
7. Drawings are easier to comprehend: Thanks to the increasing utilization of 3-D images and modeling it is now easier to understand the characteristics of the part easily. It is not necessary to mentally reconstruct the exact shape of the objects. A lot of software programs permit 3D views from an existing 2D model. This offers several advantages from a manufacturing standpoint.
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8. Improved procedures for engineering modifications Control and implementation of changes to engineering can be greatly improved by using computer-aided design.
Original drawings and reports are saved inside the databases used by the computer-aided design system and are easily accessible. Revisions can be saved as well as new drawings with modifications can be made without damaging the previous features.
9. Manufacturing benefits Benefits of computer designed designs can be used as the base for many downstream manufacturing processes. A few of the benefits for manufacturing are:
(a) Design of fixtures and tools to manufacture
(b) Computer-aided process plan
(c) Computer-aided inspection
(d) Formulation of numerical control programming for the production of components on computer machines for numerical control
(e) (e) Preparation of assembly lists and bills of materials needed for production
(f) Classification and coding of elements
(g) Production Control and planning
(h) Assembly sequence planning
2.5 CAD System HARDWARE
Hardware components used in computer-aided designs are offered in range in sizes, designs, and capabilities. Buy Marketing Directors email address lists online. This means that you can choose the CAD system that best meets the specific requirements for graphics and computation of the company that uses it. Engineering firms that aren’t involved in manufacturing would opt for an exclusive system for drawing and design-related tasks. Manufacturing companies will choose the system as integrated into a larger CAD/CAM system.
Modem CAD systems are built upon interactivity computer graphics (lCG). However, the CAD scope also includes other computer systems too. For instance computer-aided design has been carried out in batch mode instead of in an interactivity mode. Interactive graphics gives immediate responses to inputs made by the user. Buy Marketing Directors email address lists online. The both the user is in constant interaction with one another. The user can input commands and is able to respond to queries generated from the computer. It is currently restricted to CAD systems that use interactive computer graphics.Typically the standalone CAD system will comprise some of the hardware parts listed below:
Graphics terminal Operator output devices
Devices for operator input Secondary storage
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
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The CAD workstation acts as the interface between the system and the external world. It plays a significant role in determining how easy and effective it can be for designers to utilize an CAD program.
The workstation should fulfill five essential functions:
1. It has to interface directly with the central processing unit.
2. It should create a stable visual image for the user.
3. It should include details of graphic images in digital format.
4. It is responsible for translating computer commands into operation functions.
5. It should allow for interaction between the user and the system. Buy Marketing Directors email id lists online.
Interactive graphics has been proven to be the best method to fulfill these tasks. An average interactive graphic system would comprise these hardware elements:
Operator input devices
There are a variety of approaches that have been employed in the creation of graphics terminals. Technology continues to improve the quality of their products, and also lower their prices.
(I) Image Generation in Computer Graphics
The majority of computer graphics terminals that are used today utilize the cathode tube (CRT) as the display device. Buy Marketing Directors email id lists online.
Television sets make use of a version similar to that of the picture tube. The CRT’s operation is illustrated in the figure 2.4. A cathode that is heated emits a high-speed electron beam onto a glass coated with phosphor screen. The electrons in the beam energize the phosphor coating, causing it to shine at locations where the beam comes into contact with the. By using the electron beam to focus altering its intensity and adjusting the area of contact with the phosphor coating by the use of a deflector that allows the beam to be used to create an image of the screen on the CRT. Buy Marketing Directors email id lists online.
There are two main methods that are used by modern computer graphics terminals to generate images for your CRT’s screen. These are:
1. Stroke writing
2. Scans of the Raster
Other terms used to describe stroke writing include lines drawing, random positioning vector writing, directed beam. Other terms for the raster scan technique are the term digital TV as well as scan graphics.
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The stroke writing system employs an electron beam that functions similar to a pencil in order to produce lines that appears on the LCD.
The image is composed of of straight lines. The line segments are drawn onto the screen by controlling the beam’s motion from one location in the display to another. each point is identified by its coordinates x and y.
While the process produces images made up of only straight lines smooth curves can be created by having the line segments as short as possible. When using the raster scan method the screen for viewing is divided i.nto many distinct phosphor image elements, referred to as pixels. This matrix makes up the raster. The number of distinct pixels on the display can vary from 256×256 to 1024 10-24 (a total of more than 65,000 to one million points). Every pixel of the screen can be lit with different brightness. Colour screens permit the pixels to be able to display different shades and also the brightness. Buy Marketing Directors email id directory online.
In operation, an electron beam generates the image by sweeping across an horizontal line on the monitor from the left side to the right, and activating the pixels on the area of the sweep at the time that an entire sweep has completed. The electron beam is then moved across the lines below , and continues in a fixed pattern as illustrated on Figure 2.6. After the screen is swept the process continues at a speed of 30-60 complete screens per second.
(II) Graphics Terminals
The two methods described previously are the most common methods used in the production of modern CAD graphics terminals. There is also a range of other technical aspects that create different kinds and models of graphics devices. This includes the kind of phosphor coating applied to the screen, the required colour is needed as well as the pixel density, in addition to the size of memory to produce the image. The three kinds of graphics terminals are:
(a) Directed beam refresh tube (DBRT)
(b) Direct storage tube with view (DVST)
(c) Terminals for scanning with a scanner (Digital TV)
(a) directed Beam Refresh Tube (DBRT)
Direct beam’s refresh device employs stroke writing to produce the image displayed that is displayed on the screen of CRT. Buy Marketing Directors email id directory online.
