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To protect your health, choose an air filter that is based on the size of the dust particles MERV.
High-efficiency coils and air distribution system, which prevent the nutrition for biological development;
Particulate filters to control bacteria and respirable particulate; and gas absorbers to con- CLO address lists
Torol offensive odors and hazardous volatile organic compounds.
Air filters with high efficiency and ultrahigh efficiency, as well as gaseous adsorbers like granular activated, are available in high-efficiency and ultrahigh quality
To extend the life of electronic air cleaners and carbon, a prefilter with medium efficiency must be used
These high-efficiency and ultrahigh efficiency gaseous adsorbers, as well as electronic air, will last for many years.
cleaners. Two low-efficiency or two medium-efficiency filters do not make a cleaner.
It is impossible to increase the efficiency of collecting submicron dust or irritating vapors.
Regular maintenance of low-efficiency viscous filters is recommended.
Air filters directly impact filter performance.
Muller (1995), reported that granular activated charcoal is very effective in removing most hydrocarbons.
Many aldehydes, organic acids, and nitrogen dioxide. It is not very effective.
against sulfur oxide, nitric oxide, formaldehyde, hydrogen sulfide, or lower-molecular-weight
Steam is ready-made watervapor when it is mixed with dry air at a low partial pressure. You can get steam with
Proper water treatment ensures that steam is free from mineral dust and odors at the boiler.
The growth of bacteria, which can lead to sanitation problems. There are two types of steam humidifiers currently available.
Used in air systems: steam grid humidifiers, steam humidifiers that have separators.
An inner steam pipe and an exterior jacket. The inner steam tube is connected via a header.
A control valve. The steam is supplied at a pressure of less than 10psig (69kPag), and throttled to that level.
Lower pressure after the controlled valve. The pressure then exits through the outer tube.
The outer jacket is fitted with small holes. The jacket’s orifices allow the dry steam to escape again.
As shown in Fig. 15.42b. 15.42b.
Jacket is then discharged to the drainpipe or steam trap on the opposite side. The inner tube is
The sleeves of the outer jacket should be slightly pitched towards the steam trap and drainpipe.
Steam Humidifiers With Separators
Figure. 15.43. 15.43
Distribution is multifaceted and it then enters a separator chamber with its condensate. The condensate flows then.
Through a control valve, the air is regulated to slightly above the atmospheric pressure and then enters a drying chamber.
chamber. The drying chamber has a lower temperature and pressure than the one in the
The steam is superheated when it reaches a higher temperature and pressure in the surrounding separating chamber.
The inner steam’s orifices allow dry steam to be released into the ambient airstream.
discharging tubes. The throttling steam at the control valve is the main cause of noise.
The steam that flows through the silencing material reduces its intensity.
Steam humidification can be used when a steam boiler is unavailable or too costly to install.
Heating element humidifiers make this possible. Heating element humidifiers have a water pan.
To evaporate liquid water, heat elements can be installed in the bottom of the pan using electric or gas-fired heating elements
Make water vapor by adding the vapor to the airstream that is flowing over the water pan.
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The heating element’s characteristics and surface.
In industrial and commercial settings, steam humidifiers are used extensively. Both steam and heat are available.
To evaporate liquid, humidifiers require heat energy from electricity, gas, or fossil fuel.
The steam generator uses water. Temperature of the airstream or ambient air in which moisture has been added.
The original is almost unchanged. The most common use of steam and heating element humidifiers is therefore steam.
Also known as isothermal humidifiers. A conditioned space with a cooling load all year.
If there is no cold air supply during winter, it is wasteful to use fossil fuels to evaporate the liquid water.
Instead of gaining heat from the conditioned space,
Steam and heating element humidifiers require careful control. A steam humidifier’s capacity is a measure of its effectiveness.
The microprocessor-based controller controlling fier by changing the valve pin on the con-
The signal from a humidity sensor and the steam flow rate will indicate the operation of the trol valve. Morton
(1996) reported a humidity control accuracy of 5 to 7 percentage for on/off control and 3 to 5 percent for humidity.
Modulation control: % It is important to match the size of the control valve with the
Humidifying load with a suitable turndown ratio The control valve should be integrated into the
To prevent condensation, humidifier and steam-jacketed at high pressure. Interlocking control
It is important to drain any condensate prior to the steam humidifier being activated.
The input wattage is required for an electric heating element humidifier or an electric humidifier.
