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Air duct systems can be classified into the following three categories according to their systemcharacteristics:
1. With a certain pressure loss in branch takesoffs, supply duct, return or exhaust duct systems
2. Supply duct, returnduct, or exhaust system for supply outlets or return grilles. 
Are mounted directly on the duct, or have a very short connecting conduit between the outlet and the duct.
Inlet and main duct 
3. Systems for industrial exhaust ducts to transport particulates and other particulate products
Layout of ducts
A designer begins to sketch a preliminary layout for ducts using draft- and computer-aided design.
The size of the air system (conditioned space) can be measured either manually or by using the CAD (computer-aided design).
First, you must decide on the size of your air duct system. Air duct systems must be the same size as their size.

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CKO mailing lists

air conditioner system. The air duct system is viewed from the perspective of the air conditioner.
A smaller fan requires less power consumption and produces a smaller system.
Duct heat loss or gain. Air duct systems are also relatively easy to balance and operate.
If the designer uses a more symmetrical layout (as shown in Fig. 17.21 A more direct and simple layout is preferred.
It is possible to derive the form of the critical path. Asymmetric layouts usually have a smaller main.
A shorter design path and duct; it is simpler to ensure system balance for asymmetric systems than for non-symmetric ones.
Symmetric layout. A simpler and more direct form of the critical path will usually result in a lower total pres.
Certain loss of the ducting system
The ends of main ducts connected together for variable-air volume air duct systems are called to
As shown in Fig. 17.21. Some duct looping(s), however, are possible
The opposite direction should be fed into the duct sections. There are balance points where the total pres-
The opposite flow of airstreams will not be affected by the balance points. The positions of balance points are often based on the
The sun’s position during the operation period and the induced cooling loads at different zones. Duct looping
Optimizes transporting capacity and leads to a smaller main conduit than with looping.
A typical floor in a high rise building
Designers then create a comparison of different layouts to reduce the number of duct fittings.
Particularly fittings that have higher velocity and high local losses coefficients along the critical route, in
To achieve a duct system that has lower pressure loss.
Duct systems can be installed in commercial or public buildings that have no suspended ceilings.
Runs should be perfectly matched to the building structures. This will create a harmonious and neat environment.
It is also possible to determine the dimensions of the duct section as well as its standard size.

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CKO lists

Only supply duct systems can use the static regain technique. It can produce a greater amount of static regain.
Even static pressure at each diverging tee, or wye can lead to the corresponding CKO email Profile
Branch takeoff is a good thing for the system balance. It doesn’t consider cost optimization. It does not consider cost optimization.
Main duct sections located far from the fan discharge have often larger dimensions than those found in the
equal-friction method. Determined air should be compared to the sound level and space needed.
Dimension and velocity
It is not recommended that one only allow for the static regain method when sizing air ducts.
Part of static regain will be used in the calculation.
The following are the main features of supply, return and exhaust duct systems.
Lowing characteristics
The duct is sized according to the optimal life-cycle cost for the various duct sections.
System as well as the available space in the building.
Pressure balancing by chang is a method that balances the system.
You can choose from a variety of duct sizes, and different configurations of duct fittings or terminals.
Other devices or dampers
The sound level will be tested and analyzed. Design: Excessive pressure at each VAV box inlet
Avoidance of conditions is recommended. If necessary, sound attenuation arrangements can be added.
The local loss coefficients of duct fittings along the critical path and equipment are minimized. It is very important.
It may be beneficial for the branch takeoff to generate more pressure.
Branch duct velocity and a smaller straight through local loss coefficient Cs.c.
The duct heat gain affects the supply volume flow rates. Diversity is a key feature of VAV systems.
The volume flow rate for various sections of duct along the critical path is determined by factors
So that the volume flow rate is nearly equal to the block load at fan discharge.
If supply outlets are mounted directly on the main conduit without branch takeoffs or the connect-
The distance between the supply outlet duct and the main conduit is approximately 2 ft. This reduces the pressure loss.
The branch duct is usually very small, or even negligible, without the supply outlet. These circum-
System balancing of the supply-duct system is largely dependent on the size of each successive.
main duct sections. Volume dampers should be installed in the connecting conduit or just before the outlet.
The damper modulation can also alter the space diffusion airflow pattern.
Return duct systems that have very short connecting conduits between the main duct and the return inlet CKO address lists
They are used extensively in industrial applications. They are used frequently in large workshops and require almost no maintenance.
Each branch intake receives an equal volume return flow rate. It is necessary to have a balanced system.
It is necessary to reduce the pressure difference between branch inlets located at both ends of the vessel.
main duct.