The term “refresh” in its title refers to the fact that the image needs to be recreated several times in a second to minimize the visible flickering on the screen. The phosphor elements of the screen can maintain their brightness for the duration of. To enable the image to remain this picture tube must be refreshed. This is accomplished by making the directed beam repeat the image when viewed on screens with a high density (very precise lines or a lot of characters in text). It can be difficult to prevent flickering with this method. Buy Marketing Directors email id directory online.
There are many advantages with targeted beam refresh technology. Because the image is continuously refreshed, selective erasure and modification of the image can be easy to accomplish. Additionally, you can offer animated images using refresh rube.
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This directed beam technology is the oldest of modern graphics display technology. Other names used to describe this system include vector refresh , and stroke-writing refresh.
The first refresh tubes were expensive, but the consistently falling cost of solid-state circuitry has brought the cost of these systems to a level that is in line with other kinds.
(b) Direct View Storage Tube (DVST)
The DVST terminals also employ stroke writing to create the image that is displayed of the screen.The term “storage tube” refers to the capacity for the CRT screen’s display to store the image that has been projected onto it, thereby eliminating the necessity of rewriting the image constantly.What can make this happen is using an electron flood gun that is directed towards the screen coated with phosphor that ensures that the phosphor elements are illuminated when they are energized by the writing electron beam. The image that is projected onto the CRT screen will not flicker.
Lines can be easily included in the picture with no being concerned about their impact on the image’s the density or refresh rate. The drawback to the storage tube’s use is the individual lines are not able to be eliminated from an image. Buy Marketing Directors email id outlook online.
Storage tubes are most affordable terminals, and are able to display massive amounts of data, whether in text or graphic form. Because of these attributes, there is a good chance that there will be greater storage tube devices available in the service industries. The main drawback of the storage CRT is the fact that selective erasure isn’t available if the user wishes to alter the image. The changes won’t be visible upon the monitor until the complete image is rebuilt. Other drawbacks include the absence of a colour-capable device and the inability to use an electronic light pen to act as a device for data entry and the lack of animation capabilities.
(c) Raster Scan Terminals (Digital TV)
The terminals for raster scan work by the use of an electron beam to trace a zigzag line across the screen. Its operation is comparable to that of a television set. The main difference is that a TV set makes use of analog signals produced by a video camera to produce the image displayed on the CRT screen. However, the ICG terminal, which is a raster scan ICG terminal utilizes digital signals created by computers. This is why raster scanner terminals utilized in computer graphics are often called digital TVs. Buy Marketing Directors email id outlook online.
It was the first time that a raster scanner graphics terminal with refresh tubes was restricted by the expense of memory in computers. For instance, the most simple and least expensive terminal that falls into this category has just two levels of beam intensities: ON and off. This means that every image pixel is either lit or dark. A picture tube that has resolution of 256 lines and the ability to address 256 points per line for the picture will require 256 x 256 or more than 65,000 bits of storage. The memory stores the ON/OFF status of the image pixel in the screen of the CRT. This memory is known as”the frame buffer,” also known as a refresh buffer. Buy Marketing Directors email id outlook online.
The quality of images can be improved through increasing the density of the pixels, or by adding the gray scale (or color). The increase in pixel density for the same screen size is the result of the addition of additional lines with a higher resolution as well as greater number of addressable lines per line. A 1024×1024 raster display would have more than 1 million bits memory inside the frame buffer. Gray scales are achieved by increasing the number of levels of intensity, which are displayed at every pixel in order to record levels of intensity. Buy Marketing Directors email id outlook online.
Two bits are needed in order to show four levels. and three bits for eight levels, and the list goes on. Six or five bits will be required to get an approximate representation of a gray scale. A color display requires three times the number of bits are needed to obtain various levels of intensity for the three primary colours, namely red blue, green and. A raster-scan graphics terminal that has a high resolution and gray scale may require a large memory refresh buffer. Before recent advances in memory technology, price of this storage capacity was expensive for a terminal that had high-quality images.
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The ability to create color and animation was impossible unless you had extremely low resolutions.
Today, it is possible to build digital TV systems to display interactive computer graphics for a price that are competitive with the other two kinds. The advantages of current scanners for raster scanning include the ability to use television monitors that are low-cost with colour capabilities, as well as the possibility of animating the image.
OPERATOR INPUTS DEVICES
Input devices for graphics are installed on the graphics workstation in order to allow for a more efficient interaction between users and systems. Workstations typically have a variety of input devices, allowing users to choose from different input functions that are pre-programmed. These functions allow the user to design or alter images on the CRT screen , or enter data in alphanumeric format in the software. This creates a full portion of the screen and the complete description of the piece within the CAD database. Buy Marketing Directors email id database online.
Different CAD systems vendors provide various kinds of (graphics) input devices for operators.
