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Database System: Concepts and Design

1. Introduction to Database:

An organization needs accurate and reliable information to make an the most effective decision-making

making. To achieve this the business keeps track regarding the various aspects of

the relationships between the two. These related data are referred to as the database. A database system

A comprehensive collection of linked files, as well as details of the meaning of the data

Its contents. In essence, a the database system is an application that is based on computers.

record keeping system i.e. the system’s primary goal is to record and keep track of

information/data Purchase All Country Gmail email lists.

The database management system (DBMS) can be described as a type of software system that allows for access

to the data stored to data contained in databases. The goal to the DBMS is to make it easy for users to access the data user-friendly interface

Effective method of effectively defining, storing, and retrieving information in the

database. The DBMS communicates with the applications programs, which means that the data stored in the database is

The database is made available to multiple application and user. Furthermore to that, the DBMS

Centralizes control over the database, and prevents the fraudulent or unauthorised users from

accessing data, and protects the confidentiality of the data. All country email lists

In general, a database is a collection that is organized and contains related data. The

A database or information system that is organized serves as a foundation of information that can be used to obtain desired information.

Data can be obtained or decisions made through further processing or recognition of the information. Users use

numerous databases that they use in their daily routine. Dictionary, Telephone directory, Library

catalog, etc. are examples of databases in which entries are arranged in accordance with

Classified or alphabetical order.

The term “DATA” can be described as the value of one of the attributes of any entity. Any

the collection of data items of entities with similar attributes could be called

“DATABASE”. The mere collection of data is not enough to constitute a database as it is

designed to be efficient and effective in its use , it is an effective database that is well-organized and efficient.

The database technology has been defined as “one of the fastest expanding fields

of information and computer of information and computer science”. It first came into existence in the latter part of the Sixties because of

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A combination of different circumstances. There was a rise in demand from users

additional details to be given by the computer regarding the day-to-day operation of

the organization and the information needed for control and planning purposes. The

technology developed to process information of different types can be described as

“DATABASE MANAGEMENT TECHNOLOGY” and the resulting software

called ‘DATABASE MANAGEMENT’ (DBMS) which they control a

computer-stored databases or the collection of information.

1.1Meaning and Definition of Database:

An entity can be tangible such as a book or person or book, or it could be abstract, such as an unsecured loan

or holiday or idea. Entities are the basic unit of things that may have tangible

existence or are concepts, ideas or concepts. Entity sets are an assortment of entities similar to each other.

with the same attributes or properties .

A person is represented by a the attributes. A characteristic is also known as data

item, data element , data field, etc. The attributes describe the properties that are possessed by every

A member of an entity set. The groping of similar entities can be a sign of part of an entity set.

For instance, in the library,

Entity Set Catalogalogue

Entity – of Books, Journals and AV-Materials

Attributes – includes the author’s name, title, imprint, Accn. No., ISBN, etc.

The word “DATA” refers to an event or an attribute value of an entity. All country email leads

A general entity can be an object idea, idea, situation, or even a situation. A collection of

attributes describes an entity. The information in the form that could be processed an unprocessed

Computer is also known as data. Data are the raw materials of information.

“BASE” is the foundation, support or primary ingredient of something.

Thus base is a data source.

A “DATABASE” may be described as a system, whose basis and the basis of its concept is

is simply a specific method to handle data. Also it is simply

A computer-based record-keeping. The goal of a database is to store and keep records

information. The main function that databases serve is assistance and maintenance of

Information system that is cost-effective.

In simple terms, ” A database is an organized collection of similar data that is stored using

minimal redundancy, so that they make them usable for multiple applications”.


1. Prakash Naveen “Database is an automated shared that is formalized and central

gathering of data that is used within an organisation”.

2. J.M.Martin : ” Database is an interconnected collection of data that is stored in a database without

Redundancy that is harmful or inefficient to support multiple applications”.

3. Mac-Millan Dictionary from Information Technology : defines a database as ” one-stop shop”

storage of data that is interconnected to be accessible by authorized users who have

simple, user-friendly dialogs”.

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1.2 Database Functions :

The main idea of a database is to manage information as an integral whole.

The main goal is to make information accessibility simple, quick, cheap and adaptable

for the for the.

Redundant data that is controlled takes up space and is inefficient.