Adjustable when space relative humidity is too low or too high. Gas-fired heating elements
A humidifier is simply a gas-fired humidifier. It uses infrared burners that are located inside a heat exchanger.
The microprocessor-based controller cycles the burner to adjust the heat output.
For part-load operation, ensure that the humidifying capacity is maintained.
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Makeup water must be treated properly to ensure that it is safe for the steam boiler, water pan and water boiler.
Steam is free from mineral deposits and odors According to
DeBat (1996). Recent developments, such as the ionic-bed technology, have overcome the problem.
mineral deposits. When they are concentrated, dissolvable mineral salts precipitate out of the water. CLO database for sale
It can become too high. These precipitated minerals are attracted to inert fibers, which make up the ionic bed. The
Mineral salts are found on the ionic beds and not on the heating chamber walls. When
The ionic bed cartridge, which is thickly coated with crystalline solids and crystals, can be easily removed and thrown away.
It is important to locate steam humidifiers where there is no noise. Equipment access
Inspection and maintenance must be done. It is important to properly design condensate drainage. It is important to properly design condensation drainage.
The steam humidifier is found in the ductwork. Install a high-limit humidistat for the duct and an interlocked humidistat.
airflow proving switch. The humidity sensor can be found in either the return air conduit or a repre.
Atomizing is the process of producing fine spray. The smaller the diameter of liquid water atomized is,
The water droplets are larger than the interfacial space between water and air, and therefore the larger the
Humidification and evaporation rates
If the difference is greater than the airflow through an atomized humidifier water spray,
The difference between the ambient temperature and the temperature of water spray is very small.
The result is an increase of the humidity ratio of the air due to the addition of evaporated liquid water vapor and a
The vaporization of latent heat, which is required for vaporization, causes a drop in the air temperature.
From the ambient air. This humidification process can be described as an adiabatic saturation, or evaporative cooling.
Process and follow the thermodynamic wet bulb temperature line on the chart.
You can classify atomizing humidifiers based on their design and mechanism.
Atomizing can be done with ultrasonic humidifiers or centrifugal humidifiers.
Air washers and midifiers CLO email listing
A piezoelectric transducer converts high-frequency mechanical energy into ultrasonic humidity.
The tric signals are converted to a high frequency oscillation. The transducer is immersed in a water pan.
Water is properly treated and desinineralized. Momentary vacuum is created by the negative oscillation
This causes water to condense into vapor at low pressure. Positive oscillation results in a high-pressure environment.
The compression wave forces water particles to leave the water surface in order to inject into the
airstream. The water films are then broken down into fine mist. This mist-laden air can then be blown into
The fan can blow air through the space or directly.
Water that has been well treated will not contain any mineral deposits and therefore no filter is necessary.
The humidifier will allow you to stream water. The ultrasonic humidifiers produce less equipment noise than other types of atomizing.
humidifiers. Ultrasonic humidification was first introduced in the telecommunication industry around 1990.
Correctly in Residences
These humidifiers use the centrifugal power of a rotating device, such as a rotating cone.
The blades of an Axia fan, rotating disk or rotating drum are used to break down the liquid water film into fine mist.
To spit it into fine water droplets The atomizing water spray forces air through it.
Water vapor is evaporated by a fan and then added to the air via the mass concentrata-
The difference in the saturation of the air at the surface and ambient air. The
The rotating device receives liquid from either a pressurized water supply, or by dipping in the water.
Surface of nonpressurized supply. The humidifying power of a pulverizing fan is largely dependent on its surface.
Depending on the fan’s volume flow rate. Due to the oversaturation properties of the pulverizing
Fan, can vary between 50 and 150 lb/h (23 to 68.5 kg/h). Oversaturation refers to excessive amounts of
It is possible to find water particles in moist air. This topic is covered in Chap. 20. There are many types of ro-
Tating humidifiers are directly used in the conditioning area.
In residential and industrial settings. Many are portable.
A humidifier with a wetted component includes a wetted item, such as a plastic or evaporative pad.
Pregnated cellulose is then dipped in water from the top. These humidifiers are available in a variety of sizes.
In air-handling units or packaged units to humidify air. Wetted element characteristics
Humidifiers look similar to wetted element-evaporative coolers (see Chap. 27). Modulation
The water supply to the water-dipping device changes the humidifying capacity and maintains it.
desirable space relative humidity.
Carrier’s first air conditioner was the air washer, which is still in use today.