These devices are categorized into three categories:
(a) Cursor control devices
(c) Alphanumeric and other keyboard terminals
Digitalizers and Cursor control devices can be used both for graphic interface with the systems. Keyboard terminals can be used as input devices to input commands as well as numerical data. There are two primary types of graphical interactions that can be performed through digitally controlling the cursor and placing new items onto the LCD screen. By pointing or otherwise indicating areas on the screen, generally associated with images, a graphical input device is able to lend itself to both functions. It is however difficult to achieve with just one device and this is the reason why many workstations are equipped with various input options. Buy Marketing Directors email id database online.
(a) Cursor Control Devices
The cursor is manually taken in the form of a bright area on the CRT screen which signifies where the drawing or writing will take place. The computer can detect the current location on the screen of the cursor. This means that the ability of the user to control the cursor’s position permits locational information to be added to the database of the CAD system. An example of this would be the user’s ability to locate the cursor in order to determine the point at which a line begins. line. A more sophisticated scenario could be to place the cursor in a specific position to choose an item from a list of functions that are which are displayed by the monitor. Buy Marketing Directors email id database online.
Four of the items on the list let you control the cursor, but without physical contact with an LCD screen from the users. The two last devices on the list require users to manage the cursor by pressing the screen using the pen-like device.
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The thumb wheel uses two thumb wheels, one to control the horizontal location of the cursor, and the one that controls the vertical direction of the cursor.
This kind of device is typically installed as an integral component that of the terminal for CRT. The cursor on this configuration is usually shown as an intersecting of the vertical line with an horizontal line that is which is shown on the screen of the CRT. These two lines are similar to cross hairs of gun sights that extend across the length and width that the display.
The keys for direction that are on the keyboards represent a different fundamental method of controlling cursors not just for graphic terminals, but also for CRT terminals that do not have graphics capabilities. Four keys are utilized to control the four directions that the cursor is able to move (right or left and also up and downwards).
The joystick is shown on Figure 2.7. It is comprised of a rectangular box that is equipped with a vertical stick that is pushed in any direction, causing the cursor to move in the direction it is pointing. The name “joystick” comes by reference to the controls stick utilized in older aircrafts. Buy Marketing Directors email leads online.
The tracker ball can be seen in figure 2.7. Its mechanism is identical to the joystick, except that the operator controlled ball is turned by the operator to shift the cursor into the direction desired in the display.
A light pen can be described as a pointing instrument in which the computer tries to determine the location where the pen comes into contact with the monitor. Contrary to what the name implies, the light pen doesn’t emit light. Instead , it acts as the detector of light that is placed on the CRT’s screen. It utilizes a photodiode or phototransistor or other type or type of sensor for light. The light pen is used with a refresh type CRT, but not with storage tubes. This is due to the fact that the image inside the tube that refreshes is produced in a time-sequence. Its time sequence is brief that the picture appears to be continuous to the human eye. Buy Marketing Directors email leads online.
But, the computer can discern the timing sequence and aligns this time with the pen’s position in relation to the monitor. The computer is acting the role of an optical loop that can find the cursor, or to carry out a different input function.
The pen and tablet in computer graphics are the use of an electronic tablet together with the electronic pen. Tablets are flat, smooth surface distinct from the CRT screen , on which the user can draw using stylus-like pen to input commands or control the cursor. It is worth noting that the direction keys on thumb wheels tracker balls, joysticks and joysticks tend to be restricted in their use to control cursor movement. Buy Marketing Directors email leads online.
The pen/tablet light and the tablet are commonly used for different input functions, including cursor control. A few of these functions include:
* Selecting from a menu menu.
Draw on screen or drawing strokes on the tablet or the screen that show the image that is being drawn.
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* Selecting a specific portion of the screen to be enlarged of an image that is already present,
A light pen is similar to a fountain pen in its method of holding it, however, it is based on the principle of light instead of ink, hence its name.
Light pens do not function to write on screens which is a misconception among many however, they’re actually designed for detecting the existence of light on the screen , as illustrated in Figure 2.8 using the help of a resistor that detects light.
Their primary use in graphic programs is to detect objects or areas on the screen to allow for the possible handling of graphics. They can be used only on refresh-type display devices. Light pen resolution is not great since the view field of the photosensitive device is conical. Since the light pen is pointing directly at the display it’s an ideal tool for graphic interaction. But, since the user is required to keep the pen in place against gravity and its cable to connect the adapter card to the graphics display for making any choice ergonomically, it’s not ideal to use for extended time periods. Buy Marketing Directors mailing lists online.
The mouse in figure 2.7 is the pointing device, and has gained importance since the introduction of microprocessors as well as the pull-down menus that come with software applications. The mouse operates on three basic principles-Mechanical, Optical and Opto- mechanical. The mechanical mouse is an unrestricted floating ball coated with rubber on the underside that, when placed on a flat surface, can follow the movements that the user’s hand makes. The ball’s movement is reconstructed into x and y movements through two rollers that are pressed into the ball. They then direct the cursor’s position on the screen. It is then used to perform any of the applications you desire by way of clicking button on your mouse.
It is only able to indicate the screen, but it is not capable of giving information about the position. For optical mouse transparent plain surface that has fine grids etched on it is needed. The LEDs inside of the device (in instead of the ball) will reflect the number of grid lines that cross the tile in x and y directions, thus displaying the distance traveled. Buy Marketing Directors mailing lists online.