By ensuring that redundancy is controlled System performance is improved.

User-friendly (i.e. user-friendly and easy to learn) is a major characteristic of an interface that is user-friendly

Database software is how simple it is to master and utilize.

Database System: Concepts and Design


Data independence : it permits changes at a single level within the database without

that affects various other aspects i.e. changing storage methods and hardware or increasing the storage capacity or hardware, etc.

New data is not required to modify the program.

Economy (i.e. greater information at no cost) Utilizing storage and editing of information at

Low cost is important.

Incredibility and accuracy Integrity and accuracy: Even if redundancy is eliminated, it is still a problem for the database will still be insecure and inaccurate.

may still contain incorrect data. The central control of databases can help in eliminating

These situations. The reliability of a database guarantees the quality of data and information are maintained.

The data is constant. Integrity checks detect inaccuracies in data at the point they occur. All country email addresses

Recovery from failure : When you have the possibility of multiple users accessing a database it is necessary for the system to

It will recover quickly once it goes down without affecting transactions. It also helps keep the data

Accuracy and Integrity.

Security and Privacy: To ensure that data to remain secure Security measures must be implemented

to block the unauthorized access i.e. total control over the operational data.

DBMS provides security with central control.

Performance : It emphasizes the speed of response time to questions that are appropriate to the purpose of the information

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will depend on the nature of the dialogue between the database and the user.

Database retrieval storage, analysis, and retrieval :.It helps with Database storage, retrieval, and storage.


Compatibility: Usefulness i.e. software and hardware can be used with various


Concurrency control: is a feature that permits simultaneous access to databases,

while also ensuring the integrity of data.

Support : Support for complex access paths and file structures. For example : MARC

Data Sharing: A database permits the sharing of data under its control with any of


Standards are enforced by : Standardizing formats for data storage is especially important.

is a great aid for the exchange of data between different systems.

1.3 Types of Databases:

Database is regarded as a central database which is shared by the members of

Community of users. There are three points to assess the type of the information we are able to collect.

tackle. These are :

a. If data is in a free format, or if it’s formatted.

b. If the definition of data is similar to the data itself.

c. If the data is actively or passive.

The yard sticks can be used to collect the data. Databases can be classified into four types

they are

1.3.1 Bibliographic Databases

1.3.2 Knowledge Databases

1.3.3 Graphic-Oriented Databases

1.3.4 Decision-making Databases

Database System: Concepts and Design All country email addresses list


1.3.1 Bibliographic Databases : have information that is in no formats (unformatted information).

They’re made up of textual information that is, in its very nature, has only a minimal or non-existent format.

They are frequently employed in Library and Information system. The data can be

comprised of abstracts of books, and other documents that contain key phrases and words.

With the help of an abstract one is able to tell if whether the article is relevant or not. Bibliographic

database contains descriptive information about documents, titles, authors, Journal name,

The Volume and the Number Date Keywords, abstract etc.

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1.3.2 Knowledge Databases are employed for Artificial Intelligence applications. The information

The information contained within them is distinct and in a formatted. The information contained in these are usually different types of

information, with rare occurrence of each type. The dimensions of

the data size is equal to the definition of data.

1.3.3 Graphic-Oriented Databases : Could be potentially be used in Computer-Aided Design

(CAD). The information contained in this databases is classified as active. This means that the data is

A procedure that can be carried out. Any changes could be made to data, as long as it is

Above 1 and 2 cannot be performed in the computer.

Ex: Computer-Aided Design (CAD)

Computer-Aided Instruction (CAL)

Computer-Aided Instruction (CAI)

1.3.4 Decision-making Databases: are employed in corporate management and related

administrative tasks. Utilizing the data inside these databases it is possible to solve problems

including resource planning and forecasting sales. They are distinguished by the that they are used for resource planning and sales forecasting.

and the data content they contain and the data content All country email database.

A. Formatted

b. Longer than description

C. Passive

These Decision-making databases are commonly called just databases.

Based on the type of database being managed Database Management Systems

(DBMS) (DBMS) can be classified in the following manner : Bibliographic Database Management Systems,

Knowledge Database Management Systems and such and.

