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Import Export Companies Email outlook

Import Export Companies Email outlook

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Cognitive computing

It is computing environment that is composed by a super-high performance computing system driven by special processors like multicore CPUs GPUs, TPUs and neuromorphic chips. application development environment that has built-in support for distributed and parallel computing, driven by the computing infrastructure,  machines learning and software library to extract information and knowledge from unstructured sources of data,  a data analysis and analysis system which uses processes and algorithms that are similar to human cognitive processes and queries languages as well as APIs that allow access to the cognition computing environments. Cognitive computing is defined as a function as it isn’t straightforward to define it in a precise and is largely dependent on other methods. environment that generates actionable information through the analysis of diverse data sources with cognitive models which the human brain utilizes.

Import Export Companies Email Address lists

Import Export Companies Email Address lists

Traditional symbolic and rule-based solutions to issues like speech-to-speech and machine translation are gradually being replaced by statistical learning methods. Take for example the issue of recognizing handwritten numbers. Rules-based methods require the development of rules that seek to specifically capture the ways of writing digits that are used by distinct users. This creates a plethora of rules.

 Additionally, additional rules must be created to deal with new users who write digits in different ways from the way that was reflected in the current set of rules. However artificial neural networks (ANN) techniques employ several tiny pieces of evidence in the form of characteristics and blend them into high-level characteristics. ANN methods are more reliable because they can perform better when using data that isn’t seen during the initial phase of training. Import Export Companies Email Lists.

The ubiquitous nature of big data, huge computing power, and the return of neural network algorithms is capable of scaling solutions to many challenging problems. The efficiency of the newer methods to solve problems that had been thought to be difficult for computers like the detection of objects in images or classification of images is comparable to human performance.

 For instance In ImageNet’s Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challe- the error rate for certain algorithms that detect objects in videos and scene classification can be less than 6percent, while the human error rate is 5 percent. In a separate study using deep-learning algorithmic rithms Google declares 99.8 percent accuracy when recogniz-ing CAPTCHA images within the toughest category of the reCAPTCHA data.  Import Export Companies Email Lists. In a different study by Facebook regarding image classification, the researchers achieved the accuracy of 97.35 percent on the Labeled Faces in the Wild dataset, using an eight-layer deep neural network.

 Also, explain a technique known as Bayesian Program Learning, which can identify 1623 handwritten characters from 50 languages , with just the lim-ited learning. While the problems mentioned above are different, deep neural network algorithms are extremely effective across all of these areas.

The above strategies, when combined with advancements of information retrieval natural machine learning, language-based artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning have helped create a new model for strate-gic decision-making. The term “data analytics” is when it’s used in its general sense is a reference to any information that is actionable that comes from the computational analysis of data by applying mathematical and statistical techniques. Import Export Companies Email Lists.

 Data analytics is an inter-disciplinary field that encompasses statistics, mathematics and computer science. It is evident that there exists a domain in data analytics. The domain supplies the data needed to analyze. The principal purpose of data analytics is to uncover the truth about an issue or process to enable it to be improved or resolved. Also, analytics is a data-driven method for solving problems and making decisions.

Although certain types of analytics are common to diverse domains of use however, they can differ in a significant way from one domain to the next. This has resulted in the spread of names such as business analytics image analytics, text analysis, video analytics the graph analysis, spatial analytics visual analytics, and cognitive analytics. But, regardless of the field, data analytics comprises three parts that include loading and data acquisition methods and algorithms and a computing platform that in turn impedes processes and practices. The components of data acquisition and loading allow the preparation of data input and the loading of it onto the platform for computation. A variety of algorithms and strategies to analyze data are offered through the algorithms and methods component. Finally, the computa­tional platform connects everything into an entire system, and offers interfaces for users as well as other applications to communicate with it.

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From a functional standpoint from a functional perspective, there are three kinds of data analytics that are descriptive, prescriptive and predictive. Descriptive analytics is a dashboard overview of the situation of a system, or process. It employs machine learning and descriptive statistics algorithms to give insights into a system. It is usually able to reveal within a process such as, for instance, the various stages of the process and how they are arranged, what kind of resources are utilized and the amount of time spent on each stage of the step.

Import Export Companies Email Address

Import Export Companies Email Address

 Another example is that the reading ability for English texts is measured through the use of text analytics like text analytics such as the Fry readability for-mula Automated Readability Index, Flesch-Kincaid, Gunning-Fog, Coleman-Liau Index as well as the SMOG Index. Software metrics and measures are used to describe characteristics of software. They include the amount of classes, the number of techniques per class the depth of the inheritance tree, the number of interfaces, as well as total code lines.

Prescriptive analytics is the natural consequence that comes from the descriptive analytical. It proposes methods to enhance a system or process by through optimization and simulation algorithms. Import Export Companies Email Address. For software measurements and metrics Prescriptive analytics provides an array of values for every measurement, such as the limits for the the number of methods within the class. Additionally, it outlines refactoring methods if a measurement falls not within the range specified.

Predictive analytics allows you to answer “what-if” questions through the development of predictive models by using inferential statistics and forecasting methods. It helps organizations make strategic decisions based on data. Predictive models are constructed with the help of historical and operational data. They search for associations as well as other implicit relationships from the data in order to create the models. Different models of regression such as logistic, linear Lasso Ridge, Lasso Cox proportional hazards and Bayesian are commonly utilized. Logic regression, for instance is employed in clinical trials and in fraud detection to connect a probability with an outcome that is binary.

Similar to cognitive computing, cognitive analytics is viewed by two different perspectives. The one is driven by researchers in computer science from both academia and industry. The advancements in big data, cloud computing, natural language understanding and machine learning allow the extraction of information from massive collections of unstructured data, including natural language texts images, video and audio. Import Export Companies Email Address.

 From the viewpoint of this group the information gleaned from unstructured data, coupled with statistical inference and reasoning differentiates cognition-based analytics and business analysis. The second viewpoint is developed by neuroscientists and cognitive researchers. They use theories of the mind, functional areas in the brain as well as the cognitive processes and models. A good example to this class could collect information about the cognitive process to confirm the cognitive model and to enhance the model.

Chapter Organization

The primary goal of the chapter’s purpose is to provide an unifying approach to the burgeoning field that is cognitive analytics. Particularly In Section 2 we examine the development of data analytics and address the most important questions. The types of learning utilized for cognitive analysis are explained at an intellectual level in Section 3. in Section 4 we will discuss the different classes in machine learning algorithm including logistic regression, decision trees and SVMs, support vector machines (SVMs), Bayesian networks (BNs) as well as neural networks, as well as deep learning. This section also provides an overview of machines learning frameworks and libraries.

We have proposed a reference architecture known as Cognalytics for cognitive analytics in Section 5. This section also describes how this model can be implemented with open-source tools. Section 6 outlines the applications of cognitive analytics, including Learning Analytics (LA) as well as personalized learning (PL), cognitive business and BCIs, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and assistive technology. Future trends in cognitive analytics and research directions are discussed in Section 7. Section 8 concludes the chapter.

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AI is a field of computer science, and machine learning is one of the major areas within AI. The recent development of cloud computing and big data has resulted in an AI revival. The media coverage surrounding machine learning has made the term a household word. It is also causing confusion and spreading misinformation. On blogs as well as other forums that are self-published Some bloggers have recognized AI as well as Computer Science as two distinct disciplines. This is also true for AI as well as machine-learning. The definition and scope of the term”analytics” is being redefined.

Import Export Companies Email datas

Import Export Companies Email datas

You can’t control what you don’t know is an old saying from the world of management that remains true today in many organisations and academic fields. The core of analytics are statistics, data, and mathematical models that are built with the information. The kinds of data required and the kind of processing that is performed, as well as the range of models constructed differ. Models are employed

for a wide range of applications with the umbrella term for a wide range of purposes under the umbrella terms descriptive analytics, prescriptive analysis as well as predictive analytics. Import Export Companies Email datas. AI machine learning, machine-learning distributed computing, high-performance computing are the core infrastructure that manages the data and facilitate model building.

Multiple Perspectives

There are many perspectives on analytics. It is believed that Computer Science per-spective is driven by technical issues in storing, managing and querying data. In the beginning there was a lack of analytical support. The business view of analytics is as an organizational aspect and is focused on practical insights from the data. Visual analytics is an emerging field of analytics whose purpose is to provide analytical reasoning using interactivity with visuals. In the last few years, additional terms like Educational data mining (EDM), LA, and cognitive analytics have been gaining traction.

Academia has responded massive demand for analytics by creating new degrees that integrate interdisciplinary disciplines, mostly at the master’s degree level. The programs are classified in three groups: (1) courses that contain the word “analytics” in their titles, such as business analytics healthcare informatics and health informatics in addition to nursing informatics. Import Export Companies Email Address.

