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The advantages of adaptive control in machining
Many benefits can be derived from the use of an adaptive control machine. The benefits gained will be contingent on the specific task that is being considered. There are a myriad of machine-related situations in which it’s not a good idea to use it. The adaptive control technique is used successfully to machining procedures such like drilling, milling, grinding, tapping, and boring. It has also been used to turn, however with small effectiveness.
Here are a few advantages of adaptive control that have been proven successful in applications.
1. Production rates increased. The improvement in productivity was the primary factor behind the creation of adjustable control cutting. On-line adjustments that allow for changes in the working geometry, materials and tool wear provides machines with the ability to produce the highest rate of removal of metal that are in line with current cutting conditions.
This translates to more parts per hour. With the right applications adaptive control, it can yield substantial improvements in productivity in comparison to conventional machining or numerical controls. The advantage in production rates from adaptive control over NC machining is demonstrated in Table for milling as well as drilling on different work materials. The cycle times saved in the table vary from 20% up to almost 60% in milling and 33-38 percent for drilling. Buy College email lists online.
2. A longer tool’s life. In addition to the higher production rates the adaptive control system will typically ensure more efficient and uniform usage of the cutter during its life span. Since adjustments are made to the feed rate in order to prevent excessive loading of the tool and reduce the number of cutters that are damaged.
3. Greater protection of the part. Instead of establishing the constraint limit on the cutter’s force by determining the maximum allowed deflection of the spindle and cutter the limit of force can be determined by calculating the tolerability of the work. This way the piece is protected against an out of tolerance condition and damage that could occur.
4. A lesser amount of operator involvement. The introduction of adaptive control machining has taken control of the process further out of the control by the operator to the management through the part programmers.
5. Easier part programming. One advantage of adaptive control that is not as obvious is the job of part programming. When using conventional controlled by numerical means, the programmers must determine the speed and feed to meet the most difficult conditions the cutter could confront. The program might need to be tested many times before the programmer is happy with the selection of the conditions. In adaptive control part programming the decision to select the feeds is left to controller unit, not the part-programmer.
The part programmer is able to adopt a more conservative approach than in traditional NC programming. It takes less time to develop the program to do the task, and less tests are needed.
Material Handling MODULE-IV
The handling of materials is an essential aspect of the manufacturing process. It involves loading, piling and unloading, as well as transporting components as well as raw material from one spot to another. From the moment raw materials enter the factory’s gates and is taken to the outside of the facility in the form finished products . It is then handled at every step in between, from stores to shops between shops, from one to another , or between machines on the floor. Buy College email lists online.
So, material handling can be described as the handling of raw materials semi-finished components, as well as finished goods, either manually or mechanically, during the process of production and storage spaces. The motion could be vertical, horizontal, or a combination of vertical and horizontal.
The majority of indirect labor employed in a manufacturing plants is involved in the handling of material. It is estimated that the average cost of handling materials is around 20-25 percent of the overall production cost. Therefore, it is evident that the price of production of an item could be reduced significantly by reducing cost of material handling.
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4.1 Uses of Material Handling
i. The movement and position of purchased tools, materials or spare parts. to store them.
ii. The internal transport of goods from shops to departments.
iii. The transfer of materials between departments between machines in the process of processing; and then moving from one unit to the next,
iv. The movement and position of components or finished goods to facilitate stocking or selling.
V. Unloading the raw materials of trucks or other transportation.
vi. The loading of packed materials onto motor trucks or other vehicles. Buy College email address lists online.
4.2 Things to consider in the Material Handling Probems
The two most crucial elements to analyze or solve material handling issues are:
a. Engineering aspects and
b. Economic aspects.
1. Nature of Materials and Products to be handled. It is important to know the characteristics of raw materials or materials that are in the process, the quantity to be handled, and the distances that they travel must be taken into consideration. The condition that the substance is, whether solid or liquid, gaseous or liquid and gaseous, as well as its shape, size and weight, as well as the amount involved is the primary factor that determines the nature of equipment for handling materials. A flexibleand safe equipment for handling materials is designed taking into account these aspects, the fragility and weight of the materials used.
2. Manufacturing Processes as well as Equipment. The process of production chosen the sequence of operations as well as the amount of material involved must be taken into consideration when creating the system for handling materials. Different machines produce different outputs per unit of time. The material handling equipment chosen must be able to handle the most output.