The lifespan of an optical mouse is very long since there are no moving parts, however it hasn’t gained the same level of acceptance as the mechanical mouse due to of the particular surface that is required to operate. The working of the opto-mechanical mouse is the same as what a mechanical mouse does however the position resolvers are built on the optical principle.
(b) Cursor Control Devices
The digitizer illustrated in figure 2.9 is an input device made up of a huge, smooth surface (the appearance is like an actual drawing board) as well as an electronic tracking device that can be moved around the surface in order to follow existing lines. It is a standard technique for CAD systems to extract the coordinates x, y from drawings on paper. Buy Marketing Directors mailing lists online.
The electronic device for tracking has an input switch that allows users to keep track of the desired position of x and y. The coordinates can be recorded into the computer’s memory, or saved in an off-line storage medium like magnetic tape. High resolution digitizers , typically having large boards (e.g. 42 x 60 inches) can offer accuracy and resolution at the level to 0.001 in. It is important to note that the electronic pen and tablet can be regarded as small, low-resolution digitizers.
It is not suitable for three-dimensional mechanical design since the digitizer’s capabilities are limited to two dimensions. Drawings in two dimensions, drafters can easily adjust to the digitizer as it’s similar to draft boards. The digitizer can tilt, elevated or lower to create an ideal place to drafters. Buy Marketing Directors mailing lists online.
The digitizer is able to digitally digitize lines drawn by hand. Users can input data from a sketch or large layout sketch and modify the drawing to achieve the desired degree of precision and clarity. The digitizer is also able to draw a fresh layout, and then edit it to complete the design.
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There are a variety of keyboard terminals that are accessible as CAD input devices. The most popular type is the alphanumeric one available in virtually the entire range of interactive systems.
The alphanumeric terminal is either a CRT, or a hard-copy terminal that prints onto paper. In terms of graphics, the CRT is preferred due to its speed, its ability to edit easily and edit images, as well as the absence massive paper volumes. However it is often desirable and can be easily made using an electronic hard-copy terminal. A lot of CAD software systems employ the graphic screen to display alphanumeric information, however there’s a benefit to having separate CRT terminals to ensure that the alphanumeric message can be made without affecting or overwriting the image displayed on the screen.
The alphanumeric terminal can be utilized to input commands, functions, and additional information into an CAD program. The information will be displayed to verify on the CRT, or written on paper. The system also communicates with the person using the same manner. The computer, as a part of the interactive process will display list of menus and program information, as well as errors, and so on. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id lists online.
Certain CAD systems employ special function keyboards as illustrated in figure 2.10. These keyboards for function are made to make it easier to type commands, as well as calculate coordinates and perform other functions. There are a variety of functions keys. vary between 8 and 80. The specific function associated to each button is usually controlled by computers to ensure that the function of the button is able to be changed when the user moves through designing to another.
Thus, the variety of possible functions could easily be greater than what is available available on the keyboard. There are also lighted buttons on keyboards to signal what functions are available at the moment of design work. A menu of functions is usually presented on the CRT screen to allow users to choose the desired function. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id lists online.
In addition to the previously mentioned devices, the following devices can also be utilized for input.
A scanner can be described as an input tool that is used to directly input data from the document source into the system. It is illustrated in figure 2.11. This converts the image of the document into digital format to allow it to be fed to the computer. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id lists online. This method of capturing information can reduce the risk of errors that are typically encountered during massive data entry. Handheld scanners are often found in stores with large sizes to read codes and price details for all products. They are also known as reader of barcodes.
Bar codes are a series of lines with different thicknesses, which represent the number. Bar Code Readers are used to input information through barcodes. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id lists online. Many products in shops carry bar codes printed on the. Bar code readers function by shining a light beam onto the lines that comprise the bar code, and then detecting how much light reflecting back. (f) Touch Screen
It permits the user to make selections or operate by just tapping the screen. Examples of touch screens include information kiosks and ATMs at banks.
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(g) Digital camera
Digital cameras can save more photos than a regular camera. Images taken with the digital camera are saved inside the camera’s memory.
They could be transferred onto a PC after connecting the camera. Digital cameras (Figure 2.11) can take pictures by converting light that passes through the lens from the front to create a digital image.
(h) (h) The input device for speech. device.
The “Microphones Speech Recognition” is a voice input device. To use it, we must the use of a microphone in order to communicate with the computer. Additionally, we must connect an audio card to the computer. The Sound card converts audio input into the form of 0/1s. A speech recognition software can analyze the input and transform it into machine-recognized command or input.
OPERATOR OUTPUT DEVICES
There are many types of output devices utilized together with a computer-aided design system. These output devices include; buy Marketing Directors mailing address lists online.
Units with hardcopy
Computer-output-to-micro-film (COM) units
(a) Pen plotters
The precision and quality of the hardcopy plots created by a pen plotter is significantly higher than the apparent high-quality and accuracy of image that is displayed on the CRT display. If you use a CRT image it is evident that its quality image is reduced due to a low resolution and as a result of the loss in the conversion from analog to digital through display generators. However an ultra-precision pen plotter can be capable of making a drawing that is hardcopy that is almost identical with the digital definitions stored in the CAD database. Buy Marketing Directors mailing address lists online.