1.4 Concept of Data Structure

Data are structured in accordance with data models. Data model. A collection of data elements that are handled

as a unit. For example: Book details is a structure of data made up of data elements Author

Name title, publisher’s name ISBN, and name.

There are a variety of approaches to analyze the logical arrangement of data

complicated databases. While all DBMS’s share the same approach to managing data,

They differ in one way they are structured.

There are three kinds of data structures, viz

1.4.1 List Structure

1.4.2 Tree or Hierarchical Structure

1.4.3 Network Structure

Database System: Concepts and Design

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1.4.1 List Structure: A list is nothing more than a particular data structure that is composed of information

record, where the record Nth is linked to (N-1) (N-1) and (N-2) simply due to the position.

This is a one-to one relationship. This is shown below:

Fig. Simple List Structure

1.4.2 Tree/Hierarchical Structure: A tree structure is an unlinear multi-level structure.

Hierarchical structure where every node can be linked with N nodes on any time below it.

There is one point higher than that in its hierarchy.

The entry point is at the top, and the direction of the search or passing is down and

No branches on the trunk of the tree (touch).

Data storage is a result of the parent-child relationship. The source of a tree of data is its root. Data that is found at various levels within a particular branch of the root is known as

The node. The final node in the series is known as the leaf. Each child has a set of pointers.

There are many siblings and only one pointer for the parent, resulting in a single-to-many relationship.

Fig. The Tree or Hierarchical Structure

1.4.3 Network Structure: Network Structure is a different type of hierarchical structure.

In this way, in the hierarchy model data is represented as records and hyperlinks.

A network, however, is a much more general structure than an order.

A network structure permits the establishment of relationships between entities. Here , the user can see the

database is a collection of record occurrences which a specific node might contain

There are any number of subordinate nodes. Network Structure is similar to graph structure.

This creates a many-to-many relation. The connection between the various products is 

referred to as sets.

Database System: Concepts and Design All country mailing leads 


Fig. Network Structure

2. A brief introduction Database Management System (DBMS) :

A DBMS is simply a collection of interrelated information as well as a set or programs to

access to this access this. This data collection is referred to as the Database which allows storage

Management and retrieval of information.

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A DBMS comprises a set of interrelated information and a set or programs to

access to the access the information. The process of collecting data, commonly referred to as a database. The most important

The goal for DBMS is to create the user with a system that’s easy and efficient to use for

Retrieving and storing information from databases.

Database systems are built to manage huge amounts of data. The

managing data requires the design of structures that will be used for the storage of

information as well as the establishment of methods for the manipulation of data.

Additionally the database system should guarantee the security of the data

The data is kept indefinitely, despite system crashes or attempts at access by unauthorized persons. If the data is to be shared

between multiple of its users. The software should ensure that there are no anomalous results.

DBMS is a system of software that manages databases and provides facilities for

Control and access to the organization. DBMS functions as an operator for a database. The database is

It is passive while DBMS is active whereas DBMS. It is the connection between data files and

disk as well as the program that requires processing.

2.1 Goals and Objectives DBMS :

The principal goal for the DBMS is to provide an easy environment for users to All country email lists

Retrieve and store information from databases. It can be used for single-user as well as multi-user.


Offer mass storage for relevant information.

Access to information easy for the user.

Give prompt responses to data requests of users.

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Update the database with the most current changes. the database immediately available.

Remove all redundant information.

Multiple users can be active at the same time.

Let room for growth in the database system to accommodate growth in the database.

Secure the data from physical damage and unauthorised access.

Control over data correctness, consistency, integrity, security, etc.

2.2Functions in DBMS :

According to Codd the Codd DBMS offers eight main functions. viz

Storage, retrieval, and updating Databases can be shared with a variety of users. This means that

the DBMS should provide multiple user perspectives and allow users to access, store and retrieve data.

upgrade easily and efficiently.

Data dictionary and directory: The DBMS must keep a record of database that is accessible to the user


Integrity of a transaction A transaction is a sequence of steps that form a properly

identified business activity. To ensure the integrity of transactions defined business activity, the DBMS must support

Facilities for the user, or program to establish the boundaries of transactions i.e. the

the logical start and end of transactions. The DBMS will then commit any modifications

for transactions that are successful and reject the changes made to aborted transactions.