 Other degree programs, such as economics fall into this category, but they don’t specifically use informatics as a name. These programs are typically run or supervised by noncomputer science departments. (2) programs that have names like master of science, analytics or master of science data science. These programs are typically run by computer science departments and (3) numerous graduation certificates and tracks and concentrations in analytics knowledge discovery, data mining machine learning, big data.

Analytics Evolution

We examine the development of analytics from the Computer Science perspective. The basic functions of analytics were part of relationship-based database management software (RDBMS) in the early days. RDBMS functioned as operational databases to conduct day-to-day business transactions- the online processing of transactions (OLTP). Basic statistics-tics functions were offered. In the following years advanced features were made available under the title Statistics & SQL Analytics. 

They provided functions for determining the order of results as well as moving and cumulative aggregate values across a number of rows, lag , and allow access to information from the preceding and subsequent rows as well as descriptive statistics, correlations along with linear regression. In the beginning of RDBMS the analytic functions were developed outside from RDBMS. RDBMS system. Each function that was analytic was implemented in a separate piece code, making code optimization between RDBMS and analytic functions challenging. Recently, there were efforts to integrate analytic functions inside the database.

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Data Warehouses and Data Marts

The next step in evolution will be the incorporation of advanced analytical functions into database systems that support data warehouses and data marts. These are designed to assist in making strategic decisions based on data, namely online analytics processing (OLAP). Both the terms data mart and warehouse can be used as synonyms. The term “data warehouse” refers to a central and centralized repository of data that is derived from different operational databases as well as other sources of data. 

Import Export Companies Email datas

Import Export Companies Email datas

A data mart on the contrary is a different kind of a data warehouse that is designed to meet the requirements of a specific division of an organization. The data warehouse is similar to the enterprise schema for databases and a data-mart is similar to an underlying view of the database. Both data warehouses and marts can be utilized to create reports for compliance and customer reports as well as score cards and dashboards.  Import Export Companies Email id. They also are used to plan, forecast and for modeling. Extract, Transform and Load (ETL) is a collection of processes and tools that are utilized to create and build data warehouses as well as data marts.

They were designed specifically to aid in data analytics using data warehouses. A OLAP cube can be described as a multidimensional array of data that is a broader version of a 3D or 2D spreadsheet. It is also viewed as a logical system that is a metadata. MDX (multidimensional expression) is a metadata-based query language used to query cubes that are OLAP.

 Analytical operations performed on OLAP cubes are slice (creating the cube from scratch with less dimensions) and dice (creating the brand new (smaller) cube through providing certain values for cube dimensions) as well as drill down and the drill-up (navigating from the highest specific data level and the summarised levels of data) and roll-up (summarizing information along a specific dimension) as well as the pivot (rotating the cube in order to see the various angles or dimensions).


The third phase of the evolution is the development of ROLAP, MOLAP, and HOLAP. Each of the three types of cubes arrange data in a manner that allows efficient analysis of dimensional data. The initial step in creating the cube is to establish the dimensions. For a cube for sales departments for instance, geographic area and indus-try classification comprise two dimension. Next, you need to identify the data aggregation levels on each one.  Import Export Companies Email id. For the geographical region dimension the levels of data aggregation include counties, states, regions as well as continent, country, and. When the classification of the business is Energy Utility, then data aggregated levels are natural gas, electricity powered by coal as well as wind and solar.

ROLAP, MOLAP, and HOLAP are extensions of OLAP and are also referred to in the context of OLAP servers. The relationshipal OLAP (ROLAP) server functions as the bridge between the RDBMS warehouse as well as OLAP users. It is a navigational engine for the cube, and sends SQL queries to the warehouse in the back and also provides other instruments and other services. ROLAP servers are prone to be slow because data has to be pulled from the warehouse in real-time.

Contrary to ROLAP, MOLAP cubes extract data prior to the creation of warehouses and keep the data within the cube. All calculations are precomposed during the process of cube’s being created. This improves performance, but it also limits the quantity of data processed in MOLAP. MOLAP cube. Additionally, MOLAP consumes additional storage space. HOLAP is an hybrid server that blends the with the best of ROLAP as well as MOLAP. HOLAP can be scalable as ROLAP and has better performance than MOLAP.  Import Export Companies Email id.

Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery

In contrast to the evolution of analytics Machine learning (ML) was discovered in the field of paral-lel, a subdiscipline within AI. The majority of the machine learning algorithms fall under these broad classifications: decision trees associative rule-learning genetic algorithms refined learning, random forests SVMs, BNs neural networks, deep learning, and so on.

The next step in the evolution of analytics is the rise of the field known as data mining (aka knowledge discovery). It is the synergistic combination of statistics, data bases, AI, and ML. Its purpose is to discover patterns and anomalies, as well as uncover patterns hidden in the data, enabling the generation of actionable information. The use of this intelligence has been to boost revenues, enhance relationships with customers, decrease operating expenses, and take strategic decision-making. One of the most significant tasks for data mining is to locate the relevant information and prepare the data to be incorporated to ML algorithms.

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Visual Analytics

Visual analytics are a new field, and was created independent of the data mining. Similar to the data mining process, it pulls data from a variety of sources, including RDBMS, OLAP cubes, and various other sources like social media. Visual analytics blends automated and visual analysis techniques together with interactive exploration by humans. 

Import Export Companies Email database

Import Export Companies Email database

This is built on the idea of combining quantitative capabilities of computers with the human cognitive abilities can lead to a variety of ways to develop new knowledge. Interactive exploration and manipulation of visuals are key elements in the field of visual analytics. Both visual analytics and data mining systems are accessible in cloud-based services. The functionality of these systems is accessible via APIs.

Cognitive Analytics

It is the third natural development from data mining as well as visual analytics. Cognitive analytics eliminates humans from the loop, and is totally automated. It is at a preliminary phase at present and has huge interest from both industries as well as academics. But, it is the industry that is driving the research process and its development. Cognitive analytics is based on developments in various areas , and it combines techniques of cognitive science and computing. Import Export Companies Email database. Data for cognitive analytics is sourced from various sources and includes semistructured, structured, as well as unstructured data. Additionally, it makes use of knowledge structures like taxonomies and ontologies to facilitate analysis and reasoning. Extracting features at a low level as well as high-level data is essential to cognitive analytics.

In the large rectangle in Fig. 2 are the internal components of the cognitive analytics engine. Different knowledge representation systems are required to express and interpret knowledge. A range of algorithms for machine learning as well as inference engines are additionally required. Domain cognitive mod-els can capture the specific cognitive processes of domains to facilitate cognitive-style problem solving. The component for learning and adaptation enhances the system’s efficiency by learning through previous interaction with users.

Contrary to other types of analytics, cognitive analytics gives multiple answers to an issue and assigns a certain amount of confidence to each one.

Import Export Companies Email datas

Import Export Companies Email datas

Cognitive Analytics

In this sense, cognitive analytics utilizes algorithms that are probabilistic to provide various answers that have various degrees of relevancy. Noncognitive analytics, however use deterministic algorithms to provide only one answer to any query. Computing multiple answers requires a second component, referred to as Hypothesis Generation and Validation. This technique was pioneered by IBM and is responsible for creating multiple hypotheses to answer an issue, accumulating evidence to support each hypothesis, and then using the evidence to determine the credibility of the hypothesis as an answer for the query. Import Export Companies Email database.

In sum, analytics come in a variety of forms, each with different functional capabilities. Each form is a reflection of the underlying technology and the specifics of the field that drive the design. In spite of these distinctions it is possible to create an overall framework to support cognitive computing. Implementation of this type of architecture requires a platform that has the following attributes: an infrastructure for data cleansing transforms, fusion, and transformation as well as a set of probabilistic and deterministic algorithms used to analyze computing data and a learning component fueled by a domain-specific cognitive model and an array of machine learning models for the generation of hypotheses as well as evidence gathering and scor-ing hypotheses; an advanced computing system that has the ability to scale, perform and elastic. in Section 5 we outline an architectural reference model for cognitive analytics and outline how to implement it. Import Export Companies Email database.

Types of Learning

There are two main types of learning: unsupervised and supervised. Supervised learning involves studying through examples that are a set of connections between outputs and inputs. This is similar to the way children learn to read and write: a teacher reads letters from the alphabet and makes the sounds associated with them. Repeating the process using the same illustrations will gradually build the neural pathways of students’ brains to link symbols to sounds.

Training data is composed of two components that are input and output. Let (i and (i,) be an element in the training data set, which states that in the event that the program is given input input I, the software must output an output of. Import Export Companies Email database. The training data consists of n pairs like . A model that is trained will function properly if the exercises from the set of training data are provided to the model in a subsequent time. For instance, if i is given as input to the model, it will produce o as output.