Pen plotters use an ink pen that is mechanical (either the ball or wet type) for writing on the paper using the relative movement between the pen and the paper. There are two kinds of pen plotters that are that are currently used:
A drum plotter as as shown in Figure 2.12 is typically the cheapest. It is a round drum typically mounted horizontally, and a slidethat can be moved on an axially mounted track with relation towards the drum. The paper is mounted to the drum, and the pen is positioned on the slide. The movement of the pen and paper is accomplished by coordinating the motion of the drum in conjunction with the slide’s motion. Drum plotters are extremely fast and is able to create drawings that are nearly endless in length. Its length restricts the width. The lengths usually range between 8 1/2 inches (216 millimeters) to 42 inches (1067 millimeters).
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The flat-bed plotter, as shown in Figure 2.12 It is more expensive. It is flat drawing surfaces to that the newspaper is affixed on certain models.
Its surface is horizontal, while other models have an image surface that is attached in a near vertical orientation in order to preserve the floor space. This kind of model is displayed in the figure 2.12. Parallel tracks are situated on both edges of the surface. Bridges are driven across these tracks in order to give motion x-coordinate.
The bridge is connected to another track which is driven by the The movement of the writing device in relation to the bridge creates the y-coordinate movement. The writing head holds the pencil or pen, which can be moved up or down to allow an interaction with paper in the way you wish. The dimensions of these automatic table drafting systems can be up to 5 feet (1.5 millimeters) by 20 feet (6.1 meters) with plotting accuracy that is close to +/- 0.001 millimeters (+/- 0.025 millimeters). Buy Marketing Directors mailing id database online.
The pen plotter is able to accept digital data that is either downloaded from a computer or off-line, in the form of punched or magnetic tape for contemporary pen plotters. Microprocessors are often employed as a control device. This allows certain shapes , such as ellipses and circles, to be programmed as a result of simple instructions for the plotter. So, the digital information for complex shapes can be reduced and effective.
Many plotters employ multiple pen colours to produce multi-colour plots. Additionally, in certain models, the pen can be replaced with a highly focused high-intensity light and the traditional drawing paper replaced by an e-paper that is photosensitive. This configuration is suitable in certain art applications. Another option for flat-bed plotters is to integrate the plotter’s function with the use of digitizers. The device is referred to as an digitizer plotter. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id database online.
(b) Hardware units with hard copies
A hard copy machine is a computer that is able to create copies of the same image that is that is displayed in the screen of a CRT. The image displayed on the screen can be duplicated within a matter of minutes. These copies are useful as documentation of steps that are intermediate during the design process or when rough replicas of the display are required quick. The hardcopies made from these machines are not appropriate for final drawings due to the quality and accuracy of the reproduction isn’t much better than the output from a pen plotter.
The majority of hardcopy machines consist of dry copiers that make use of transparent paper that is exposed to light through the narrow CRT window in the copier. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id database online. The window typically measures 8 1/2 inches (216 millimeters) equivalent to the size of the paper.
It is approximately 1/2 inch (12 millimeters) in width. It is exposed when moving the paper through the window, and then coordinating the beam of CRT to slowly shift the photo. A cured roller in the copier is utilized for developing an image of the paper. The paper’s size is generally limited on hardcopy machines up to 8 1/2 inches by 11 inches. Another disadvantage is that dry copies of the silver will get darker as time passes when exposed to light sources.
(c) Electrostatic plotters
Hardcopy devices are generally quick, but their precision and resolution aren’t great. Pen plotters are very precise but the time to plot can take long. Electrostatic plotters offer an alternative to both kinds regarding speed and precision. It’s almost similar to the hardcopy unit , and nearly as precise like the pen-plotter. Electrostatic copier comprises styli made of wire attached to a metal bar that extends across the entire width of the paper with a charge sensor. The styli can be found with an average density of 200 per inch of linear. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id database online.
The paper is moved gradually beyond the bar, and specific styli are activated to create dots across the surface co-ordinating the formation of dots with the movement of the paper. The image is gradually transferred from the database to hardcopy form. The dots are overlapping in order to give continuity. For instance, a line of dots that are adjacent give an appearance like a line.
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One limitation of the electrostatic charter is data must be in format of raster (i.e. it must be within the format as used to drive the CRT raster type) for it to be easily converted to hardcopy by electrostatic methods.
If the data is not in raster format, a kind of conversion is needed to convert them into the format that is required. The process of conversion is typically dependent on a mix of hardware and software.
The advantage of an electrostatic plotter which is shared with that of the pen-type drum, is its length. paper is almost limitless. Commonly, the width of the plotting paper can range from 6 feet (1.83 meters). Another benefit can be that electrostatic plotters could be used as a fast line printer, which can print as much as 1200 lines texts per minute.
Printers produce paper (commonly called the hardcopy) output. Based upon the type of technology employed they can be classified as either Impact or Non-impact printers. Impact printers utilize the printing method of typewriting where the paper is struck by a hammer through a ribbon to generate output. Dot-matrix and character printers are included in this category. Non-impact printers are not able to contact the paper when printing. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id directory online.
They employ heat, chemical and electrical signaling to create the paper with symbols. Inkjet, Deskjet, Laser, Thermal printers fall under this class of printers. There are two main characteristics that printers possess resolution and speed. The resolution of a print is measured by the number of dots in an inch (dpi). Print speed is measured in terms of number of characters printed in a unit of time and is represented as characters-per-second (cps), lines-per-minute (lpm), or pages-per-minute (ppm).