3. Building Construction. In general, once a building is built it isn’t possible to affordably to make excessive modifications to the structure to install equipment for handling materials. Buy College email address lists online. Construction projects are a issue in relation to:
(i) (i) If the structure is higher than one storey It could be an issue about vertical transport. Vertical flow patterns require elevators pipes, conveyors, and other equipment.
for horizontal flows within a single-storey structures may require cranes for overhead bridges, trucks conveyors, overhead bridge cranes, etc.
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(ii) Second, the construction of buildings is concerned with the amount of load floors are able to safely handle (strength of the floors) and possibilities of attaching particular kinds of
transporting equipment to structural members.
(iii)The diverse features of the construction, door locations and sizes ceiling levels, roof strength, the width of stairways and stairwells, aisles , etc.
Therefore, the type of construction (single or multiple-storied) and the flooring strength, as well as other components and the diverse characteristics of a building, as mentioned above are crucial factors when making decisions about handling materials.
4. Layout. Material handling and layout are not separate issues. It is imperative to consider them both. You can design an area that would be extremely squattery of space and may also impose limitations, but it may be the an efficient method of handling materials. However, it is also possible to design layouts that make use of the building’s existing structure efficiently but still creates problems with material handling that are difficult to resolve. So, when designing any layout of new structures or redesign or reconstruction of older structures, it is crucial that layout and handling are taken into consideration together.
5. Existing Material Handling Equipment. The efficiency and utility of the material handling equipment in use is assessed by its capability in handling various items. If necessary, additional equipment for material handling is supplied or installed or any changes to the existing equipment could be implemented in context of the economic advantages derived from these changes.
6. Production Control and Planning. The scheduling and routing functions of control and planning of production are in close relation to material handling functions. The routing determines the order to flow materials through the process, while the scheduling determines the when the process will be completed. Buy College email id lists online.
7. Packaging. The handling of materials throughout the process is made easy by the pallets, and the processed products are then packed into the appropriate containers. Usually, wooden boxes, cards board and cartons. are used for packaging final items. The packaging of the final products should be of a convenient size to allow them to be carried easily.
To make an economic decision when choosing material handling equipment , the following aspects must be considered. Cost of the equipment at first is the cost of installation as well as the rearranging of existing equipment, the cost of alteration needed to build the structure the cost of maintenance repair, supplies, etc. The cost for power and depreciation labor costs to operate, price of any necessary equipment and space needed, etc. A material handling system with the lowest price is chosen.
A material handling system can be considered to be cost-effective if it is cost-effective per kilogram of the material during the particular operation is minimal. Material handling efficiency can be achieved through:
Utilizing gravity feed motions
Minimize travel distance
Through a process where the product that is removed comes directly from the machine onto the material handling equipment (e.g. via chutes or conveyor) and is transported to the desired the desired destination with no manual labor.
– Regularly scheduled inspections repair and maintenance, etc.
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4.3 The Principles of Material Handling
1. Reduced handling. The principle behind handling of materials is to limit the handling of the materials as much as it is feasible. The material must be moved as little as is possible. The choice of the production equipment and plant layout must be designed so that handling of the material can be reduced as much as feasible.
Improvements in layout or modifications to the process could enable the reduction of the handling of materials. The factors that contribute to cutting down on handling include:
(i) Process modifications
(ii) Layout Improvement
(iii) The size of the units handled.
(iv) Use of appropriate equipment.
2. Reduced time. The loss of time reduces the speed of output, and also increases the cost of overhead per unit. So the duration of every step should be kept to a minimum. The majority of time is spent by three factors:
(i) Waiting. The time spent waiting can be cut through proper scheduling, the organized workers, and providing adequate or adequate facilities for loading, eliminating any congestion within the plant. Buy College email directory lists online.
(ii) Unloading and loading. The more units loaded or unloaded , the greater the decrease that can be achieved in the loading time. The more efficient the use of mechanical methods (hoists cranes, hoists, etc.) is more efficient in loading and unloading, and more efficient is the flow of material.
(iii) Travel time. A lot of travel time is saved through the right routing or by choosing of the shortest routes.
3. The principle in “Unit Load”. In accordance with this concept, the material must be handled in groups rather than on an individual basis. A maximum number of pieces must be transported in one piece to make use of the material handling equipment efficiently. The idea of containerization as well as palletization is used in determining what the load of the unit. The concept of unit load enables economic benefits in the form of less labor for loading and unloading, a reduction in cost, packing costs removal of pilferage and damages which saves time as well as efficient use of equipment for handling materials.
4. Use of gravity. When possible, utilize gravity for helping with material movement as it is the most economical source of energy for motive energy.