A reasonable criterion must be established to quantify the degree of error between the original output and the result created from the algorithm. The primary goal of supervision is to decrease the effect of error. This is similar to the way teachers correct students in their first attempts at reading or write, and slowly reduces the error factor of the model’s biological neural network. Apart from errors, other aspects of the model are the amount of parameters used in the model and the model’s flexibility (Battiti and co. 2008). Decision neural networks, tree-like structures, regression and Bayesian classification are all examples of algorithmic learning that is supervised.

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The algorithms for unsupervised learning draw conclusions from data comprised of only input data, without labeled responses. Unsupervised learning deduces a function that explains the hidden structure that is derived from unlabeled data. Because the examples provided to the student are not labeled and there is no mistake or signal of reward that can be used to assess the possibility of a solution. This is a distinct feature of non-supervised from controlled or reinforcement (see section 3.2). Genetic algorithms, K-means Clustering as well as simulated annealing, are all examples of unsupervised learning algorithms.

Import Export Companies Email Address database

Import Export Companies Email Address database

Cognitive analytics is a type of analysis where algorithms that are unsupervised are superior to more supervised ones. In the big data environment we don’t recognize the patterns that exist in the data prior to the time. Additionally, the training data might not be readily available. Unsupervised learning algorithms are more to be used in this situation. Unsupervised learning algorithms can also be employed to create test data. 

These are used to develop the algorithms for supervised learning. In complex questions-answering (Q/A) environments, such as the Jeopardy! game, a variety of hypotheses are generated to be used as potential answers.  Import Export Companies Email address database. Evidence is collected and used to evaluate hypotheses. In these types of Q/A situations it is beneficial to employ supervised learning to create hypotheses, as well as unsupervised learning to produce more hypotheses. This method is a benefit of both kinds of learning. The resultant system is more robust. There are a variety of applications, that use real-time detection of fraud continuous security

Cognitive Analytics vulnerability assessment, computer vision and natural language understanding where unsupervised learning is a good fit well.

Active Learning

The concept of active learning can be described as a particular instance of semi-supervised learning. The primary purpose of active learning is to permit the algorithm for learning to choose the sources of data to learn. That is, the algorithm that is learning can interact with or request the user (or other information sources) to get an desired output(s) in the specific input data source. This could yield better efficiency as well as less training.  Import Export Companies Email address database. The benefit in active learning over learning with supervised is the latter eliminates the requirement in thousands of labeled examples for the purpose of training (Settles 2009.). This is crucial in cognitive analytics, where the amount of unstructured data is high and has no labels.

Active learning is also known as query learning or the best design of experiments. Algorithms are used to determine which data elements need to be labeled in accordance with the desired outcome. They are referred to as query strategies. They also include uncertainty sampling – label only those data points for which the model currently used is not certain of the right output queries by committee label those points with that the committee is not in agreement most, and the committee is composed of various models that are educated on the current data; expected model changes– label those points that will alter the model most Expected error reduction– label those areas that would decrease the model’s generalization error most; and so on.

Reinforcement Learning

Theory and humans share diverse types of learning common. Learning through imitation of a teacher is the most common, however, it’s not the only way of imparting knowledge. In reality we see the extraordinary tendency of children to attempt dangerous tasks like placing fingers into an electrical outlet without a guide. Based on the results or the experience, a child might repeat the same activity over and over or not repeat it. This kind of learning is known as reinforcement learning. This is a kind of directed learning. Import Export Companies Email address database.  

Reinforcement learning is a concept that has its roots in behavioral psychology. It is about how to act as an individual in a new environment in order to maximize the possibility of rewards cumulative. For instance, in the case of cycling positive rewards may come as a result of admiring your friends, while negative ones could be physical injuries to tissues. However, after a few trials with the aim of maximising the positive outcomes the system learns (i.e. you can now use the bicycle right today). In the beginning the system isn’t specifically trained, and it receives feedback about its performance once it is working. In a way the term “reinforcement learning” refers to trial-and-error learning.

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A reinforcement learning system is described as an Markov decision-making process (MDP). A lot of reinforcement algorithms employ dynamic programming methods. These algorithms don’t require to know regarding the MDP. If exact methods are not feasible they are targeted by these algorithms at massive MDPs. 

Import Export Companies Email id database

Import Export Companies Email id database

The model of reinforcement learning is composed of (a) an array of state-of-the-art environments S, (b) a set of actions A (c) stochastic regulations for state trans-sitions, (d) rules to determine the reward immediately following an event and rules that describe the observations of an agent. It is particularly at solving problems that involve the short-term vs. long-term reward trade-offs such as elevator scheduling and robot control.

Reinforcement learning can be used as an investigation tool that can be used to understand the fundamentals of autonomous agents that learn to behave in their surroundings. The agents aim to improve their behaviour through their interactions with and interactions with other people in the world. Reinforcement learning is used as a useful computational tool for the design and construction of autonomous agents in areas like robotics, combinatorial searches as well as industrial manufacturing. Import Export Companies Email id database. 

Ensemble Learning

Ensemble learning is built on multiple models of learning that are strategi-cally created and then optimally integrated to tackle problems such as classification (Polikar 2009). The concept to explain this process is the idea that two heads are more effective than one. In order to make decisions that are strategic we seek input from multiple sources , and blend or rank them. The term “ensemble” itself refers to an algorithm for supervised learning. Systems for learning in ensembles are known as multi-classifier systems.

Ensemble algorithms deliver superior results when there significant differences or differences between the models. For instance that more random decision trees contribute to a more robust group than entropy-reducing decision trees. But, selecting a variety of powerful learning algorithms, even though they might differ in a significant way from one another, is crucial to excellent performance. 

Common types of ensembles include (a) Bayes optimal classifier–is an ensemble of all the hypotheses in the hypothesis space, (b) Bayesian parameter averaging–approximate the Bayes Optimal Classifier by sampling hypotheses from the hypothesis space and combining them using Bayes’ rule, (c) Bootstrap aggregating (bagging)– building multiple models, typically of the same kind, from different subsamples of the training dataset, (d) Boosting–building multiple models, typically of the same type, each model learns to fix the prediction errors of a prior model in the chain, (e) Stacking–building multiple models, typically of differing types, and having a supervisor model that learns how to best combine the predictions of the primary models, and (f ) Bucket of models–a model selection algorithm is used to choose the best model for each problem, and the model selection is based on cross-validation. Import Export Companies Email id database.

Cognitive Analytics


The following section provides examine the various algorithms, then compare and contrast various common computer-based learning (ML) algorithms which have been extensively employed for cognitive analysis. Before we get into the details of the algorithms, we look at the aspects they share with the general machine learning algorithms.

Input models, outputs, and input The input data set to an algo-rithm for machine learning is typically composed of many rows, and each row is referred to as an exam-ple. Each example is a data point and is comprised of multiple feature values , and possibly certain desired values. The feature values in an instance together form the feature vector. The examples within the data set typically include the same number of features of their feature vectors. They also have as well, the same amount of values they are targeting. The feature vector provides an accurate description of the sample by its characteristics.  Import Export Companies Email id database.

Finding “good” features is vitally crucial and is more an art than a science. If the target values are present, provide a label to the instance. The two mainstream classes of machine learning algorithms–supervised and unsupervised (see Section 3)–differ due to the presence or absence of the target values in an input dataset. The output of an algorithm for machine learning is based on the prediction of the value of the target for a brand new feature vector.

The most difficult part of a machine-learning algorithm is deciding on an basis model for mapping feature vectors and target values. They are typically predictive, but they are rarely explicative. These models also contain parameters that have to be created by using the input data, and this is known as learning. The challenge of choosing the right model is due to the fact that a nearly unending number of possible models are available, even though the model’s class is narrowed. Selecting an appropriate model from the candidate set is a delicate process which we’ll discuss later.

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Regression and classification The terms labels and target values interchangeably. The classification process involves determining a class label for a feature vector. For instance an email message can be classed as either spam or. The words”spam” or not are class labels. Also the output will be an (class) Label. For other instances, such as weather prediction the value of the target is a scalar, which is the likelihood of an event occurring in the weather. Target values may be vectors too.

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Based on the kind of values that are desired Machine learning algorithms solves either a classification or a regression challenge. The major distinction between them lies in the discrete vs. continuous variety of values to target. When tackling a classification challenge there are at least two distinct classes. Every example is part of the class. In the majority of cases the class labeling of instances is determined. The principal goal of an algorithm for classification is to predict accurately classes for previously unknown instances. Classification problems like this that require input examples to be labeled fall in the category of supervised learning.

 Contrarily, unsupervised classification problems are based on unlabeled examples of input. The purpose of an algorithm for classification in this instance is to determine which instances share the same classification. The interpretation of these classes during the case of an unsupervised classification is done by experts in the human domain. Regression problems have the same structure of problem solving as classification issues, with one major difference: the values of the goal do not have discrete labels anymore. Import Export Companies Email address and contact details.