Today, these are used to clean, cool, and humidify the air in many factories.
Construction of an Air Washer
An outer casing is used to protect an air washer, as shown in Fig. 15.46a. It is typically made of galvanized or plastic.
Steel sheet coated with water-resistant paint to protect. Water-resistant paint seals all joints.
resin. The water tank can be either installed as a separate piece or as a part the casing. CLO database for sale
Floor to collect and sometimes mix the incoming and recirculating chilled water. Separately in-
A stalled water tank can be made from steel, stainless steel or reinforced concrete with insulation.
Layer mounted on the outer surface of the sprayer if chilled water has been used. A bank of guided baffles
An air-water contact is provided at the entrance. The elimination devices are in the form of
To remove water droplets from the atmosphere, a sinusoidal curve is installed at the exit. They are
For ease of cleaning and maintenance, preferably made from plastic or stainless-steel. Access doors
Fabricated on-site Rectangular duct joints have a higher percentage of air.
Leakage is more common in factory-fabricated flat oval and spiral-seamed round, as well fiberglass ducts.
ducts. Air leakage may occur in rectangular ducts that are not sealed. This could be anywhere from 15 to 20% of the supply vol-
Flow rate Low-pressure systems often use rectangular ducts.
The aspect ratio Ras is the ratio of the long side (a) to the short side (b) in a rectangular conduit.
Ras is the greater the pressure loss per unit of length and the heat loss/gain per unit.
unit volume flow rate transported. Additional labor and materials are also required.
Galvanized sheet, or more precisely, galvanized covered steel sheet, as well as aluminum sheet, are the most popular types of sheet.
These terials are most commonly used for rectangular conduits. To prevent vibration of duct walls by the pulsating
In ferrous metal conduits, airflow, transverse joints, and longitudinal seam reinforcements must be met.
Table 17.1 lists the galvanized sheet gauge for rectangular ducts and their thickness.
Table 17.2 shows specifications for rectangular, ferrous metal duct constructions for commercial sys.
These tems were based on the publication by the National Association of Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors.
SMACNA, the Society for Mechanical and Acoustical Coordination (Ciation), titled HVAC Duct Construction Standard — Metal and Flexible. For design and
It is important to choose the best combination of materials and equipment for construction of an economically-oriented duct system.
Minimum galvanized sheet thickness and type of transverse reinforcement
Spacing for a particular duct dimension at an exact pressure differential between the air and the duct CLO email database
The duct and the air.
Rectangular ducts should be rectangular in shape. One must use the same thickness of metal on all sides and then evaluate.
Each side should have its own duct reinforcement. For a given duct thickness and dimension, see Table 17.2.
Letters indicate the type and strength of duct reinforcement (rigidity category) while numbers indicate maximum spac.
Blanks in ft. indicate that reinforcement is not necessary, while dashes denote that such a reinforcement is required.
Combination is not permitted.
As shown in Fig. 17.4 have a cross-sectional form that is between round and rectangular.
They have the same advantages as the rectangular duct but with smaller-scale air turbu,
Installation requires a very small space and length. Installation of flat oval ducts is quicker.
The factory fabrication results in lower air leakage.
Flexible ducts are used often to connect the main conduit or diffusers to a terminal box. They are used to connect the main duct or diffusers to the terminal box.
The terminal devices can be moved and rearranged with ease and flexibility. Flexible
Ducts are typically made from multiple-ply polyester films reinforced with a cor- or helical steel core.
Spiral strips of rugated aluminum. A fiberglass blanket 1 to 2 inches is used to insulate the duct. (25 to
50 mm) thick. Aluminum foil or another material is often used to cover the outer surface of flexible ducts.
Types of vapor barriers that prevent water vapor from entering the insulation layer.
Flexible ducts can have an inside diameter between 2 and 10 inches. 1-inch 50 to 250 mm in
25-mm (incl. 12-20 in. 2 in. (300 to 500mm in 50-mm increments. The flexi-
To minimize flow, the ble duct should not be longer than necessary.
Taping systems are also known as closures. They are tapes that are used to create rectangular duct sections.
To join sections and fittings together into an integrated system of ducts, duct boards are used. Acrylic has been improved
Pressure-sensitive tapes offer a stronger bond than ever before. Heat-sensitive solid polymer adhesive
Closures are excellent sealing tapes, even when dust, oil, or moisture is present.