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One effective way to reduce noise in conditioned spaces is to use acoustic insulation.
The total pressure loss from a long return main conduit is to be greater than the velocity of its branch ducts.
The main duct is in a state of equilibrium. Because of the total pressure difference between branch inlets, main duct and main
Duct at both ends is normal. The area of the return grille along the main conduit can be varied to pro-
This ensures a higher volume return rate. Contrary to the supply outlets, there is no variation in the area of the
The return grille has very little effect on space air diffusion CKO database for sale
Exhaust duct systems are required to transport particulate or dust particles contained in the air.
All duct sections must have a minimum velocity. These systems are often used in industrial ap-
Air velocity is usually between 2400 and 4000 feet per minute (22 and 23.3 m/s). In
It is important to choose the right configurationu-
To improve system balance and reduce pressure loss, reduce the duct fittings.
Critical path (system). These are some recommendations for exhaust system design:
Round ducts are less likely to lose pressure and are typically more rigid.
To avoid a duct bursting, the air velocity must not exceed the minimum velocity.

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CKO Email

Waste energy
For reducing air leakage at higher pressure differentials, seams and joints must be well sealed.
Schedules for a computer-aided design program of ducts include fittings, diffusers, and ducts.
equipment, such as terminals, air-handling units and packaged units. The following duct schedules are available:
Tag number, quantity, type, length and gauge. The tag is used to identify fitting schedules.
Number, type, quantity, type and name. Gauge, fitting junction sizes and cfm (L/s). You can add up the values.
Each duct and each fitting type can be stored. The tag editing capabilities include creating, moving and renumbering.
ing. The computer program prefers a hierachy of five layers deep, including a nested-layer hierarchy.
Information about building, including plan types, layer names, elevation, and construction modifiers. Build-

Information layers are organized by supply, return and exhaust ducts. They can then be subdivided into individual ducts.
Diffusers and fittings. Each of these components can have layers that are single-line, two-dimensional, or three-dimensional.
Tags, labels, dimensions and accessories for construction. Similar plan types to the drawing informa
Layers of supply, return and exhaust ducts can be either 2D or 3. There are floor, interior, and return ducts.
Plans for exterior and bird’s eye views 
A layer that is level indicates its attribute characteristic as well as the vertical elevation. Each layer can be
Edited, modified, and presented.
Analyzing the Duct System. Designers are required to select from the completed centerline layout.
The duct sizing program. The default values for the centerline layout (e.g. duct shape)

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CKO email database

The duct-sizing software will use these airflow rates to calculate the size of the duct.
The fan location is selected by the designer. The computer program connects all lines.
The fan is used to try to connect each line with the end of the previous line. The computer program
By checking that the selected components are connected, you can test the continuity of your duct system.
All junctions are possible. Each line must have a fan or terminal or diffuser or some other centerline.
each end. The computer program creates nodes and inserts the node tag for fan, main duct sec.
tion and branch takeoff ends. The duct class and shape determine the shape of the node.
Node. Information about the duct section is kept in the upstream node. Each branch and main duct node
The default attributes for the duct-sizing software are applied to each duct node.
Editing default attributes and running a Duct-Sizing program. Designers are satisfied with all
He or she can use the default values to continue running the duct-sizing computer software programs. Designers may need to
To change any default value, she or he may use AutoCAD to edit the duct-sizing input default attributes
Visually select the duct sections you wish to edit before you run the duct-sizing software.
After editing is complete, modified node information can be used to update the input data for the “duct-” section.
sizing program. The designer will use the command to run the duct-sizing program. 
Conversion from Centerline to Double-Line, or 3D. You can choose between a centerline layout and a centerline 3D layout.
enter the following information into the sizing calculations. The computer program will generate a double-line layout, or a
3D duct system layout. The fan is converted first to create the layout shown below.
Order: Fittings, transitions and reducers.