Prediction performance is the main purpose of machine-learning algorithms generally. Thus, algorithms are evaluated on the basis of their predictive capabilities. A variety of technical problems arise while evaluating the predictive ability and are known as underfitting and overfitting.

Take a look at a supervised classification problem with a set of exams that are labeled are in the input data. This is a common method to apply a machine-learning algorithm to the data. The input data is split into three non-overlapping subsets: validation, training, and test. The size of the three sets is an option for design. This set of training is utilized during the process of training to help in the instantiation of models’ parameters in order that the model can predict accurately. The accuracy of the model’s predictions will be determined by the set of vali-dations. 

This is a set of scenarios that the algorithm hasn’t encountered during the training phase as well as is utilized to choose models that might not perform the best when compared to training data, but does very well when compared to previously unknown examples. It is important to test how accurate the model is by using the validation set rather than the training set. Assume that the model can do an excellent job of forecasting target values based on features vectors from examples within the set of training. Import Export Companies Email address and contact details.

From a distance, this may appear as a perfect learning. But, it could possibly be the case that the model just “memorized” the examples of training. If that is the case, in the case of an untried instance, the model will probably perform poor. This is referred to as overfitting. The main objective of the validation set is to stop overfitting by selecting the right model. It may not be ideal in comparison to the exercises, but will do well when confronted with untested examples. In the final phase testing is utilized to test the precision of the algorithm that may differ from the accuracy of training and validation. It is important to note that this set of tests is utilized solely for an objective evaluation of the algorithm.

Underfitting is a form of overfitting. Underfitting indicates that the model isn’t sufficiently sophisticated to comprehend the depth in the information. The large error margins in both the validation and training sets suggest underfitting. On the other hand, the very low error margins in the case of training as well as a large error margins for the validation set are indicators of that the model is overfitting. Both are unavoidable and among the difficulties of machine learning is to find the right balance between them. Import Export Companies Email address and contact details.

The next discussion within this chapter will mostly be focused on super-vised classification challenges that are the most common within the actual world.

The reader is advised to consult the book by Murphy (2012) to get a comprehensive description algorithmic machine learning.

Logistic Regression

Logistic Regression is fundamentally an algorithm to classify. The term “regression” in the name refers to its sister algorithm in the field of regression, which is referred to as linear regression. Because the classes are distinct in supervised classification issues and the purpose of the algorithms is to identify the decision boundaries between the classes. The boundaries of decision separation separate instances of one type from another. In the case of a particular issue the decision boundaries can be complicated and nonlinear in shape. In general, various machine learning algorithms have various expectations regarding the design of the decision boundaries. For logistic regression the assumption is that the decision boundaries are linear. They are hyperplanes of the feature space that is high-dimensional in which the size of the feature space measured by how many components within the feature vector in a training instance.

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The parameters of the logistic regression model are the approximate weights for the various features. Each feature vector that is weighted is assigned a value of 0 to 1, using the logistic model that is shaped like an S. The value is then interpreted as the likelihood of an instance belonging to a certain class. 

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The algorithm for learning adjusts the weights to accurately classify the instances. The problem of avoiding overfitting is a constant concern. The gradient descent technique and a variety of variations are widely used to tune the weights. After the weights have been selected then the logistic function is applied to an undiscovered example to determine the probability of it being part of an appropriate class.

Due to the simplistic notion of decision boundaries that are linear that logistic regression is frequently the first algorithm of choice for classifying problems. In addition, due to linear, noncomplex decision boundary that logistic regression has been proven to be less susceptible to overfitting. It is intuitive that overfitting happens when we attempt to categorize every single training instance by randomly adjusting the boundary of decision. In addition, gradient descent generally is extremely fast, which makes the process of training logistic regression fast. These advantages are enough to justifies the widespread application of logistic regression for a range of classification issues. On the negative side however, the simple models’ assumptions can result in underfitting of rich and intricate data. Import Export Companies Email lists datas.

Logistic regression is used in various applications. Honorio as well as Ortiz (2015) have used it to study how to structure and the parameters for a model for social networks which reveals the strategic actions of individuals. The model was used to identify the most influential people in the network (Irfan and Ortiz 2011; 2014). Logistic regression is also employed for GIS (Ayalew and Yamagishi 2005; Lee, 2005) and filtering spam emails (Chang and al. 2008) as well as for other issues related to natural processing of languages.

Decision Trees

The Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method was initially proposed by Breiman and co. (1984) in the 1980s. This led to a huge interest in learning by decision trees in the 1980s. In the supervised classification context the aim of learning by decision tree is to calculate a particular type of tree that is able to identify examples and groups. The concepts of validation, training, and tests sets, as well as overfitting and underfitting concerns are relevant to decision trees as well. The fundamental model of decision tree learning is a tree , in the graph-theoretic terms. Import Export Companies Email lists datas.

 But, we also need to be aware of a stylized control flow that is superimposed on the structure of the tree. Each node within the tree, which includes the root, poses the question of a decision. Based on the response for the example we explore an individual child of the internal node. When we arrive at the leaf node, you can be certain of what the case is classified as per the decision tree since every leaf node is marked with the class label.

Alongside CART, there are a variety of other learning methods to find an “best” tree to solve an issue of classification. The most modern algorithms, such as Iter-ative Dichotomiser3 (ID3) (Quinlan 1986) and its successors C4.5 (Quinlan 2014.) as well as C5 (Quinlan 2016) employ information theoretic techniques like entropy to discover trees. Entropy can be viewed as an indication of uncertainty. At first, the entire training set, which includes the various examples from different classes will be very high in Entropy measurement. ID3 as well as its successors frequently partition the training set to reduce the entropy measurements that are derived from the splits.

A greedy strategy is used to accomplish this. The algorithm selects a particular feature and then divides the set according to the characteristic. The feature is selected with the intention of reducing the total of the entropy measures in the partitions that result. The exact procedure is repeated for each partition, unless all the cases in the partition are in similar classes.

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The main benefit that decision tree-based learning has over alternative methods, such as logistic regression, is the fact that it is able to capture more complicated decision bound-aries. It is appropriate for data that is not linearly separable. There isn’t a hyperplane to separate examples of two different classes. The capacity for decision tree learning to recognize complicated decision boundaries can be the fault of the tree, as it can result in overfitting if certain other methods such as “pruning trees” is used.

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Some other benefits are what have made decision trees a popular choice. They can provide a clear representation that shows how the machine-learning algorithm is performing classification. The second phase of training typically is fast and adaptable to massive data. Finally the use of decision trees has been extensively utilized in different ensemble learning techniques including AdaBoost .

Cognitive Analytics

Freund and al. 1999) and random forests (Breiman 2001, and Ho 1995). Random forests fall under the larger scope of techniques for machine learning referred to as bagging. Bagging techniques are particularly suited to tackle overfitting. When a random forest is created, many decision trees are mastered that together form the graph-theoretic forest. The new features are classified by the different decision trees in the forest. The individual classifications are then combined to create what is the ultimate classification. Import Export Companies business Email address.

Support Vector Machine

SVM is among the most widely used algorithm for machine learning (Bell (2014); Shalev-Shwartz, and Ben-David 2014). From the time Vapnik and Chervonenkis have presented SVM in the 1960s, there has been an enormous amount of work done to extend it in a variety of directions. We will discuss the fundamental concept that underlies SVM and its benefits. This book written by the author SchEURolkopf (1999) is an extensive reference on the subject.

Take a look at a limited classification setting where the training set comprises of examples belonging to two classes and the examples are separable in linear terms. Due to the assumption of linear separability there are hyperplanes that divide the examples from the two distinct classes. In actuality, there are an endless number of hyperplanes. The principle behind SVM is to select the one that sits “right at the center” between the instances of both classes. Mathematically being, SVM chooses the hyperplane which has the greatest distance between the hyperplane and the other examples. Import Export Companies business Email address.

 This means that the hyperplane is equal to the instances that belong to the two categories close to it. In SVM terms, the two-fold increase in what is the difference between hyperplane’s edge and the nearest points to it is called the margin. This is why SVM is also known as a maximal margin classifier. Making sure that the margin is maximized or, in other words, selecting the particular hyperplane between the two examples of classes is extremely important. This provides a solid generalization to classify previously unstudied examples.

One of the main reasons SVM is so universally useful is the fact that it can be extended easily to complex situations which aren’t linearly separable. This is accomplished by mapping the examples of training into a higher-dimensional space in which they can be separable on a linear basis using the kernel method (Aizerman and colleagues. 1964; Boser et al. 1992) to make computation more feasible.