The duct board. Many fiberglass duct systems also use glass fabric and mastic closures.
The ongoing emission of fiberglass from duct boards was lower than the con-
Outdoor air. Fiberglass ducts are slightly less frictional than galvanized sheet.
. They are not as strong and durable as metal.
sheet duct. To prevent any damage during installation, they must be handled with care.
Duct insulation can be mounted or inner-lined to decrease heat loss and gain, as well as prevent heat from escaping.
Condensation on the outer surface is a sign of condensation. It usually appears as duct wrap (outer skin).
duct inner liner, or fiberglass duct boards. Duct liner offers both thermal insulation as well as soundproofing.
attenuation. Economic analysis is used to determine the thickness of insulation layers. CLO database for sale
Frictional losses are primarily caused by the shearing stress that exists between the fluid layers in the sub-laminar laminar.
The layer is located adjacent to the surface on the duct wall. Friction can also occur when fluid particles are present
In turbulent flow, bump against the protrusions of the duct walls. These are the key to the production
Energy loss and eddies. Friction losses can occur throughout the length of the air conduit.
Diffuser effects cause flow separations between walls and eddies, as well as large
As shown in Fig. 17.9a.
A radial pressure gradient can also be formed in a rectangular elbow by the centrifugal force along its length
centerline NR as shown in Figure 17.10c. 17.10c.
These factors influence the magnitude of the elbow’s local loss coefficient:
The elbow should be turned at an angle
Ratio between centerline radius (CLR), diameter Rc/D or Rc/W, where Rc is the throat ra.
Both in in, dius and W are the duct’s widths. (mm), as illustrated in Fig. 17.9a
Three-gore (number and size of pieces), five gore, or pleated seven–gore 90deg elbow (Fig. 17.9b)
Splitter vanes are used to reduce the turbulence and eddies in an elbow.
The cross-sectional area for the duct is shaped
The CLR increases, and the airstream’s flow resistance decreases. However, the CLR is not always greater than the flow resistance of an airstream.
Greater CLR means more duct material, higher labor costs, and more space. The value
If space is available, the Rc/D (CLR) 1.5 is commonly used.
Subscript c is the common end. s the straight through end.
B is the branch takeoff. The flow of main stream from the common ending is indicated by the subscript c.s
The straight-through end and s,c flow from the common end to the straight-through. Simi-
Larly, c.b denotes the flow from the common end to branch takeoff.
The airflow from the branch conduit to the common end. Airstreams flow through a rectangular
Sec. As mentioned in Sec. 17.2, the total pressure of a main stream can increase as it flows
Through a converging, diverging wye (or tee). This happens because energy is received by the
airstream with a higher velocity or divergence of the slow-moving boundary layer into branch
Takeoff from the main airstream. The sum of the energies from the main and branch streams is however,
Because of the energy, the size difference between the exit and the entry duct fittings is always smaller than the one entering them.
If the air flows through an exit or wall outlet, separation takes place along the surface
The vanes and wakes form downstream, so there’s a drop in the total pressure. The velocity of
The vena contracta is where the airstream reaches maximum value. This is where the airflow cross section is.
The static pressure is both minimum and negative. The outlet’s total pressure loss always includes the
The velocity pressure of the discharge stream.
There are many types of return outlets such as louvers and grilles. You also have supply outlets such as diffusers.
These topics are covered in Chapter 18.
When air flows through an expansion or contraction, it causes flow separation which results in ed-
Large-scale turbulences and deaths after the enlargement or before and afterwards the contraction. Both cause
As shown in Fig. 17.15. A gradual expansion is often recommended to reduce energy loss.
A diffuser is also known as a converging transition. A converging transition is an expansion that includes the angle of en.
14deg is shown in Fig. Ideal is 17.15a. In practice,
May be between 14deg and 45deg be.
Because of the limited space. An including angle between 30deg and 60deg is used for converging transitions.
A duct system layout that is optimal for the space available
The pressure balance between different paths by chang is what achieves a satisfactory system balance.
You can use different duct sizes and duct fittings configurations.
Space sound level lower that the allowed limits
Maximum energy loss and lowest initial cost
Only use the necessary balancing devices, such as air dampers or nozzle plates, for installation
ASHRAE, national, and local codes for fire protection, duct construction and duct insulation
These requirements lead to the optimal duct layout and duct size as well as the reduction of total pressure loss.
The duct system.