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Calculations of Total Pressure Loss and Fan Size. Some computer-aided duct design computer
Programs can determine the size and shape of existing ducts in the CAD environment.
Load it into the duct system to calculate total pressure loss and fan size.
Planning and system inspection. Drawings can be used as a planning tool. Duct cleaning is
Most commonly performed in areas of 25 feet (7.5 m) or smaller. Uncleanable ducts or contaminated ducts
There are two types of ducts: flexible ducts or certain lined ducts. These ducts cannot be cleaned with damag-
It is important to identify the duct liner. If the area is not occu-
The air system must be turned off and you should place your foot. CKO database for sale
Start the Job. Then turn off the air conditioner. The return side often is 5-10 times more filthy than the original.
Supply side is cleaned first. To protect the occupied space, place drop cloths.

areas. Return grilles or outdoor air intakes are used to start duct cleaning. Openings that are not yet closed should be sealed.
Access should be made whenever possible. Access openings may need to be cut. Cleaning
Zones can be isolated using inflatable bladders that are inserted into the conduits. Cleaning of duct sections is done
Continue along the ductwork to the air-handling device or air handler.
Contact vacuuming is a manual method of agitating surfaces.
To remove debris from duct surfaces, use portable compressed-air skipper nozzles.
Use a rotating brush or any other type of cleaning head to spin on the shaft end of a motor-driven flexible shaft.
Use a rotary toothbrush in a lined conduit. Do not leave the brush in the same place.
too long.
These agitation methods are required for most duct cleaning tasks.
The airflow’s total pressure is the sum of all the static pressures acting in all directions.

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CKO email listing

The velocity pressure is the result of the impact and inertia caused by the airflow. The Pitot tube
Figs. 17.29 and 17.30 are popularly used to measure static pressure. CKO email leads
Pressure, velocity, and airflow within air ducts are all important.
Two concentric tubes with an outside diameter of D in make up a standard Pitot tube.
(8 mm) with an inner tube diameter of in. (3.2 mm) as shown in Fig. 17.29. 17.29.
The nose opens to allow airflow, while the other side is used for total pressure. Eight identical
Spaced holes with a diameter of 0.04 in. The hollow spaces between the holes are 1-mm in diameter.
Inner and outer tubes
The static pressure tap is connected to the hollow space. Because of the location of the tiny holes
They can measure static pressure perpendicularly to the centerline.
The Pitot tube’s head is in an opposite direction to the direction of airflow. The centerlines
The small holes are at 8D distance from the nose, and 16D away from the stem. Nega-
The stem’s positive pressure is almost equal to the tive pressure.
Fig. 17.30a is the simplest manometer to measure pressure.
air ducts. The pressure reading is indicated by the vertical difference in liquid column.
No matter how incensed or not, the Pitot tube’s nose must be placed against the direction of airflow.
The fan’s suction or discharge side.
One leg of the U-tube or inclined manome-et is used to measure the static or total pressure.
The reference datum for ter is the atmospheric air. The lower pressure is always the best.
Connected to the open end the inclined tube of an inclined manometer
The total and static pressure taps should be connected to the device for velocity pressure measurements.

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CKO email leads

The manometer has two ends. The reservoir is connected to both the total pressure tap and the static.
The inclined tube is connected to a pressure tap. The velocity pressure is always positive in the opposite direction.
The airjet ends beyond s 0.22 and the airstream turns 180 degrees, creating a reverse
airstream flows in the opposite direction. Most of the reverse airstream flows upwards.
The air jet induces it again. It is only a small fraction that escapes the room.
Calculation of the entrainment rate of con- 
Fined jets have similar characteristics to free jets. Based on the principle that steady mass is constant, fined jets are similar to free jets.
Other characteristics of confined-air jets can be summarized here:
If the airflow rate of the supply air is not exempted from the room by infiltration or exfiltration, it is ex-
Act as if the exhaust air were one.