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Another reason for SVM’s applicability is a small issue that is the reason for the term “support vector.” The fact that not all examples of training are equally important. In reality, because the decision boundary only relies on the exam-ples that are nearest to it it’s sufficient to establish the basic model of SVM using the training examples that are only relevant to it. These examples are referred to as support vectors. While the original dataset could have a lot of instances, the quantity of support vectors are usually extremely small. This means that SVM suitable for large-scale data, such as streaming data. SVM is also efficient in memory for a wide range of applications.

SVM algorithm has been used successfully for classification of images in huge repository sites like Instagram. They are also used to analyse natural language texts and web-based document (Tong and Koller 2001). In the medical area, SVMs have been used to classify proteins within their functional families (Cai and al. 2003).

Artificial Neural Networks and Deep Learning

The ANNs, or more simply, neural networks, are part of the larger category of computational models that are based on biological principles. They are designed to mimic how neurons of the brain “fire” and how a neuron’s firing influences the other neurons that are connected to it. One of the first and most powerful models of a neuron can be due to McCulloch as well as Pitts (1943) who used mathematics and biology to study the firing rate of neurons as the threshold function. Import Export Companies business Email address.  Then, Rosenblatt (1958) presented the first algorithm, referred to as the perceptron algo-rithm to discover what parameters are used in the most basic kind of neural network which can effectively solve classified problems that are linearly separable.

The advancements in high-performance computing and algorithmic advancements have allowed for the development of advanced ANNs to solve problems where the boundaries between classes are not linearly separable. This led to an increase in interest and growth in neural networks in the 1980s. Many viewed the ANNs to be an “one size that fits all” system, which eventually led to its own demise. In particular, Geman et al. (1992) demonstrated the fact that neural networks can be vulnerable to problems of underfitting or overfitting. In addition, they showed that in order for a neural network to be efficient for different situations It must be complex and a sufficient amount of data is required to enable effective learning. Import Export Companies business Email address.

There are numerous variations of neural networks, however we will focus on the most well-known one, known as a feed-forward neural system. A feed-forward network is comprised of neurons arranged in multiple layers. The first layer is referred to as an input layer and the second layer is known as is the layer that outputs. The layers in between the output and input layers are considered to be hidden layers. The outputs from neurons in one layer are being fed as inputs to neurons in the next layer. In the models parameters are the weights of connections between neurons from two consecutive layers , as well as the threshold value of each neuron. The weights are a measure of the strength of connections as well as the threshold is used to determine whether or not a particular neuron activates.

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With a training data set the neural network is constructed so such that the total number of neuron that are in the layer of input is proportional to how many features. In addition, the number neurons that make up the output layer are proportional to the number of values for the target. In addition to these limitations There isn’t a hard and fast rule about the amount of hidden layers as well as the amount of neuron that are in the hidden layer. Most of the time they are discovered by testing several different networks and selecting one that is based on cross-validation

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Cognitive Analytics

(Murphy, 2012). There are a variety of methods to learn the parameters of a neural system (Murphy 2012) however, the most effective one is called”backpropagation” (Werbos 1974).).

The neural networks have had many positive stories, such as handwriting recognition, forecasting the stock market. But, because of the problems with network complexity and the the amount of data to train that interest in neural networks diminished in the 1990s. With the incredible advances of high-performance parallel computation as well as the rise of massive data (Gudivada and al., 2015a). 2015a) the neural networks came back with a brand new name: deep learning (LeCun and co. 2015). 

The power of deep-learning is due to scalability, the amount of layers hidden and not sophisticated or new algorithms. Deep-learning algorithms have made every day one new breakthrough in various fields, including image recognition (Krizhevsky and co. 2012) as well as speech recognition (Hinton and co., 2012), speech recognition (Hinton. 2012) as well as machine translation (Sutskever and Sutskever. (2014)). Import Export Companies business Email database.

One of the main reasons for the increasing popularity of deep learning is automatic feature extraction. Traditionally, the features were created by humans. But it has been proven that when it comes to image recognition deep learning is able to automatically extract features from images in a hierarchical manner, starting at the edges of the images, and progressing to higher-level features (LeCun and colleagues. 2015). The automatic removal and display of the features dramatically outperformed standard features such as the well-known sift feature. These features have been utilized in the computer vision community for a long time. This is why deep learning has led to an evolution within computer vision.

The main drawback to deep neural network is that it are unable to be able to explain their choices. From the viewpoint of the user it’s an oracle as well as an opaque blackbox. Making critical systems design with the assumption the deep learning algorithm will choose the “right” attributes is not an engineering design concept that is sound. Import Export Companies business Email database.

Bayesian Networks

Probabilistic solutions to real-world issues are everywhere nowadays. One of the major challenges with these methods involves the description of the joint probabilities of the random variables, whose magnitude is exponential in the number of variables. But, the majority of problems exhibit some kind of proba-bilistic pattern in that each random variable is not dependent on each another random variable. In these situations it is possible to concisely describe this structure as a probability. Probabilistic graphs (Koller and Friedman (2009, Koller and Friedman) solve problems in which there exists a visual pattern among random variables in relation to the dependencies that are conditional. They are probabilistic models of graphical representation that use graphs (or network) of random variables is called a directed acyclic diagram (DAG). Every node in the DAG is an undetermined variable, and every directed edge is a direct line from an A node to node B is the direct influence of A directly on B’s direct influence on A. Directed edges do not always encode causality; in the majority of instances they do not. Import Export Companies business Email database.

Apart from being an data structure to provide the compact depiction of probabilities of joint the BN is also a sign of the notion of conditional independence between the ran-dom variable. It is interesting to note that the two aspects of representation of the BN are comparable. The property of conditional independence states that for nodes that are connected to a particular node, that node is in a way conditionally independent of all nodes which cannot be reached through a direct route. A more technological concept known as d-separation addresses the question as to whether or not two points are in fact conditionally independent when there is the existence of a third node, based on graph structure, and not based on what the probability distribution actually is. D-separation is an algorithm that is well-understood but in the worst scenario it can take a significant amount of time depending on the graph’s size (Koller and Friedman 2009).

The main machine learning challenges within the BN setting is to learn how to calculate the parameters (i.e. conditional probabilities) in relation to the graph’s structure , and learning about the graph’s structure as well as the parameters based on a probability dis-tribution. For the former, a variety of widely used techniques, such as Maximum Likelihood or expectation maximization are extensively utilized. Import Export Companies business Email database.The second problem is more complex and usually will require the search for an appropriate graph structure within the vast array of possible graphs. Many optimization techniques are utilized to accomplish this.

Today, BNs can be found in an array of applications in a variety of fields like bioinformatics (Zou and Conzen 2005) and image processing (Mittal 2007) and risk analysis (Weber and al. 2012) and engineering (Heckerman and co. 1995) to mention only a few.

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Libraries and Frameworks

A variety of frameworks and libraries are available to develop cognitive analyt-ics software. TensorFlow is an open-source software library developed by Google to perform numerical computations that utilizes graphs of data flow (Abadi and co. (2016)). The library is optimized to run on clusters as well as GPU processors. There are many other applications that use it. TensorFlow is an advanced deep-learning platform designed for computational biologists (Rampasek and Goldenberg in 2016,).

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Apache Singa is a general purpose distributed neural platform that is used for deep-learning models to be trained over huge data sets. The neural models supported by Apache Singa include convolutional neural network, restricted Boltzmann machines and recurrent neural networks.

Torch7, Theano, and Caffe are other deep-learning frameworks popularly utilized. The Torch is a scientific computing framework based on GPUs that provides a wide range of options for machines learning algorithm support. It offers an easy-to use and quick scripting language, called LuaJIT that is developed by using it’s C programming language as well as CUDA. It includes a vast range of community-developed software that support computer vision, signal processing as well as machine-learning. Import Export Companies business Email lists.

Theano is an Python library that is perfectly designed for large-scale, computationally intense scientific research. Mathematical equations for massive multidimensional arrays can be efficiently examined. It closely integrates with Numpy. Access to the GPU hardware is completely transparent. Additionally, it can perform efficient symbolic differentiation. Additionally, extensive unit-testing and self-verification functions are built into Theano it allows diagnosing different kinds of mistakes in code.

Caffe is especially suited for convolutional neural networks. It also offers alternatives for switching between GPUs and CPUs via settings. It has been reported that Caffe can process more than 60 million images daily with just one Nvidia K40 GPU.

Massive Online Analysis (MOA) is a well-known framework for mining data streams. The machine learning algorithms offered by the framework can be used to perform tasks like classification and regression, clustering outlier detection concepts drift detection as well as recommender system systems.

MLlib is the Apache Spark’s machine-learning library. The tasks that can be performed with MLlib include clustering, classification, regression as well as collabo-rative filtering and reduction of dimensionality.  Import Export Companies business Email lists. Mlpack is a C++-based machine learning library that is able to be utilized via commands as well as C++ classes.