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Designing an air duct system requires extensive analysis and computer-aided calculation.
programs. Different air duct systems each have their own transport functions.
characteristics. It is hard to combine the effects of noise, system balance, cost and cost together.
With duct characteristics into one to two representative indices.
Design Velocity CLO database for sale
Air duct systems have a rule of thumb: the closer the duct section to the fan outlet, or inlet, the higher its vol-
to flow rate. The location of the fan outlet or main duct connecting to the fan outlet is often important.
Where maximum air velocity occurs. The maximum design air velocity, vd.max, is determined primarily
Based on the available space, noise control, energy consumption, and cost considerations. Return and
Branch ducts are closer to the conditioned space, and have a comparatively lower volume flow rate.
The supply ducts are more efficient than the supply ducts. Therefore, supply main conduits allow for a higher vd.max than the return.
Branch ducts are not affected by excess pressure or higher branch velocity,
To produce a negative local loss index, it is necessary.
The maximum air velocity for supply air duct systems located in high-rise commercial buildings is 1.2 m/s.
The space between the beam’s bottom and the supply duct vd.max is often used to determine the maximum flow rate.
The suspended ceiling is where the main conduit traverses underneath the
beam. The impact of HVAC&R systems that are energy efficient in recent years has been enormous.
Commercial buildings (as influenced ASHRAE Standards and local codes and regulations) are the fol-
Lowing is a fact:
Vd.max is a standard in supply main ducts. It should not exceed 3000 fpm (15m/s). Airflow noise must not exceed 3000 fpm (15 m/s).
To ensure indoor NC compliance, check dampers, elbows and branch takeoffs.
For buildings that have more stringent noise control criteria such as apartments, hotels, or hospitals
In return main ducts, wards are usually vd.max 2000-2500 fpm (10-12.5 m/s).
ducts vd.max 1600 fpm (8.3 m/s) and branch ducts: vd.max 1200fpm (6.3 m/s).
Higher air velocity means higher energy costs, while lower air velocity increases material.
cost of installation. A commercial building should have enough headroom in its ceiling.
If an industrial application has sufficient space at a higher level, a optimization procedure
This can be used to achieve a compromise between installation and energy costs. An airflow check
Noise is still important.
System balancing refers to the ability to balance the flow rates from different air ducts in an air duct system.
Outlet or flows into each inlet must be (1) equal or close to the design value of con- CLO email database
(2) Equal to the predetermined maximum and minimum flow values
Variable-air-volume systems. Airline system balancing is a primary requirement.
duct design. Use dampers only for supply duct systems in commercial buildings
Design airflow can cause additional air leakage and an increase in installation.
Cost and sometimes even objectionable noise. System balancing with dampers is therefore only possible.
If the flow resistance of each branch duct Rb in a duct network is higher, the duct system will be more.
It is easy to adjust the supply volume flow for each branch supply to get an equal amount
outlets. Branch takeoffs and connecting ducts less than 1 to 2 feet (0.3 to 0.6 m)
It is difficult to increase Rb without reducing its size. You can add a volume damper directly to the
Space airflow patterns may be affected by the supply outlet. Altering the size of each outlet is a better solution.
To achieve a better balance in the system, main duct sections should have outlets that are more resistant to flow.
An adjustable-air-volume system of ducts with a VAV box at each branch takeoff provides for the provision of ventilation
Automatic system balancing But, this is only a small part of the VAV box’s modulating power.
Allowable to be used for system balance of a branch takeoff (such a less than 20).
percent), to ensure that its modulation control at partial-load operation does not suffer.
Every air duct system has a critical path or design path of airflow. Its total flow is resis-
When the volume flow rate is the same as the criti-, the Rdgn value is the maximum.
Cal path equals design value under design conditions.
A critical path is a duct route with more fittings and a higher volume.
flow rate, and it could also be the longest. Fig. 17.20. Path FO-1-2-5 could be the critical
path. The total pressure loss (including the local loss coeffi-
The critical path should be avoided, and especially the fan, where the duct fittings are most important.
See Chap. 21. 21).
These are some suggestions to reduce dynamic losses in the critical path:
You must maintain a constant air velocity to allow airflow through the fittings.
It is important to reduce the dynamic losses in duct fittings located nearer the fan outlet or intake.
High air velocity can have a significant impact on fan system effects and airflow. The fan system effects are discussed in
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Designers can choose the form (rectangular, flat oval, or rectangular duct) and material (galvanized).