5. Safety. Standard, safe reliable, and flexible equipment for handling materials is recommended for use.
6. Utilization of containers. Design containers, pallets, drums etc. to cut down on the expense of handling and the damage to materials in transit.
7. Standby facility. Stand by facilities must be designed in a way that a sudden shut down will not hinder activities due to the non-availability of the materials.
. A periodic check up. Repairs and maintenance of the current equipment for handling materials must be performed on a regular basis. 9. Beware of interference with the production lines. Material handling services are not supposed to affect the line of manufacture.
10. Flexibility. The services for handling materials must be reviewed regularly, and the necessary adjustments should be made as soon as it’s feasible.
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4. 4 Material Handling Devices
Material handling device isn’t an actual production machine it is an equipment used to helps improve the flow of materials which , in turn, reduces stoppages introduction machines and enhances the efficiency of machines.
Material handling equipment can be classified into three kinds:
(a) (a) Lifting and devices for lowering and lifting (vertical motion).
(b) Transporting devices (horizontal movement)
(c) Devices that lift and move (combination device).
Devices for lifting and lowering The devices are used to lift and lower the material in the vertical direction only (up and down). They include:
1. Trap and Block. (Fig. 1) (Fig. 1) Block and tackle is one of the most ancient and simple methods to lift something across the vertical distance. It relies on the power of manpower, and provides only the mechanical benefit which is achievable for diverse rope structures. It is the simplest, most basic method of lifting, the most affordable in price and also the least efficient use of human power. It is the device used to causes vertical movement by winding the cable or rope around drums. Buy College email outlook lists online.
2. Winches. (Fig. 2) (Fig. 2) Winches are often employed in the loading of large equipment onto ships, transferring construction equipment into buildings, as well as in other similar situations.
3. Hoists. Hoists can be used to lift the weight vertically. They can be fixed in one location or attached to a crane placed on monorail trolleys, or on a single rail , as shown in Figure. 3. The most common kind is the chain hoist that is operated manually. Hoists powered by compressed air or electrical power are the most commonly used.
4. Elevator. They are distinguished from hoists due to the fact that the operator is riding along with the weight. There are a variety of elevators that use drives however, in general, electric drives are the most commonly used. Hydraulic elevators can be used only when it is unsafe to risk sparks of electricity, such as in acetylene generators.
5. Winch. It is used to raise loads by using rope or cable attached to drum. It is utilized for loading heavy equipment into ships or construction equipment used for building construction and other similar tasks. Buy College email outlook lists online.
6. Cranes. Cranes are used for moving materials laterally and vertically in the space of a limited length. They can be operated pneumatically, hydraulically or electrically. The most important kinds of cranes are:
Pillar crane. (Fig. 4) (Fig. 4) A pillar crane can be mobile or stationary kinds. It is designed for light duty as well as for lifting loads of up 20 tons. All movements of the crane are made possible via gearing and motors that are electric.
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Overhead bridge crane. The bridge crane overhead is depicted in Fig. 5. It can be used for transverse and longitudinal motions. The crane hook therefore can move across a rectangular area and is able to reach any area of the rectangular floor or yard. It is utilized in foundries powerhouses chemical plants, the steel industry, etc.
Gantry Crane. The gantry crane in Fig. 6 is an alternative to the bridge crane. It has wheels that allow it to be moved from one location to another in accordance with the needs. Jib Crane. Fig. 7 depicts a jib-type crane. In this kind of crane, the hook is able to be moved in a circular direction. Jib cranes are preferred when lifting is required in specific locations and bridge cranes cannot be built. In a jib crane , the hoist unit is mounted on an I-section-shaped jib that is supported by columns.
Transporting devices: These gadgets are used to transport the materials horizontally they include:
1. Hand trucks/power vehicles and wheel barrows. The most simple transporting tools are wheel barrows as well as hand trucks. These are still being used in a variety of small businesses all across the country. Fig. 8 shows a hand truck. Figure. 9 depicts a wheel barrow or wheeler. Wheelers are primarily utilized to move the material within the shops. Wheels are essentially an example of a box that is equipped with wheels.
They require a significant amount of human power to carry a small amount of weight. The main benefit of this type of equipment is the low price, it’s great flexibility and its simple transferability from one task to the next. However, in many instances it is recommended that power-operated equipment be replaced with similar equipment, that is mostly used as a result of its tradition. Buy College email database lists online.