Recovery Services: The DBMS should be able to restore the database during the situations of

There are some system malfunctions. The causes of system failure are errors by the operator, or disk head

Program errors and crashes. All country email leads

Concurrency Control : Because a database is shared among more than one user, it is possible to share the database with two or more

Users may try for access to the identical information at the same time. When two users try to access the same data,

Update the same data record simultaneously, incorrect results can be observed. Because the

security measures should be integrated in the DBMS to ward off or counter the efforts of


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Security mechanisms : Data should be protected from malicious or accidental

The misuse of data or the distraction. It is a way to prevent distraction or misuse. DBMS allows for the control of access to information

and to define what actions can be performed by every user.

Data Communication interface: Users usually access databases through remote

ends in a telecommunications network. Telecommunication monitors are used

handle to move transactions as well as from where the distant terminus. The DBMS must

Provide a connection with several telecommunication monitors, so that all

the system is able to perform its essential functions and the system assists instead of putting being a burden to

the final user.

Integrity services Integrity services DBMS must provide services that aid users

producing the accuracy of their integrity of their data. Many different edit checks and integrity checks

restrictions can be built to be built into constraints that can be built into DBMS and the software interfaces to it. These checks

They are usually managed by the data dictionary.

2.3Components in a DBMS :

The term “DBMS” refers to a DBMS is a complicated structure utilized to store, manage and alter data

and the metadata utilized to describe the information. It is used by many users to

manage and retrieve information that it can manipulate. A system is composed of sets of

interconnected components. All country email addresses.

1. at least one person who is the owner and accountable for the database.

2. An established set of guidelines and relationships that define and regulates the interactions of

components of the elements of the database.

3. The people who input data into databases.

4. The people who access data of databases.

5. Database itself.

3. Database Design:

Designing a database is the process of creating the layout for the structure of the database which will be used to store data.

and manage data, rather than the design and management of data, rather than the design DBMS software. It is designed to manage data rather than the design of the DBMS. After the design of the database is completed

Once the translation is complete is completed, is completed, the DBMS is able to handle all the complex processes required to translate it.

Designer’s view of the structure into structures that can be used by computers.

A badly designed database is likely to create mistakes that can cause poor

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decisions. Bad database design could be self-correcting companies that use

Poorly designed databases usually fail because the managers don’t have access to the latest information.

(or even accurate) information, thus dominating the flawed design of databases.

The existence of a DBMS allows you to deal with far more sophisticated

use of data resources, provided that the database is specifically designed to use the power available.

The types of data structures built within the database as well as the degree of the connections

Each of them plays a significant part in determining the effectiveness of among them, determines how efficient the DBMS can be. Therefore,

The design of databases is now a vital aspect of the database.

Designing databases becomes much simpler by using models. A Database model is

A collection of conceptual construct that is that define the data structure and the data

connections that are found in the relationships that are found within the database i.e. simplified abstractions of real-world events

conditions. If the models aren’t solidly logical, they will affect the database designs that are derived from them

It will not meet the database system’s promise of a reliable and accurate database taken from

efficient database. “Good models produce a high-quality designs for databases that form the foundation for a successful


3.1 The Goals of Database Design

Database Design usually is the process of defining the logical attributes of the database

Designing how to structure the database structure.

The primary goal of designing databases is

1. To meet the requirements for information content of the specific user and application.

2. To give an easy and natural way to comprehend the structuring of information.

3. Support the processing needs and to meet any performance targets, for example

i. Response time

ii. Processing time

iii. Storage space

The principal goal of design of the database is to make sure that the database is compatible with All country email addresses list

the requirements for reporting and information of the users in a timely manner. The database must meet the requirements of users in terms of reporting and information.

made in such a manner to :

i. It minimizes or eliminates redundancy.

ii. Maintains the integrity and the independence of the data

3.2 Physical and Logical View of Database

Computer Application DBMS Operating Database

Program System


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User Logical Program logical Overall Physical View

View View View


1 2 3 4

* IOCS – Input/ Output Control System

In the design of databases, a variety of perspectives of data have to be taken into consideration along with the

people who utilize them. There are three perspectives :

1. The overall view of logic

2. The program’s logical perspective

3. Physical view

The most logical perspective is how the data appear to be, regardless of the way they’re stored

While the

Physical view refers to the way data is stored in physical storage. It addresses how data is stored.