Sheet, aluminum, fiberglass or any other material) are all options for an air duct. The choices are largely dependent on the space available.
Available, noise, cost and local customs, union agreements, experience and quality, and the requirements CLO database for sale
The project. Many high-rise commercial buildings have factory-fabricated round, ducts.
Flat oval ducts with spiral seams can be used as they are quieter and less likely to leak.
There are many options for pressure balance. Round ducts are also available
The advantage of high breakout transmission losses at low frequencies (see Chap. 19).
Metal rectangular ducts are used to run inside industrial air conditioning spaces.
Ducts are popular for their large cross-sectional area and easy fabrication. Round ducts
They are used often for more difficult projects. Proper duct installation is essential for projects that are low-cost.
Fiberglass ducts can sometimes be the best choice for sound attenuation and sulfation.
Sec. 17.3 must be made from either class 0 (or class 1) material. The
Duct coverings and Linings — adhesive, insulation banding, coating and film covering
The outside surface and the material lining the inside of the duct must be flame spread.
Rating not exceeding 25 and a Smoke Development Rating not exceeding 50, except for ducts located outside buildings.
Supply ducts must be completely enclosed in concrete slabs not less than 2 inches. (50 mm thick)
Do not need to meet the class 0/class 1 requirements.
Vertical ducts that are more than two stories tall must be made of concrete, masonry, or clay tile.
The vertical openings in buildings must be sealed with par-
Walls and titions with a minimum fire protection rating of 1h for buildings less than 4 stories
Buildings four stories or higher are considered high-rise and have a height of at least 2 h.
Clearances must be made between the ducts, combustible constructions and materials as specified.
(1) A fire damper closing must protect the opening in the duct system through which a fire wall is installed.
Automatically within the firewall and with a minimum fire protection rating not less than 3 hours or (2) fire
Doors on both sides of the firewall. An opening for service must be provided in the ducts nearby.
Each fire damper. Many regulatory agencies have strict requirements regarding fire dampers and smoke.
Combination of dampers, fire/smoke dampers, and smoke venting
If a duct enters walls, floors, or partitions, the space between the ducts is called the “Gap” and it will allow the ducts to pass through the gaps.
To prevent spreading of embers, walls, floors, partitions, and other surfaces must be filled with noncombustible material.
Flammable smoke and flames
Structured entirely from metal or other non-combustible materials. Continuously monitor longitudinal seams
Spot-welded at maximum centers of 3 inches. (75 mm). Transitions
Must be 5 in. (1 in. = 125 mm). (25-mm) change in diameter. Rectangular ducts may
should only be used when space isn’t available.
The supply volume flow rate of each conditioned space must be determined before an air duct system can be designed.
Room, or zone, should be calculated. The locations of supply outlets and return ports should also be determined.
You can also settle according to the requirements for space air diffusion (see Chap. 18). For an air duct
system, the summer supply volume flow rate for cold air is typically higher than that of the summer warm supply air.
Volume flow rate required in winter. A cold air supply is required to condition the space if an air duct system is installed.
It is often used to condition the space for warm air supply in winter.
For more precise calculations, computer-aided duct design is widely used.
The optimum size of larger and more complex duct systems. Manual air duct design, sizing and construction
These duct systems are usually small and simple. Computer-aided duct design/sizing
Programs are covered in the next section of this chapter.
This is the design process for an air duct system:
1. Designers should confirm local codes, local union agreements, local customs and material availability.
Before proceeding with duct design, you should consider your ability.
2. A preliminary layout of ducts is proposed by the designer to connect the supply outlets and return-in-.
Lets with the fan(s), and other components of the system through the main conduits and branch takeoffs. The
The shape of the air conduit is chosen. The shape of the air duct is often determined by the space available below the beam.
High-rise buildings are affected by ducts and their layout.
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3. The duct layout is divided in consecutive sections that converge at nodes and then diverge.
Junctions. A cross-sectional plane perpendicular to a duct layout is used to represent a junction or node. buy CLO database for marketing
Airflow. Volume flow rate of any cross section perpendicular or parallel to the airflow in a conduit
section remains constant. One or more duct sections (including duct fit-) may be found in a duct section.
tings). The junction or node where the airflow rate changes should be located in a duct system.
4. Minimal loss coefficients should be applied to the duct fittings along a tentative critical path.
Especially near fan outlets and inlets, mized.