Pattern is a web-based mining module that is compatible with Python. It is a web mining module for Python programming language. It includes the tools to perform data mining as well as natural language processing clustering, analysis of net-work, and visualization. Scikit-learn is a different Python framework that focuses on machine learning. It implements with NumPy, SciPy, and mat-plotlib. Utilizing the machines learning algorithm, jobs like classification, clustering, and regression can be achieved.

Shogun is among the most popular machine learning software libraries. It was written using C++. It also provides bindings for various languages, including Java, Python, C#, Ruby, R, Lua, Octave, and Matlab. Veles is an C++, distributed platform that allows developers to create deep-learning applications. Models that have been trained are accessible via REST API. Utilizing Vales well-known neural topologies like convolutional, fully connected, and recurrent networks could be taught. The neon library, Deeplearning4J, as well as H2O are some other libraries that support deep learning. Import Export Companies business Email lists.

Mahout is an Apache machine learning project. Mahout library is specially designed for use on GPUs and cluster computers. Additionally, it is tightly integrated with the Hadoop Map/Reduce distributed processing framework. Logistic regression classifier Random Forest Decision Trees K-means cluster-ing, Naive Bayes classifier algorithms are all available in Mahout. Apache R project provides a highly sophisticated system for statistical computation. It comes with a wide range machines learning as well as visualisation algorithms.

Amazon Machine Learning is a cloud-hosted service to build models for machine learning without having to know the insider workings of the machine learning algorithms. This service allows an easy access to information stored on Amazon S3, Redshift, and RDS. Azure ML Studio is a similar service provided by Microsoft.

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The term cognition is used to describe how people acquire and utilize knowledge via their senses. gain knowledge from interactions and experiences in their surroundings and also improve the ability of their brains to perform activities like walking, speaking about driving and problem-solving.

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 It is thought that cognition is facilitated by the higher-level capabilities that the brain performs. A cognitive process is the distinct steps the brain utilizes for completing tasks such as perception making plans, learning languages, and even thinking. Cognitive processes differ from algorithms that are deterministic. They are able to effectively deal with data that is unclear or incomplete, insecure and inconsistent by with probabilistic algorithms.

Cognitive models are essentially a blueprint of an intellectual process. In another way the model of a cognitive process explains the cognitive process. A collection of cognitive processes enhances the human brain’s intelligence. Machine cognition is comparable to human cognitive. Computers are targeted by machine cognition to complete tasks on the same level of performance as humans. Cognitive analytics is a rapidly developing field that is currently in the process of forming. It is predicted to grow rapidly and eventually be integrated into a variety of software applications that are commercially available. Import Export Companies business Email datas.

The software architecture describes the general structure of software applications and specifies the components of it as well as their specific functionalities along with the way they communicate between the components. Certain types of architectures are generic, and are utilized to construct an entire set of software, while others are specific to one specific application. Cognitive architecture is a presumption about established structures of the mind and their interactions that give the human brain with intelligence as well as machines. The methods used to achieve cognitive archi-tecture within computers and humans are distinct. 

The core of our human cognitive processes is the brain and mind while computers and algorithms provide the necessary infrastructure for machine cognition. Certain cognitive models are general enough to function as a template for many cognitive models. In this article we discuss Cognalytics, a proposed design for a cogni-tive analytics architecture. We also examine methods to implement the structure.

Cognalytics An Architecture of Reference for Cognitive Analytics

Cognalytics is a high-level reference structure for implementing cognitive analytics. It’s a layered structure and the num-bers in circles on the right refer to the layers. We employ the words architecture and system interchangeably and the context of the words should clarify the meaning of the term. Import Export Companies business Email datas.

Layer 1 acts as the physical layer that stores unstructured, semi-structured as well as structured information. It also contains open-source taxonomies and ontologies like DBpedia as well as WordNet. Certain data stored within the physical data layer is not changing or only changes very rarely, while others are dynamic. They evolves as time passes.

This implies that static data must be stored physically, while the dynamic data must be stored in a logical manner. In the second case the system has the required information on how to get this data when required by the source. Even static data has to be kept up-to-date with the sources. These are issues related to optimization and do not belong to the higher-level architecture. Import Export Companies business Email datas. Because the data is huge and varied, appropriate database management systems (DBMS) should be utilized. They encompass both relational and NoSQL databases (Gudivada and co. 2016, 2016). Natural textual content is stored in corpora of text.

Large volume of data and associated computationally intensive processing requires high-performance computing and distributed processing methods to satisfy the strict requirements for query latency. Layer 2 is able to meet this requirement and is known by the name of the physical layer. Layer 3 offers an abstraction layer and a virtual machine over layer 2 in order the cognitive analysis applications are able to efficiently utilize their computing capability of layer 2. Layer 3 is also known as the layer of abstraction for hardware.

Layer 4 offers data services, which are implemented using the abstract-tions offered by layer 3. The functions provided by the layer that provides data services cover a wide range of functions from data cleansing and data quality assessment to encryption and compression, to ensuring security and keeping track of data’s integrity. There are many cognitive analytics applications that might require all of these services. But, they are generally available, and at a lower in importance, and can be used to a wide range of applications for cognitive analytics. Layer 4 is known as the low-level data service layer. Import Export Companies business Email datas.

Layer 5 provides high-level data services. Developers of applications can define workflows using the low-level data services provided by layer 4 and implement the workflows. Layer 4 also includes ETL tools for data integration , and can create databases and marts. In addition, it provides libraries and software for extracting details and features from unstructured and semistructured data. The layer is also known as the high-level data service layer.

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The Layer 6 component is at the heart of the reference architecture for Cognalytics. It includes a variety machines learning techniques and domain cognitive models as well as reasoning and inference techniques that include temporal and spatial reasoning. To aid in reasoning and inference various representation methods for knowledge are available. In the Learning & Adaptation subsystem is responsible for the storage of episodic and other types of knowledge.

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It facilitates learning, adaptation and development. The query Parsing Subsystem handles parsing of queries as well as finding subqueries within the query. The Hypothesis Generation and Validation system is accountable for providing multiple answers to a query and assigning a certain amount of certainty to every answer. The Results Presenta-tion and Visualization subsystem has multiple interfaces to present results. It also includes features to allow interactive exploration of results by using visualization. The layer is also known as the Cognitive Analytics layer.

Layer 7 allows access to interactive users and other systems via APIs and declarative query languages. It is possible to specify queries through natural language text , as well as spoken languages. This layer also allows Cognalytics features as cloud-based web service. These services let developers develop cognition-based analytics software without having to tackle the internal complex nature of the Cognalytics architecture and implementation. This layer is known by its API layer. Import Export Companies business Email outlook.

Layer 8 offers two primary functions. Layer 8’s System Administration subsys-tem provides functions to create users and associate them to roles. Roles define a set of system functions that the person who holds the role can perform. Its Authorization & Entitlement subsystem is responsible to authenticate users and ensures that they only execute actions that they are authorized to perform. This layer is also known by the name of administration.

Implementing Cognalytics

Implementing Cognalytics architecture takes a lot of effort. Numerous open source libraries as well as tools are readily available to help simplify the process. Furthermore, one can choose the most appropriate framework or library from the options available in each of the subsystems. We will describe the implementation layer in order beginning with the base layer. The frameworks and tools we discuss here are free source, unless explicitly stated otherwise. Import Export Companies business Email outlook.

Physical Data Layer

PostgreSQL is an open-source RDBMS which offers high-availability in scalability, hor-izontal, and speed. Auto-sharding and replication features are also offered. It is a great choice to store structured data. At the time of writing there are more than 300 DBMS available for managing data and the majority have an open-source component (Solid IT 2016). There are a variety of NoSQL databases are accessible for the storage of text corpora and other non-structured data. Virtu-Oso Sedna, BaseX, and eXist-db are all native XML databases. Database systems that store time series data comprise InfluxDB, RRDtool, Graphite and OpenTSDB. Jena, Virtuoso, and Sesame are databases that can handle RDF data. To manage graph data Neo4j OrientDB, Titan, Virtuoso and ArangoDB are all popular choices. The reader is advised to consult (Solid IT 2016, 2016) to discover the most innovative options for managing data.

Physical Hardware Layer

While it is possible to build the infrastructure to run Cognalytics within the company, it is usually more economical to use cloud platforms like Amazon Web Services. However creating an internal infrastructure comes with its benefits. Special compute processors , such as neural networks and neuromorphic chip accelerators can be used to build the infrastructure. For instance, True North (Merolla et al. 2014) is a brain-inspired, neuro-morphic chip. Import Export Companies business Email outlook. The chip is self-contained chip that has 5.4 billion transistors. True North features 1 million neurons that can be programmed and 256 million synapses programmable on the chip as well as 4096 distributed and parallel cores, which are interconnected through an on-chip mesh network as well as 400 million bits of local memory. The way True North has been used to build convolutional networks to solve classification problems is explained in Esser and co. (2016).