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Closed curves are the best stream lines for induced air if there are no obstructions within the room
Form recirculating flow.
If the exhaust inlet and supply outlet are on the same side, there will be no cross-contamination.
Sectional plane perpendicular the horizontal airflow, mass flow rates for airstreams flowing
At opposite directions, must be equal buy CKO database for marketing
The architectural design will determine the type of outlet that is best suited for a conditioned area.
The room’s setup, the airflow pattern, the indoor environmental requirements and the load
conditions. There are five types of supply outlets currently in use: ceiling diffusers, registers, grilles and registers.
Slot diffusers, light troffer diffusers, and nozzles are all available. A window sill outlet can be described as a type of grille
Mounted at the top end of a fan coil.
A ceiling diffuser is made up of concentric rings, inner cones and vanes that are arranged in a series.

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CKO email Profile

Fixed directions and an outer shell, or frame, are shown in Fig. 18.8a. Ceiling diffusers may be round.
Square or rectangular. Most commonly used diffusers are square. The supply air is released through the
Concentric air passages and directional passages can be made in one, two or three directions, or in all directions using different methods
Types of inner cones and vanes Many ceiling diffusers can have their air discharge patterns changed.
Adjustable inner cones and special deflecting vanes can convert the horizontal to vertical position. Ceiling dif-
Fusers are usually located in the middle of the conditioned space. They then discharge air all around.
Induction is an important feature of a ceiling diffuser. Induction refers to the volume. CKO email leads
The flow rate of the space air that is induced into the outlet from the primary airstream. Also known as aspiration.
The ratio of the volumeflow rate of induced and supply air ind/s.
The induction ratio is expressed in cfm (L/s). A ceiling diffuser that has a higher induction rate (see Fig.
18.8b) allows for higher supply temperature differentials Ts to ensure cold air distribution in an
Ice storage system (which is discussed in Sec. Chap. 31.
Figure 18.8c illustrates a diffuser for a perforated ceiling. Perforated surfaces increase the induction efficiency ef-
fect. It can also be used to match the appearance and style of ceiling tiles. The per-
Forated panels are typically in. (4.8 mm). Some ceiling diffusers can be used to release air.

CKO business database
CKO business database

Spread evenly in all directions to ensure that ceiling surfaces around it are less likely be smudged.
Ceiling diffusers are measured by the size of their necks. This is closely related to the size of your ceiling.
The diffuser’s neck velocity. Ceiling diffusers have an outer shell and an inner.
core. The opposed-blade damper is equipped with an equalizing device consisting of parallel blades that are mounted within the body.
Frame is used to regulate the flow of air and provide uniformity.
Ceiling diffusers are typically made from aluminum-coated heavy gauge steel or extruded aluminum.
Teak or walnut wood. Ceiling diffusers are also capable of producing a great surface effect.
They have a shorter throw and can provide air in all directions. Ceiling diffusers that are horizontally projected can be used to suit your needs.
You can use this feature in conditioned areas with low headroom.
The round inlet on one side allows air to enter the plenum box. The plenum box’s function is to
The slot distributes the air evenly. Sometimes, the plenum box can be insulated internally. After
The air is released from the slot by passing the deflecting vannes.
Depending on the airflow pattern, cally. Figure 18.9 illustrates the airstreams that are released from
Slot diffusers can be used in different directions. Different manufacturers have their own air deflecting techniques.
vanes. If necessary, deflecting vanes may also be used to completely block airflow.
Extruded aluminium is a popular material for slot structural members. CKO email database providers
The plenum box is made of galvanized sheet. The following factors determine the performance of a slot diffuser:
The following parameters are required
Some accessories may be required for grilles, registers, or diffusers to regulate the volume flow rate.
Each supply outlet and to distribute air more evenly at each outlet. Accessories currently in-
 Opposed-blade dampers. They are usually attached to the register downstream from the vanes.