Access or link to other stored data.

Four different perspectives of data: THREE logical views and ONE physical.

The logical view is it is the view of the user, programmer’s view , and the view of the logical

view (schema).

The general perspective (schema) assists the DBMS to determine which data is are stored

It should be able to act in accordance with the requirements of the application it should perform the action as required by the application.

An DBMS is a set of files that are interconnected and an assortment of programs that let users

to modify and access the to modify and access these. One of the main functions of the database system is to permit users to access and modify these files.

using the abstract representation of data i.e. the system hides certain aspects of the way that data are stored.

The information is stored and kept. All country email database

3.3 A Framework for a Database System :

3.3.1 Data Abstraction : A lot of users of databases aren’t computer-savvy,

Developers hide the complexity from users using a variety of levels of abstraction.

make it easier for users to interact with the ease of interaction with the. The architecture is broken down into three fundamental

levels : conceptual, internal and external.

a. Physical or internal level The internal level is the one that is closest to storage physical i.e.

One that is concerned about the manner that it is one that is concerned with the manner in which data is actually. This is the lowest degree of

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abstraction defines how the data is actually the data are actually stored. On the physical level, complicated low

Level data structures are detailed.

b. Conceptual or Logical level can be described as a “level that is direction” between the internal and external.

external. The next level of abstraction is to describe what data are stored within the

databases, and what kind of relationship are there between the database, and what connections exist between the. The whole database is

defined in terms of a few fairly simple structures that are relatively simple. This is the level used by

Database Administrators(DBA) are the ones who have to determine what data should be stored in the database.


c. External or View level: The external level is the level that is most close to users. i.e. the level closest to the users.

worried about the way that the data is seen by the individual users. It is the most important.

Level of abstraction only describes one part of the level of abstraction, which only describes a small portion of the. The abstraction level is not complete, despite the use of simple

Structures at the logical level there is some degree of complexity due to the sheer dimensions of the

database. A lot of users of the database system will not be worried about all this

information. In reality, users have to only access a small portion of the database in order to access they are able to access

Interaction between the systems is made simpler and the level of abstraction is established. The

System may offer multiple different views of one database.

If the exterior level is concerned with the user’s individual views The conceptual

A level could be interpreted as defining an overall view of the community. This means that there is a

numerous “external perspectives,” each consisting of some sort of abstract representation of one

A portion of the database it will also include only one “conceptual view” comprised of an

Abstract representation of similarity for the entire database. In the same way, there will be a

one “internal view” which represents the entire database that is actually being stored.

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Fig. 3: The levels that comprise the architecture that comprise the DBMS

3.3.2 Instances and schemes: Databases are updated when information is added or deleted.

deleted. The accumulation of data on the system at a certain time point is

It is also known as an individual database instance. The general design for the data is referred to as the

database schema. Schemas are frequently updated and rarely.

Database System: Concepts and Design


The view from all of the levels described with Schema. Schemas are an outline of the views at each level.

or a layout that describes the information and relationships that exist on the plan. The word

Schema is used in database literature to mean plural, not schemata which is the

The word is grammatically correct. The schema also explains the ways in which entities are at one

The abstraction level can be transferred up to the next.

Database systems come with a variety of schemas, arranged by levels

abstraction(that we have discussed). The lowest level of abstraction it is the physical schema at the higher level is the

Intermediate stage is the logic schema and at the top is an underschema. In

generally, databases system can be configured to support one physical schema in general, as well as a logical schema as well as various


3.3.3 Data independence: The capability to alter the schema definition at the same level.

Without affecting the schema definition at the more advanced level. This is known as data

independence. The two different levels for data independence are data independence , namely.

a. Physical data independence is the ability to alter the physical schema of data without All country mailing leads 

Programming for applications is modified. Physical changes can cause a program to be rewritten.

Sometimes, it is necessary to boost performance.

b. Logical data independence : the capability to alter the logical schema with no

The application program is changed in application programs. Changes made at the logical layer can be a cause for rewriting application programs.

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Sometimes, it is necessary to change the design of the database modified.

Data independence in log files is more difficult to attain than physical data independence.

Independence, as the applications are heavily dependent upon the logic

The structure of the data they have access to.