2. Industrial railways. Industrial railways are narrow-gauge railway roads. The majority of the time, no use is made of this equipment due to the large cost of investment into the roadway bed as well as tracks. It is not flexible, and it is hard to alter after a time period in the event of need. Industrial railways were utilized prior to the invention of rubber tires and tire equipment. They are still used in industries that work with metals (blast furnaces as well as copper refineries and steel-rolling operations) as well as in mining operations in areas where it is less expensive or more appealing to lay tracks instead of pave the entire region. Buy College email database lists online.
3. Tractors as well as trailers. (Fig. 10) (Fig. 10) The utilization of trailers and tractors to handle material is a popular methods of horizontal transport. This is the most flexible method since tractors can be linked to various types of trailers. Trailers can be separated from tractors, then loaded and taken over by different tractor types. This gives the advantage of being extremely flexible as well as all the benefits of industrial railways. Furthermore, there is no need to invest in the construction of tracks. It is among the most effective ways to move materials around the plant as well as moving them from one place to the next.
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4. Aerial tramways. They can also be a horizontal transportation system where the vehicle that is carrying the load is supported from above generally by cables or equivalent.
5. Pipe Line. Pumps and pipe lines can also be utilized for horizontal transport of goods. One of the most prominent are oil and gas, both of which can be transported across vast distances via pipes. Natural gas, which is the most common is also transported via pipes. Water is also transported over different distances.
6. Skids. Skids can be used in conjunction with lift trucks. The goods can be loaded skids, and then collected by Li trucks. This is the initial improvement over hand trucks. The skid is able to be moved from one location to another without the need for loading and unloading. Skids as well as pallets lift the weight off of the support surface, allowing the simple insertion of conveying equipment. Buy College mailing lists online.
Devices that lift and transport (Combination devices) These devices are designed to lift, transport and lowering the materials. They include:
1. Chutes and Slides. Chutes. (Fig. 12)One of the most simple devices with both horizontal and vertical movement is the slide, or chute. It could be spiral or straight and is static in its nature. The use of gravity is to move the material downwards and, if needed to alter the location on the horizontal side of the object. Chutes are commonly used in air and railway terminals for handling bags and packages. Chutes are also utilized in department stores, particularly in spiral forms to transport stocks from the reserves on the upper floors to lower floors of sales. In cases where the sliding down process is slow, vibrating chutes are employed when the materials are moved down by the force of the vibrations.
2. Monorails. It is an I-section beam which is attached to the ceiling and sporting the trolley hoist running across it. It is possible to move the material from one spot to another using the beam. It is either the vertical or horizontal travel, or both are powered. This allows for the handling of fairly weighty materials by lifting it and then transporting it.
3. Lifts. In multistoried plant, materials can be lifted and then transported using lifts. It’s a quick and flexible device for floor-to-floor transportation. The trays or buckets are placed on the endless chain that extends from the floor level to the highest floor. The materials can be loaded onto tray systems that automatically.
4. Trucks. They are used to move bulky materials along a variety of routes. They can be operated manually or powered. In general, three wheeler, two wheeler or four wheeler trucks are used for carrying and move heavy loads. Industrial trucks are the best choice:
When materials need to be moved frequently on various routes.
When materials are of mixed weight and size.
If it is feasible to make use of the unit load.
If cross traffic occurs.
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The distances that must be moved are relatively short.
The different kinds of trucks for handling materials are hand powered trucks, power operated trucks as well as truck lifts (Fig. 13) Fork lift trucks (Fig. 14), crane trucks (Fig. 15), auto trucks etc. The lifting function in lift trucks allows space from the floor to the skids, and allows horizontal transport.
Crane Truck. Smaller crane trucks work using the same principles like lift truck. They are utilized for material which aren’t able to be put on skids, isn’t readily available on skids at moment or is too heavy to be handled by lift trucks. It can be moved quickly on smooth or even ground. It is able to be moved anywhere and at any spot. In these cranes, tires made of solid rubber are used. They are rotary cranes like in Fig. 15. This means they can lift loads at any location. Buy College mailing address lists online.
Auto Truck. Auto trucks do not require any particular reason other than the development in tailboards (hydraulic gates) that receive the load from below and raise it until it is at the height of the truck to ensure that manual lifting is eliminated.
5. Conveyors. Conveyors are a machine that moves objects in the horizontal or vertical direction in between fixed locations. They could be portable or fixed conveyors that are straight or circular. Materials are fed to the conveyor via alternative source, at the time at which they start. They are then carried through the conveyor until the destination point. They are powered by the aid of electricity or with no power source, such as gravity. Conveyors are advantageous because they can reduce the cost of labour however, they have the drawback that they occupy a significant area, are fairly fixed and the cost of investment is high.