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CKO customers database

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 Split dampers. As shown in, a piece of sheet metal is hinged at the one end of the duct wall.
Fig. 18.11b. 18.11b.
Equally to the outlets. Split dampers are often used at the junctions of two main ducts.
Adjust the flow rates of supply air between these conduits.
 Gang-operated turning vanes. These vanes must be installed before the outlet takesoff. buy CKO database for marketing
Figure. 18.11c. 18.11c.
Allel to the direction the airflow is going. Especially suitable are gang-operated turning vanes
Adjusting the airflow rate of registers mounted on an air duct that has a very short outlet.
There are many types of return inlets that can be used to return air to the packaged unit or air-handling unit.
The fan room. The exhaust duct is usually connected to the exhaust inlets. Before contaminated air
if it becomes too dry outside, it can be cleaned with special equipment.
Exhaust inlets and return can be divided into return or exhaust grilles or return or exhaust regis.
Ters, return slots, ventilated light troffers, and ter.
Registers and return grilles (see Figure. 18.12) are identical in construction and shape to supply
Registers and grilles In Fig. 18.12a shows that only one set is needed to direct the air towards the return.
Vision-proofed curvilinear vanes can be used in place of straight vanes. Vanes can also be fixed
Adjustable. Sometimes, an opposed-blade damper can be installed behind the return’s curved vanes.

CKO b2c database
CKO b2c database

Register, as shown in Fig. 18.12b. As shown in Fig. 18.12c are easy and inexpensive.
pensive. These are installed where the grille’s appearance is not critical. They can be installed in a variety of places.
In many industrial buildings, floor grilles can be used when the return conduit is below floor level. 
Figure. 18.12d. 18.12d.
Return duct, also known as a door louver, is used to carry return air through the door. Vision-proofed,
As shown in Fig. 18.12e. 18.12e.
Before the installation of door louvers, consult this page
Also, the capacity of return slots can be expressed in cfm/ft (L/s m) length. Return slots are available for return only
Slot has the same configuration, width and intensity as its supply slot diffuser.
tal pressure loss, in in. WC (Pa) is almost the same as vertical projection total pressure losses of
The supply slot diffuser. The return slots are often inner-lined with sound absorption materials. This
Material prevents sound transmission between rooms through the return slots and ceiling
Although they are similar to return inlets, exhaust inlets have a simpler design.
Air velocity drops very quickly with distance from surface.
The inlet pressure increases. This is the main difference in airflow characteristics among a
Return or an exhaust outlet and a supply outlet.
Troffer-Diffuser Light and Troffer Slot
Light troffer diffuser is a combination of a slot diffuser and a fluorescent light troffer. Sometimes it’s in saddle
Type, as shown in Fig. 18.14a. 18.14a. Troffer-dif-
As shown in Figure. 18.14b.
Troffer-diffuser slots and light troffer diffusers serve two primary purposes. CKO email database providers
1. The light troffer is kept at a lower temperature to increase the luminous efficiency.

CKO b2b database
CKO b2b database

Fluorescent lamps
2. To create an integrated layout of light troffer and diffuser on suspended ceilings

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These benefits are not only apparent, but a combination of a light troffer with a return slot can also help to reduce the space.
Return air absorbs some of the heat from fluorescent lights, thereby cooling the load.
Surface slots are used often in light troffer diffusers. Air can be released horizontally or vertically.
tically. Troffers, slots, and other items are available in lengths of 2, 3, and 4 feet ( 600-, 980-, and 1200-mm).
The light troffer is used to prevent dust particles from settling on the fluorescent tube’s surface.
It is important that the return air not comes in direct contact with fluorescent tubes. The
The result is high ventilation efficiency and a clean appearance. buy CKO database for marketing
The airflow pattern is a key factor in the performance of space air diffusion within the occupied zone.
In the work area of a factory or in cial buildings. The optimal airflow pattern in an occupied area
It all depends on indoor temperature, relative humidity, indoor air quality requirements, and indoor temperature.

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CKO email database free download

The characteristics of the building and its outdoor air supply. There are four types of airflow patterns.
Rently used in air-conditioned spaces
Airflow patterns in conditioned spaces are said to be in mixing flow when there is no supply air.
Mixture of the ambient air and the occupied area or working zone is complete or almost complete
The induced recirculating flows dominate the area
Induction of Space Air to an Air Jet. The differ-
Air velocity and temperature differences between the air jets and the ambient air are acceptable limits.
Reverse Airstream in Occupied Zone The occupied zone is covered by the induced reverse airstream
Zone with a better distribution of velocity and temperature.
Reduce the Occupied Area’s Stagnant Area. Stagnant areas are zones with natural con-
vective currents. The air velocity in the majority of stagnant zones is less than 20 fpm (0.1m/s). Air  CKO email listing
The stratification of the stag-bearer into layers is accompanied by a temperature gradient that runs from the bottom to top.
nant zone. The recirculating flow will fill the entire occupied area, so there is no room for stagnant air.
Types and locations of return and exhaust inlets. Because the return and exhaust airflow rates are different.
Only a fraction of maximum total airflow from the supply jet or maximum airflow from the re-engineering air jet can be used.
Airstream is not affected by the location of the exhaust or return inlet.
Pattern of mixing flow within the occupied zone The location of the exhaust and return inlets is not important.
Space air diffusion has a thermal efficiency factor T that can be affected. For an induced