(e) The output of a computer (e) Computer output Microfilm (COM) units
COM units replicate the drawings on microfilm instead of in full size engineering drawings. It’s a costly item of technology. But, for the big enterprise that can afford a COM unit there are many advantages. One benefit is the storage capacity. An engineering department of a large size could have thousands of engineering drawings that need to be saved. By reducing the size of each drawing to microfilm can provide an important storage benefit. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id directory online.
If a bard size duplicate drawing is required and the microfilm is needed, it is able and enlarged photographically to the full size. Another advantage is the speed at which the COM units can produce a microfilm copy at a much higher speed than pen plotters, maybe hundreds of times faster for complex line drawings. Microfilm output from computers is also more efficient that electrostatic plotters. One of the disadvantages of the COM process include that the user is unable to make notes directly on the microfilm, as can be done using paper copies. Additionally, enlargements of the microfilm on paper, while acceptable, are not comparable quality to the output of a pen plotter.
SOFTWARE for GRAPHIC SYSTEM
The CAD software gives engineers the tools required to carry out their technical tasks effectively and relieve them of the time-consuming and gruelling tasks which require no technical know-how. Buy Marketing Directors mailing id directory online. The experience of the past has proven that CAD software can speed up the design process, thereby improving the productivity, innovation, and the creativity of designers. In certain design situations like VLSI the CAD software has was the only way to meet the latest technological requirements for production and design that require greater accuracy and consistency. The demand for software in the near future will be greater due to the anticipated complex manufacturing and design demands.
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A look at the software reveals that it shares common features regardless of the platform the program runs. It’s an interactive program generally written in the standard programming language.
It is dependent on hardware and appears distinct to users than conventional software due to its user-friendly interface. The structure of the database and the management of the database of the program determines its performance as well as speed, and ease of information retrieval.
The main feature that is unique to CAD software is its three-dimensional, associative, central as well as integrated databases. The database is full of information that is needed to design and manufacturing processes. The central concept suggests that any modification and/or addition of the geometry model within some of it’s views will be immediately reflected in the other views or views that are to be created in the future.
The concept of integration implies that a mathematical model of an object could be used in every phase of a production cycle. The concept of associativity suggests that input data can be obtained in a variety of forms. For example, if two points at the ends of a line are input, the length of the line and its dimensions could be output. Buy top Marketing Directors email lists online.
The CAD software is usually a complex and large-scale software that has been developed over time. The users of the software typically have to learn the underlying semantics and the syntax of its user interface. Semantics defines how the software works and the information needed for every operation performed of an object. For instance, a block requires three lengths as well as an orientation for it to be created.
Syntax specifies the formats for the inputs as well as outputs. It is also referred to as the language of the program. It outlines the rules users have to follow in order to attain the desired meaning. Performance is another feature common to all types of software. The greater the number of active users, the greater the time for interactive responses. The program occasionally “locks” and stops being able to accept or respond to user requests. It is usually described as “system system crash”. In the event of a system crash users lose work done after the last file or save command is executed and a reboot of the system is necessary. This is the reason why users are advised to save or file their work often. Buy top Marketing Directors email lists online.
2.6.1 Graphics Software
Graphics software is the collection of programs designed to enable users to use the graphics system of a computer. It comprises programs that create pictures on the CRT display and to alter images, and to perform various kinds of interactions between the system and the user. Alongside the graphics software , there could be other software that perform specific functions that are specialized to CAD/CAM. This can include design analysis programs (e.g. finite element analysis or Kinematic simulation) as well as manufacturing planning programs (e.g. automated process planning and Control Part Programming).
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The software that graphics are used for a specific type of Computer graphics device is dependent on the kind of hardware that is used within the system.
The software needs to be developed specifically for the specific type of CRT and for the various types of input devices that are used within the system. The specifications of the software for a stroke-writing CRT will differ from those for the raster scan CRT.
The distinctions between a storage tube and refresh tube will also affect graphic software. While these distinctions in software might be unnoticeable to the user to a certain degree, they are crucial aspects to consider when designing an integrated computer graphic system. Newman and Sproull listed six “ground guidelines” to be considered when in the design of graphics software.
* Simplicity. The graphics software must be simple to use. Buy top Marketing Directors email address lists online.
* Consistency. The application should work in the same and predictable manner for the user.
* Completeness. There should not be any awkward errors in the collection of graphic functions.
* Robustness. The graphics system needs to tolerate minor instances of abuse by the user.
* Performance. Subject to limitations set by hardware of the system performance must be utilized to the maximum extent possible with software. Graphics software should be effective and their response time should be quick and consistent.
* Economy: Graphics applications are not meant to be so huge or expensive that it makes their use inaccessible. Buy top Marketing Directors email address lists online.
Software Configuration of Graphics System
When operating the system’s graphics by users, wide range of tasks take place that can be classified in three types:
* Use graphic terminals to alter and create images displayed on the screen.
Create the physical model using the images that appear of the display. These models are sometimes referred to as applications models. Buy top Marketing Directors email address lists online.
* Insert the model into memory on your computer or in secondary storage.