Conveyors are utilized in industries that produce mass quantities in which unit loads are consistent as well as the necessary movement of the product is constant the path, speed and direction of motion of the material are unlikely to alter. Conveyors come with a range of functions, especially when used in line layouts. A well-designed conveyor system aside from enabling low cost transport, can also be used to:
I. processing and other activities that are performed during transport;
ii. work-holding devices mounted on a mobile workstation
iii. A storage medium;
iv. examination of the product during transit
Processing tasks that may be done on the materials during the process include head treatments cleaning, baking, baking drying, hardening, drying and cooling. Buy College mailing address lists online. Quality and speed can be achieved through the use of automatic control during transit.
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Through the special design of racks, containers and fixtures, the workers can carry out a series of actions even when the material is the transit phase, thereby avoiding picking up and putting away non-productive actions.
Properly arranging the material within the work area also facilitates the utilization of both hands of the worker to the best benefit. It can also be inspected, sortedout, measured, graded, weighted or inspected for size or tested for various characteristics.
Power conveyors coordinate various tasks according to the necessary speed of speed, providing methods of pacing the work. As a device for pacing, conveyors remove supervisors from having to keep the necessary pace of work that are executed in a controlled manner. Because there is a certain flow of work that is the predetermined pace within a sequence of operations that are linked, it is simple to achieve a precise scheduling. Automated pacing allows for better control of production, and requires the need for less focus and paperwork on the part of staff responsible for planning. Buy College mailing database lists online.
Different types of Conveyors
(a) Roller Conveyor. Roller conveyors can be circular, flat or spiral. They comprise of rollers encased by frames on which the materials can move. They are powered by gravity. Materials with flat bottoms are moved in other cases pallets or boxes are used.
(b) Belt conveyor. Fig. 18 illustrates a belt conveyor that is made up of an endless belt. It is powered by a pulley that rotates the belt in a continuous manner. It could have a flat surface or an elevated one, with an either downward or upward flow material. In general, the belt is comprised of rubber, canvas and leather. It can also be made from fabric perforated sheets, or woven wires. The mobile or fixed belt conveyors are utilized in accordance with the specifications of the manufacturing processes.
(c) Chain conveyor. (Fig. (Fig.) Chain conveyor is comprised of the overhead-mounted endless chain. It is supported by the ceiling and has a predetermined route to move. It is a great way to save floor space. The design is as to allow the lift mechanism (may include an electric magnet or hook) lowers to allow loading and unloading the items which are being handled. Chain conveyors are utilized in the refrigeration industry to paint and plating of refrigerator shells.
(d) Screw Conveyor. (Fig. (Fig.) The screw conveyors (Fig. 20). employed to transfer material in paste or powder using a rotating screws. For example, feeding pulverized coal into a furnace.
(e) Bucket conveyor. (Fig. 21) Bucket conveyors are utilized to move granular liquid or powered materials. The buckets could be mounted on chains or belt. The direction of movement can be horizontal or flat. The vertical motion could be continuous in which buckets are hooked in a circular way or in a discrete fashion in which buckets are hung to lift.
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Group Technology (GT)
The concept of group technology refers to a way of manufacturing that sees similar components recognized and put together in order to make use of the similarity in their design and/or manufacturing. Like-minded parts are placed in part family.
For instance, a manufacturing facility which produces up to 10,000 distinct part numbers could divide the vast majority of these components into as little as 50 distinct families. Since the processes of each family will be identical, the production of families of parts in separate manufacturing units facilitates the workflow. This can result in efficiency in both process and product design.
Part Family Formation
The key to gaining efficiency in group-technology-based manufacturing is the formation of part families. Part families are the collection of parts that are alike due to geometrical features such as shape and size or because the same processes are needed in their production. The parts within a family are different, yet are similar in their design features (geometric dimensions and shapes) or manufacturing characteristics (the sequence of steps necessary to make the piece) to warrant their designation as being part of an identical part family. The biggest problem in initiating a group-technology-based manufacturing system is that of grouping parts into families. Buy College mailing outlook lists online.
Three strategies for achieving this sorting are
1. Visual examination. This requires looking through the item either through a photo or drawings and putting the item in a group with other parts. It is typically thought of as the slowest, most tedious and the most inaccurate of the methods.
2. Parts classification and Coding. This process involves looking at the manufacturing and design attributes of each component assigning a code to the component on the characteristics and then putting similar codes into families. It is by far the most widely employed method for creating part families.