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CKO business email database free download

Recirculating flow pattern: The return intake should be near the end or the reverse airstream.
In the vicinity of a heat source or in the stagnant area.
A conditioned space where the air has been contaminated with dust particles or toxic gases.
If you are concerned about odors, it is recommended that several exhaust or return grilles be installed. Collective return
Grilles, which are a few large return inlets rather than many, can cause indoor air quality problems. They are
Only in the following situations are these products suitable
The surface effect tends not to stop the air jet from escaping the high sidewall outlet.
Contact with the ceiling. The air jet cools the ambient air by inducing it and deflecting down.
When it strikes the wall opposite, the air jet will ward. When the maximum air velocity of an air jet drops, it will ward.
The air jet flows along the wall at a speed of 50 feet per minute (0.25 m/s). Induction
The reverse airstream is formed by the transfer of space air from an occupied zone to the air jet and fills the empty
If the throw of a high outlet sidewall is greater than the sum of lengths of the room and the outlets, the
The opposite wall is at the height where the air jet enters.
Zone occupied by excessive air velocity. The occupied zone is filled by both the reverse airstream and the air jet.

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CKO business email database free download
CKO email database free
CKO email database free

Zone with higher air velocity and a greater temperature difference 
The throw may be too short and the air jet could drop directly into the occupied zone. This can cause
In the occupied zone, there is a higher air velocity and a lower temperature (cold draft).
Heating causes warm air to rise, which results in a shorter throw. The induced airstream
As the temperature rises, a stagnant area may form between the floor of the induced airstream and the floor. Warm air jet with
A sufficient velocity and a longer throw are possible to reduce or eliminate stagnant zones.

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If the airstream in the terminal zone of the warm jet comes into contact with the inner sur-
Face of the window, it transforms into a cold airstream when it flows downwards and forms a cold draft.
Enters the zone that is occupied. A baseboard heater installed under the window sill may prevent this.
This cold draft is formed to reduce the temperature gradient in the occupied area. buy CKO targeted email list
A return inlet located on the ceiling above the air jet is the best location. Return air flows
Through the return inlets, and frequently uses the ceiling plenum to act as a return-plenum. This arrangement
This can often lead to a higher effectiveness factor and lower installation costs for the return system.
A cold or warm air jet with a shorter throw is best for rooms without suspended ceilings.
Lack of surface effect. A cold air jet that is buoyant will drop faster and may enter the
occupied zone directly. A warmer air jet creates a more stagnant zone than the one below it.
floor level.
Mixing flow with ceiling diffusers has an airflow pattern similar to high-side outlets.

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CKO consumer email database

Ceiling diffusers have a better surface effect, a shorter throw and a more even distribution. 
Air velocity and a higher temperature in the occupied area.
Figure 18.16 shows mixing flow using ceiling diffusers. The cold air jet is used to cool the room.
The outlet is in direct contact with the ceiling and produces a better surface effect that sidewall outlets. Re-
The occupied area is filled with verse airstream. Heating results in a shorter throw and a thinner vertical spread.
You can create a more stagnant area. The ceiling is the best place to find return inlets.
Terminal zone of an air jet.
Two air jets that discharge horizontally from ceiling outlets or other outlets in the opposite direction, such as ceiling diffusers, are called “horizontal jets”.
The ceiling is 10 feet high, which corresponds to a height of 3.05m.
To maintain a lower air velocity of 50 fpm, collide speed should not exceed 120 fpm (0.6 m/s).
(0.25 m/s) 5 feet (1.5 m), above the floor Ceiling diffusers are widely used to mix flow.
Limited ceiling height for ditioned space.