When working with this system of graphics, users perform these different tasks together instead of in a sequential manner. The user builds the physical model and writes it into memory using interactively providing pictures to the computer. The reason behind separating the activities in this manner is because they are in line with the overall layout of the software program that is used to operate the interactive computing system. The graphics software may be divided into three components following the conceptual model proposed by Foley and Van Dam,
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* The graphics program (also known as”the graphics system)
• The program for application
* The database of the application
The configuration of the software is shown by Figure 2.13. It is the central component of the application software. It is responsible for the data storage and then retrieves data from the database of the application. It is operated by the user via the graphics software, which is called Graphics System.
It is used by the user to create the model of the physical object whose image will be displayed on the graphic screen.
Programming for applications is designed to address specific problem areas. Engineering design problems might include architecture, construction electronic components, mechanical components chemical engineering, and aerospace engineering. Other areas of concern could be flight simulators visual display of data, analytical analysis and even artwork. In each of these cases the application software is designed to work with the images and conventions suitable for the field in question. Buy top Marketing Directors email id lists online.
The graphics program is the software that provides support to both the terminal and user. It is responsible for the interface between the computer and user. It also acts as an interaction between users and the software. Graphics software is comprised of input subroutines and output subroutines. The input routines take input commands and information from the user and then forward data to the. The output subroutines manage the display terminal and convert model of the application into two-dimensional, or three-dimensional graphic images.
The third part of ICG software is the database. ICG program comprises the database. The database includes mathematical, numerical , and conceptual definitions of application models like electrical circuits, mechanical elements automotive bodies, and many more. The database also contains alphanumeric data related to the models, like bills of materials, mass properties , and other information. The database’s contents is easily shown on the CRT screen or plotted in hard copy format. Buy top Marketing Directors email id lists online.
2.6.2 The functions of a graphics software
The purpose of graphics software in an CADD system is to provide graphic capabilities to ensure that diverse applications can use the graphics to assist in solving design issues. Because of this goal it is necessary for the graphics software to be designed and organized in a way that can meet the needs of a variety of and numerous applications that rely on CAD. Graphics software should offer a method of handling user-related actions, a set of fundamental graphic functions, tools, and a system to facilitate the operation of applications. It is crucial that a graphics application is developed in such a way that it allows applications to be integrated within the system without the programmer needing to deal with details programming of the system or peripherals.
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In order to perform its job in the software configurationprocess, the graphics program must carry out various functions. The functions are grouped into sets of functions. Each function set is able to perform a specific level of interaction between users and system.
The most commonly used function sets include:
(a) Graphic elements generation
(c) Control of display and windowing functions.
(d) Functions of segmentation
(e) Functions for input by the user
(a) generation of graphic elements
Graphic elements within computer graphics refers to a fundamental image element like dot (or point) or lines, circles, other such things. The elements of the system can also comprise alphanumeric characters or specific symbols. There’s often a hardware component of the graphic system that is responsible for the display of many elements. This speed up the process of making the element. The user is able to construct an application model from the elements that are available within the system. Buy top Marketing Directors email id database online.
The term”primitive” is usually used to refer to graphics elements. In other words, a primitive can be described as an element of graphic design that is three-dimensional such as a sphere cube, or cylindrical. In 3D wire frame models as well as solid modeling primitives are employed as building blocks in order to create models in 3D of the specific object that is important for the user.
Transformations can be used to alter the appearance of the display screen as well as to alter the position of the object in the database. Transformations are applied to graphic elements to aid users in creating models for applications. Buy top Marketing Directors email id database online.
The traditional geometry is known as the Euclidean geometry. In the traditional sense , we adhere to an Cartesian coordinate system, which is defined by the Z, X and coordinate directions. All three axes of the system are perpendicular, and follow that of the left hand. When handling geometrical information often, it is necessary to alter the geometry. Transformations convert geometry from one system of coordinates to another. These transformations can include enlargement or reduction of an image using the process of scaling, repositioning of the image or transforming it into a rotation and translation.
(c) Control of display and windowing functions.
This function set gives users with the capability to view the image at the angle desired and at the appropriate magnification. Buy top Marketing Directors email id database online. It utilizes different transformations to show the model in the manner the user prefers it displayed. It’s sometimes known as windowing, since the display screen functions as windows that are utilized to look at the graphic model. The concept is that the screen can be placed in any location you wish to view the model of the object.
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A different aspect to display controls is the removal of bidden lines. In most graphic software the image is composed of lines which symbolize a specific object. The hidden line elimination is the process that allows the image to be divided into visible and invisibly (or concealed) lines. In certain systems, users must discern which lines are hidden to be removed from the tile image to make it easier to understand. In other systems, the graphics software is advanced enough to be able to eliminate hidden lines from the image.
(d) Separating the functions
Segmenting features give users the ability to selectively modify, remove or modify a portion of an image. The term”segment” is used to describe an area of the image that is identified with the intention of altering it. The segment could be one element or logical collection of elements that may be altered as a whole. Buy top Marketing Directors mailing id online.
CRT tubes with storage are not suited for segmenting. To remove or modify one part of an image stored in a storage tube involves deletion of the entire image and then redrawing it using the changes that are incorporated. The refresh tubes for raster scans are ideal for segmenting purposes because the screen is drawn automatically at least 30 often per second. The image is recreated each time using an image file, one of the storage files which is a pan of the hardware of the raster scan CRT. The segment is easily identified as a part of the display file giving it the name. The contents of the file will be removed or modified to accomplish the segmenting feature.