A specific class of microprocessors known as AI accelerators, are gaining popularity to accelerate the machine-learning algorithms. For instance the tensor processing unit is specific to Google’s TensorFlow framework (TensorFlow 2016, 2016). At the time of date, Nvidia released Tesla P100 GPU chip. The chip is targeted specifically at machine learning algorithms which employ deep learning. Tesla P100 features 150 billion transistors in one chip. DGX-1 is the latest supercomputer from Nvidia is powered by eight Tesla P100 GPUs. It also comes with deep-learning software that is preinstalled. 

Zeroth cognitive computing platform created by Qualcomm. The platform is powered by the neural processor device AI accelerator chip. It also has deep-learning algorithms are available via an API. The latter is specially designed to be used on mobile devices in order to process speech and image data. Other neurocomputing engines are Chen and al. (2015), Du et al. (2015), Kim et al. (2015) (2015), Kim et. al. (2015), as well as Liu and others. (2013).

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Hardware Abstractions Layer

This layer offers frameworks and libraries to facilitate the development process of applications using processors with specialization, like neuromorphic chips. Frameworks and libraries enable developers of applications to write code without worrying about the specific hardware. 

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The application code is automatically transformed to allow for efficient execution. At present, Hadoop and Spark are preferred choices for creating this layer. Generally, neuromorphic as well as other chip manufacturers offer APIs that allow applications to develop can be made faster. As the use of neuromorphic processors grows more widespread as well, we will see more advanced frameworks and libraries.

Lower-level Data Services Layer

Ingestion of data into a cognitive analytics system is an enormous task due to the fact that the volume of data is typically petabytes in size and, in certain cases some cases, exabytes. Sqoop along with Flume are two of the tools within the Hadoop ecosystem that extract data from various data sources, and loading them in the Hadoop Distributed File System. Sqoop is used to extract and loading structured data and Flume is the same with non-structured data. Import Export Companies email address outlook.

A lot of cognitive analytics applications collect information from a variety of data sources to supplement internal data. The use of algorithms and data cleaning workflows are needed for identifying and eliminating duplicates, solving conflicts and inconsistencies as well as finding missing data, identifying violations of integrity constraints, and the detection and resolution of outliers. Ganti as well as Sarma (2013) review several popular strategies to develop methods for cleaning data. Other publications in this direction comprise Osborne (2012) as well as McCallum (2012).

The protection of privacy rights is an enormous problem. Differential privacy limits the individuals’ rights to information depending on their roles. Data encryption makes it easier to secure data and privacy security. Particularly in the health and medical healthcare fields, the notion of personal identifiable information is essential. Certain methods like data perturbation can allow data analytics that do not compromise the privacy demands. Data perturbation is an efficient method for preserving privacy in electronic records of health than deidentifiying and reidentification methods. Import Export Companies email address outlook.

Provenance is the process of keeping a record of the processing applied to an item of data. The history is stored as metadata graphs that grow extremely quickly. It is costly computationally (Cheah and 2014). Provenance tracking may not be an issue for some cognition-based analytics software. In the Open Provenance Model is a set of specifications to implement provenance. Pentaho Kettle, eBioFlow, PLIER and SPADE are the tools used to implement provenance.

Due to the volume of data that are being stored, data compression is a crucial consideration. Text compression generally requires lossless algorithms. The original data and the data retrieved from compressed data are the same. Video and image data could tolerate some loss of data when compressed. RainStor/Teradata is a data-base that was specially designed for large data, is said to have the compress ratio that is 40:1 and in certain cases it can be at or above 100:1.

H-L Data Services Layer

Tools are needed to integrate data from different sources. The process of fusion of data requires the normalization of data in order to conform to the canonical structure and identifying the related data for an individual from multiple sources, setting up the rules for transformation, and then the resolution of any conflicts. ETL are a group of tools that originate from the area of data warehousing and can be used to accomplish this. Scriptella, KETL, Pentaho Data Integrator–Kettle Talend , Open Source Data Integrator Jasper-soft ETL, GeoKettle, Jedox, Apatar, CloverETL, and HPCC Systems are excellent ETL tools. Import Export Companies email address outlook.

Pivotal Greenplum (originally Greenplum Database) is a hugely large data warehouse that is parallel to. Greenplum has a branched out from PostgreSQL and added numerous features for data warehousing. Pivotal Greenplum is a perfect fit to use for large-scale data analysis. Apache MADlib is a software library designed for the scalable analysis of data in databases (Hellerstein and colleagues. 2012). MADlib offers parallel implementations of machine learning as well as the mathematical and statistical tools. MADlib currently is compatible with Pivotal Greenplum, PostgreSQL and Apache HAWQ (Hadoop Native SQL Platform) databases as well as data warehouses. A large number of NoSQL databases are able to compute analytics in batch mode with MapRe-duce frameworks (Gudivada and others. (2016)).

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There are a variety of tools available to extract features and other information from unstructured information, mostly natural language texts. 

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Apache UIMA project pro-vides frameworks that include tools, annotators, and tools to aid in the analysis of non-structured data such as audio, text video, and text. Tools developed by the Stanford NLP group for solving the most difficult computational linguistics issues include sta-tistical NLP as well as deep-learning NLP and rules-based NLP. Other tools that can be used to tackle natural language issues include GATE and openNLP. Apache Lucene Core is a full-featured search engine for text in the Java library. GPText comes from Greenplum is an analysis framework for statistical text designed to run on parallel computing platforms. GPText is also accessible as a cloud-based service (Li and al. 2013).

SyntaxNet is an open-source neural network framework designed to create artificial language systems. Parsey McParseface is a pretrained SyntaxNet model that parses an existing English language. TensorFlow is another library of software to aid in machine learning. NuPIC is an open platform that supports cognitive computing that is based upon a theory of neocortex that is known as Hierar-chical Time Memory (HTM). Import Export Companies business email accounts.

Weka 3 is an Java software library designed for data mining. The R project offers an infrastructure for statistical computation and visualization. OpenCV as well as ImageJ are computational vision. Praat is a software to manipulate speech, analyze and synthesizing. openSMILE is another software for extracting audio data in real-time.

Cognitive Analytics Layer

The layer connects all subsystems and components together, acting in the role of an integrator as well as a coordinator. Certain tools and libraries we mentioned in Section 5.2.5 can also be useful in the implementation of this layer. This is due to the fact that the distinction between high-level and low-level elements are subjective and fluid. This is also true for the distinction between information and data and knowledge and information.

There are a variety of tools available to implement this layer. Their roles are usually mutually exclusive and several tools are required. FRED is a machine reading tool that is part of the Semantic Web (Presutti et al. 2012). It interprets natural language texts in 48 languages, and converts it into linked data. It’s available as an REST service as well as it is a Python library package. Apache Stanbol is a software stack and reusable set components that support semantic content management. Federated Knowledge eXtraction Framework (FOX) is an application to aid in RDF extraction of text through group learning (Speck as well as Ngonga Ngomo 2014). 

Named Entity Recognition and Disambiguation (NERD) is a different framework that unifies 10 well-known named entity extractors, and then compares their capabilities (Rizzo and Troncy 2012). Import Export Companies business email accounts. Accurate online disambiguation of named Entries from Text and Tables (AIDA) is a different tool to extract known entities in natural text in the language (Yosef 2016,). AlchemyAPI offers 12 APIs for semantic text analysis to aid in understanding natural language (Feyisetan and co. 2014). Data mining libraries that use machine learning comprise PyML, Apache Mahout, MLib, dlibml WEKA and scikit-learn.

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There are many options to implement this Results presentation & Visualization subsystem. Results presentation is linked to web application development frameworks that are used to implement Cognalytics. Frameworks for user interface development like Bootstrap, Foundation, GroundworkCSS, Gumby, HTML KickStart, IVORY, and Kube have a wide range of features for presenting results and navigation through the application. D3 chart, dygraphs Highcharts, and FusionCharts are all visualization tools that can be used in web browsers.

API Layer

Cognalytics offers several APIs to interaction with the external world. SQL, SPARQL, and XQuery are all standard languages to query RDBMS, RDF, and native XML databases explicitly. Representational State Transfer (REST) is a low overhead Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) API to interact with Cognalytics system. REST uses four HTTP methods GET (reading data), POST (writing data), PUT (updating data), and DELETE (removing data). The query and language interfaces are a natural method to interact to the computer system. The interfaces of the first two classes mostly cater to the needs of users who are active and pose formal queries, whereas the third class provides users to have a more robust and flexible method of submitting queries. Import Export Companies business email accounts.