3. Analyzing the production flow. This method uses the data on routing sheets, which describe the order of processes involved in creating the part, not drawings of parts. Parts that have similar or identical processing sequences are put together into parts families.
4.5.2 Parts Coding and Classification
As stated previously, part classification and code is the most widely employed method to create parts families. Buy College mailing outlook lists online. The system is beneficial for both manufacturing and design. Particularly the areas of part coding, classification as well as the associated coding systems serve as a foundation to connect CAD and CAM within CIM systems. Parts classification systems are classified into three categories:
1. Systems are based on the characteristics of the part Fundamental external form
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Internal shape of the basic internal shape. Length/diameter ratio
2. Systems are based on manufacturing attributes of parts The primary process
Minor processes Minor dimensions Length/diameter ratio Surface finishing Machine tool operation Sequence Production time Batch size
The annual production requirement is for fixing the equipment. Buy College mailing database lists online.
3. Systems that are based upon the combination of manufacturing and design attributes.
Though more than 100 codes and classification techniques have been designed for use in group technology All of them can be classified into three fundamental kinds:
1. Monocode or hierarchical
2. Polycode, or attribute
3. Hybrids, also known as mixed
In this kind of code the meaning of each character is based on what it means by the preceding character. In other words every character is amplifies the information of the preceding character. This type of coding system could be represented through a tree-like structure as illustrated in Figure 22.
provides a basic method for creating a code for the spur gear as illustrated in figure 1a. With these figures the code “A11B2 is associated with the gear spur. A hierarchical code can provide an enormous. Buy College mailing database lists online.
the amount of information that can be contained of information in a small amount of numbers. Design departments often employ hierarchical coding systems for part retrieval as this kind of system is highly effective in capturing shape dimension, material and data. Manufacturing departments however are different and typically are dependent on the process. It can be difficult to access and analyse process-related data when it’s structured in a hierarchical format which is beneficial to both manufacturing and design organizations.
Opitz system is the Opitz system is probably the most widely used code used for part classification and the coding. The structure of the code is
12345 789 ABCD
First nine numbers form the fundamental code that communicates both manufacturing and design data. Buy College mailing database lists online. The initial five digits, such as 12345, are referred to as the “orm code” and indicate the principal design attributes of the component. The four following digits (6789) are the supplementary code and represent some of the manufacturing features of the component. The following four numbers, ABCD, are called the secondary code and serve to identify the manufacturing operations of the type and sequence. Figure 37.12 shows the basic design of the Opitz code system. Notice that digit 1 identifies two main types of parts: rotational and non-rotational, in nine different classes of part.
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MICLASS MICLASS (Metal Institute Classification System) was designed through the Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific Research to automatize and standardize many manufacturing, design and management tasks. MICLASS codes span from 12 to 30 numbers and the first 12 digits being an universal code that can be used for any component.
The remaining 18 digits may be customized for any industry or company. The order of the 12 first digits is in the following order:
1st digit main shape
2nd and 3rd digits form elements
4th digit location of shape elements
5th and 6th digits main dimensions
7th digit dimension ratio
8th digit auxiliary dimension
9th and 10th numbers tolerance codes
12th and llth digits for material codes
MICLASS is a computer-interactive part coding system where the user is asked to answer an array of questions being asked by the computer. The amount of questions asked depend on the complexity of the piece and can range from as little as seven to over 30 and has the average being around 15. Buy College email lists online.
It is the CODE method is part classification and coding system that was developed and sold through Manufacturing Data System, Inc (MDSI) located in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Its primary application involves design engineering, for retrieval of design data for parts however, it also has applications for manufacturing process planning purchase tools, tool design and control of inventory. The code number is comprised of eight numbers. Each digit are sixteen possibilities of values (zero through 9, and between A and F) which serve to identify the design and manufacturing specifics. The first digit is the fundamental geometrical shape of the component and is known as the primary segment of code systems. This number is used to indicate whether the shape was flat, cylinder block, or another. The meaning of the other digits is the chain-like structure. This is why the CODE system has the characteristics of a hybrid.
4.5.3 Clustering Analysis
The data is from the examination of the sequences of fabrication processes (routings) of components. Buy College email lists online.
* Parts going through similar processes are put into the same families of parts.
* Machines are then divided into cells which produce their own part families.
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The analysis starts by creating a machine-component matrix that determines which components are processed by the machines.
Clustering requires accurate and optimized routing.