(e) Functions for input by the user
The functions for input by the user are the core part of the graphics software as they allow the user to input commands or information for the computer. Entry is made via input devices. The functions for input by the user must be designed specifically for the specific component of input devices that are used in the system. The extent to which features for input from the user are properly developed has a major impact on the degree to which “friendly” it is for the user which is how simple it is for users to operate the system. Buy top Marketing Directors mailing id online.
The input functions need to be developed in order to maximize the advantages of the interactive features of the lCG. The goal of software design is to strike the perfect balance between supplying enough functions to handle all types of data entry without overwhelming users with so many commands they can’t remember. One of the objectives that are sought-after by computer software developers in graphics is to make it easier for the user interface to ensure that even a designer with less or no experience with programming is able to work effectively on the system.
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2.6.3 The geometry is constructed
(a) Utilization of graphic elements
The graphics system achieves the creation of the model by making it up of graphic elements.
The elements are identified by the user in the process of building process, and then added one by one to form the model. There are a variety of aspects related to the process of construction that will be addressed.
In the beginning, when a new element is called however, before adding it into the model has the option to determine its size, location and orientation. Buy top Marketing Directors mailing leads online. These requirements are required for the model to have the right shape and size. To accomplish this, various transformations are employed. Another feature of the process of geometric creation is that graphic components can be removed and added. Another way to say this can be that the design may be made up of negative elements and positive elements.
(b) Definiting the graphic elements
The user can choose from a range of options to select the particular graphic element and place it in the model. Table 2.2 provides a variety of methods for creating lines, points circles, arcs and other geometric elements by interacting through ICG. ICG system. The components are stored in the database in a mathematical format and are linked to the three-dimensional coordinate system. For instance, a point is defined by its x and Z coordinates. Buy top Marketing Directors mailing leads online.
1. The ability to point to the area on the screen with the control of a cursor
2. By entering the coordinates using the keyboard that is alphanumeric
3. The offset (distance in three dimensions x, y, and Z) in relation to a specified point
4. Two points intersect at the intersection
5. Finding points at regular intervals along the element
1. Utilizing two previously defined factors
2. Utilizing a single point and indicating how much angle the line has in relation to the horizontal
3. By using a point, you can make the line either tangent or normal to the curvature
4. Making use of a point by making the line perpendicular or parallel to another point
5. Converting the line into two curves
6. A line that is in tangent with a curve, and perpendicular or parallel to the line
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Circles and Arcs
1. The center is the one that you specify, as well as the radius.
2. Indicating the center and a center point of the circular
3. In the process, the curve passes through three previously identified points
4. The curve should be tangent to three lines
5. By defining the radius, you can make the curve tangent to two lines , or curves
1. Five points to be specified on the element
2. Three points are specified and the condition for tangency
Mathematical Splines are utilized to make a curve fit certain information. Buy top Marketing Directors email leads online. For instance, in a cubic spline, third order polynomial segments can be fine-tuned between nearby data elements. Other methods for creating curves in computer graphics are Bezier curves and B-spline strategies. Both methods employ an blending process that smooths the effects that the information points. The resultant curve doesn’t traverse all points. In such cases, the data points are added to the graphics program and the kind of curve-fining process would be identified to determine the curve.
The methods used to create curves can also be utilized to determine what mathematically defines an area. Automotive manufacturers employ these techniques to show the sculpted surfaces of the car’s sheet metal body. The methods used for producing surfaces include:
1. Utilizing a surface of rotation created by rotating lines or curves around an axis. Buy top Marketing Directors email leads online.
2. By using the intersection line, or the surface of two surfaces that intersect. For instance, this can be used to create cross-sections of components by cutting a planar slice through the piece in the desired angle.
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(c) Modifying the geometrical model
A computer-aided design software provides editing capabilities that allow for adjustments and corrections in the geometry model. While developing the model, the user should be able delete or move, copy, and rotate the components in the design.
Editing is the process of selecting the desired part within the model (usually through any of the segments functions) and then performing the appropriate instruction (often with one of the transform functions).
The process of choosing the model’s segment to be changed is different from system to sistem with the use of a cursor. A most common approach is to draw the creation of a rectangle in the screen of the CRT in the vicinity of the segment of the model. The rectangle is created by defining the lower and upper left edges of the rectangular. Another approach that involves using a lighter pen is to position the pen on the part that is to be selected using the tablet and electronic pen it could be to draw in a straight line over the part of the model that needs to be changed. Buy top Marketing Directors email lists online.
The computer has to inform the user of which segment of the model was chosen. The reason behind this is confirmation that the model that is selected by the computer matches the one that was intended by the user. Various methods are employed by various ICG systems to determine the segment. They include making a mark on an area, making it larger than the rest the image, and making that segment blink.
The most common editing options offered by commercial CAD systems include:
1. Move an item from one location to another place. This is done by translating items from one place to another.
2. Copy an item to another place. The function of copy is similar as the function of moving in that it saves an original duplicate of the item at the original location.
3. Rotate an object. This is a rotation where the item is rotated at a specific angle from its initial orientation. Buy top Marketing Directors email lists online.
4. The item is mirror-ed. This results in a mirror image of the item on the plane of the item.
5. Remove an item. This action causes the specific part from the image to disappear from the display and the database.
6. Removing an image from display (without taking it off your database).