Administration Layer

System administration features include monitoring of system users, user management backup and recovery as well as access controls. Monitoring, backup as well as recovery features are usually integrated into an enterprise-wide system. Users management includes user registration and assigning users roles. One-time sign-on (SSO) is an authentication solution that permits the user with the same login ID as well as password to connect to multiple platforms within an organisation. A lot of software libraries combine authoriza-tion and authentication functions into one.

Shibboleth is an open-source application that offers a federated identity solution. It lets users connect to apps inside and outside the organisation through SSO. Apache Shiro is a Java security framework that integrates cryptography, authentication, authorization and session management capabilities into applications. Other options are OpenDJ, OpenIDM, OpenAM and DACS.

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Although data warehouse-driven analytics has been around for more than two decades (Devlin and Murphy 1988) but only recently has seen a huge push in the integration of unstructured data into data analytics. 

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The potential of cognitive analytics is due to the synergistic and complementary benefit heterogeneous sources of data can provide. Cognitive analytics applications can range from improving students’ engagement, developing interventions, to developing more efficient Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITS) to develop cogni-tive assistants as well as customized learning environments.

EDM as well as LA are two domains within the realm of education and learning which draw on data analytics. EDM could be considered descriptive analytics. The present EDM systems are connected to courses management software (CMS) like Black-board and Moodle that provide structured information to be used for analysis. This includes the amount of CMS logins, the amount of time spent on every learning activity and the scores of tests. Based on this information students are categorized into groups of various sizes and the appropriate intervention strategies are created for every group. There is no involvement of humans in this process. Import Export business Companies email address.

LA takes EDM one step further. LA blends EDM with human judgement (Siemens 2012). It’s best understood in the context of prescriptive analytical. It employs machine learning algorithm techniques to discover patterns that are not obvious and to generate actionable intelligence. This is then employed to develop individualized intervention measures. Apart from organized data LA also incorporates nonstructured data like messages from discussion boards and emails into analytics. Recent initiatives in LA are aimed at propelling both EDM as well as LA into the area of predictive analytics, and beyond to cognitive analytics.

Personalized Learning

Learning that is personalized can be seen by examining multiple angles. One strategy is to let learners to learn at their individual pace. The sequence in which topics are taught by one person could differ from the order in which topics are learned for a different learner. Learners aren’t bound by an orderly synchro-nization process. They can explore subjects in any order, but are restricted by the necessary dependencies. Another feature is the automatic assessment generation, which provides context-specific and incremental scaffolding and providing immediate feedback on the assessments. Import Export business Companies email address. Descriptive analytics can help identify the next areas to explore for the student. A system for personalized learning, known as ISPeL that is based on these concepts is explained in Gudivada (2016). How ISPeL could be expanded to include cognitive analytics is further described.


This is possibly the most important area that has been profoundly affected by cognitive analytics in the past. Cognitive businesses make use of cognitive analytics for operational management as well as strategic decision-making. The focus is on the extraction of data from natural language texts and combing the information with structured. The applications of cognitive analytics are numerous and diverse. It is employed to enhance workflow processes, detect fraud before it takes place as well as ensuring compliance with regulatory requirements as well as repurposing content and managing knowledge. Companies in the field of technology like IBM, Nvidia, Google, Microsoft, Linke-dIn, Facebook as well as Netflix have already implemented cognition-based analytics in their software. Import Export business Companies email address.

Multiple Sclerosis Association of America utilizes cognitive analysis along with natural language processing to deliver scientifically based solutions to clinicians’ complicated questions. To determine the response, their software analyzes an array of 1500 question-and-answer pairs and also incorporates data taken from medical resource sources. Baylor College of Medicine used IBM Watson to develop Baylor Knowledge Integration Toolkit (KnIT). 

The goal of the toolkit is to assist researchers in uncovering patterns in the research literature. KnIT assisted researchers in identifying the proteins that alter p53, which is a protein that has been linked to numerous cancers. The system analyzed the 70,000 scientific papers on p53 in order to determine other proteins that regulate the on/off of the p53’s function. The discovery was made in just a few weeks, something that would have taken the researchers many years without IBM Watson.

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BCI as well Assistive Technologies

The brain of the human being is possibly the most complicated system, both in terms of structure and functions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalo-gram are two functional brain imaging techniques that help to establish an association between brain and behavior. 

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BCI is a revolutionary technology that allows the direct link between the brain’s wires and an external device such as a wheel or robot chair. Cognitive analytics provides an exciting chance to develop innovative assistive technologies by using BCI. The research reported by Harnarinesingh as well as Syan (2013) describes how an industrial robot with three axes was utilized to create writing. The next step would be to study the possibility of the connection between the brain and the robot with BCI. This is only one instance of cognitive analytics, and both BCI are able to aid in the development of assistive technology for physically challenged people.

Recent Trends and Research Issues

Cognitive analytics will become increasingly powered by special computing processors that replicate the brain’s neural computations. Innovations in neuroscience and cognitive science are crucial to driving the development of neuromorphic computing to the next level. It’s ironic that the computing itself is helping to make the discovery of new knowledge in these fields. Rapid advancements in big data will increase the need to transfer ever more processing to equipment to meet performance at the scale required. Import Export business Companies email lists.

There is a gap between the existing programming languages and the soft-ware development environment in relation to neuromorphic architectures that are powered by neurosynaptic centers. IBM has already started developing programming environments and simulators, including an entirely new programming language and related library libraries to support the True North processor. Nvidia, Google, and Face-book have similar projects planned for the future.

Cognitive Computing and Cognitive Analytics are expected to be a major factor in the Internet of Things (IoT) domain. Embedded analytics generally and cognitive IoT specifically will allow wireless cameras and sensors with the ability with intelligent processing right at the point of origin. It has numerous benefits including better quality of data as well as adaptive sampling to decrease the amount of streaming sensor data, and more possibilities for a group of sensors to function as a team of agents. Import Export business Companies email lists. Another reason to use embedded analytics is to integrate the insights from sensors into products that can benefit from these knowledge. 

In the near future, more and more applications will incorporate analyt-ics that will allow them to add value. For instance wearable medical devices won’t just be able to send prompt alerts, but also provide context-specific information on what to do in response to alerts.

Current research in feature extraction and information extraction from data that is not structured is mostly focused on natural language. Recently, the revival of inter-est in neural computing, specifically convolutional networks has started to produce new techniques and methods to image recognition and object recog-nition issues. Similar focus is needed for audio and video data.

It is thought that our brain is able to use statistical learning. The creation of neural models to mimic the brain isn’t easy with the current processors for computing. The development of neuromorphic chips can bring the possibility of excitement and hope.

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Neuromorphic chips currently simulate neurons in the range of millions, and synaptic connections that are billions of miles. To take cognitive analytics up to the next level it is necessary to have neuromorphic processors that are able to simulate neurons in the range of billions and synaptic links to the tune of trillions.

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It is generally thought that our brains use statistical learning. The creation of neural models to mimic the brain isn’t simple. Artificial neural models currently available: nodes that are in the range of millions and connections on the billions. We need nodes of the billions of dollars and connections on the trillions of dollars.

The role of cognitive analytics is set to play a important function in intelligent cities. The insights will aid in the planning of evacuation routes, prioritizing the distribution of resources in emergency relief, maximize energy consumption, increase public safetyand stop the need for maintenance of city infrastructure. Personalized learning is another advantage of the cognitive analysis. However, extensive research is required for these fields to benefit from the advantages. Import Export business Companies email id  lists.

Cognitive analytics is studied by two different viewpoints: Computer science and cognitive and neuroscience. This chapter was mainly focused on the perspective of comput-puter science. We discussed learning types and discussed various types of machine learning algorithms. We suggested a reference architecture for cognitive analytics and suggested methods to use it. We outlined a handful of applications of cognitive analytics and highlighted recent trends and the future direction of research regarding cognitive analytics.

The fields of cognitive computation and analytics offer enormous potential to create an entirely new set of applications in which learning is a fundamental component and communication occurs via written and spoken natural language. It is a well-established technology that is looking for new applications.

Analytics and cognitive computing are more than AI. For instance, AI is 1 of the 28 APIs that are offered by IBM Watson. Cognitive computing in general , and cognitive analytics specifically aggravate privacy, data security and provenance concerns. There are other practical issues regarding cognitive analytics. Could this technology cause massive unemployment? Could it allow individuals to perform their job better, or even completely eliminate them? In a philosophical sense what is the best way to improve cognitive technology? Are they advancing to the point where they can surpass human intelligence? If so, what will be the implications for people as well as society as a whole?

It is the first time that computing has before put this amount of energy and resources in research into machine learning. Import Export business Companies email id lists.The accessibility of cheap cloud-based computing and the widespread availability of big data are the engines behind the revolutionary advances we are experiencing with regard to machine learning as well as cognitive computing. The synergistic convergence of neuroscience, computing and cognition science are set to produce groundbreaking findings and exciting applications of cognitive technology in the coming future.

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