Database systems come with a variety of schemas, arranged in accordance with the levels of

abstraction(that we’ve discussed). The lowest level of abstraction it is the physical schema at the higher level is the

The intermediate levels is the schema that is logical and at the top is an underschema. In

generally, databases system can be configured to support one physical schema as well as one logical schema. various


3.3.3 Data independence: The possibility of changing schema definitions at one step

Without affecting the schema definition at the next higher level , is referred to as data

independence. Two levels are available for data-independence, namely.

a. Physical data independence : refers to the capability to alter the physical schema of data without

The application program is modified. Changes that affect the physical layer can cause a program to be rewritten.

Sometimes, it is necessary to boost performance.

b. Logical data independence is the capability to alter the schema of logical data without

The application program is modified. Modifications that occur at the logical level can cause rewrites of application programs.

Sometimes, it is necessary to change the data structure is changed.

Data independence in log files is more difficult to attain than physical data independence.

Independence, since applications are heavily dependent on the logic

The structure of the data they have access to.

3.3.4 Database languages: Data Sublanguage (DSL) is an individual subset of the overall language i.e.

involved in database objects and their operations. DSL is a user’s/ query language that deals with the database objects and operations.

which is embedded in the host that is embedded in a host. In the end, any DSL can be described as

A combination of two languages All country email lists


a. Data Definition Language (DDL) is a term used to define the schema for a database. A

The schema for databases is defined by the definitions. The definitions include all

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entities and the attributes they share and their relationships between the entities. The

The result of combining DDL statements is an array of tables i.e. the result of compilation is stored in a specific file known as

Data dictionary, also known as a data directory which contains metadata i.e. information about the data. This

The file is checked before the actual data is altered or read by databases.

The structure of storage and access methods employed for database systems are

described by a set definitions of a specific kind of DDL known as an information storage

definition language.

b. Data Manipulation Language (DML) is one of the languages used to describe data queries

and as well as updates i.e. modify data and updates in the database, i.e. manipulate data. DML assists in

The retrieval of data stored in databases

Inserting new data into the database

This is the removal of information from databases

Modification of data stored in the database

Database System: Concepts and Design All country email list



DML is a DML is a type of language that lets users modify or access data structured

using the correct by the appropriate data by the appropriate data model. There are generally two kinds :

i. Procedural DMLs : require users to indicate the data needed and the best way to obtain them.


ii.NonProcedural DMLs will require a user to define the data needed, but not

providing the means to obtain the information.

Mapping: There are two types of mapping:

I.e. one that is between the conceptual and the external layers of the system and

ii. The other one is between the internal and conceptual levels.

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The Conceptual/Internal mapping defines the relationship between the

conceptual view as well as the conceptual view and the database. The External/Conceptual mapping is what defines the

the relationship between an view of the outside and the conceptual view

A DBMS is the program that manages all connections to databases. Conceptually

What happens if :

1. A user makes an access request with a particular Data Manipulation


2. The DBMS takes the request, and interprets it

Database System: Concepts and Design


3. The DBMS examines, at its own discretion, an external schema and the conceptual/external mapping, and the

conceptual schema and the conceptual/internal mapping as well as the definition of storage structures


4. The DBMS executes the required operations on the database.

3.4 Storage Structures

Storage Structures describes the manner that data can be stored in secondary

storage i.e. direct access media like drums, disks and so on.

Database System: Concepts and Design

1. Introduction to Database:

A business must have accurate and reliable information to make the most effective decision-making

making. To achieve this the company keeps records of the different aspects that it is

the relationships between their relationships. These related data are referred to as databases. A database system

A comprehensive collection of linked files, with specifics on the interpretation of the data

Its contents. The the database system is nothing more than the computer that is

record keeping system i.e. the system’s primary function is to record information and keep track of

information/data. All country email leads.

Database management systems (DBMS) can be described as a type of software system that permits access to

to the data stored to the data stored in a database. The purpose for the DBMS is to offer a user-friendly interface

and efficient method of finding, storing and retrieving the data contained in the

database. The DBMS communicates with the applications programs, which means that the information contained

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In the database, it can be utilized by many apps and by multiple users. Additionally the DBMS

Controls the database from a central location. database, preventing the fraudulent or unauthorised users from

accessing the data and ensures the security that the personal data is kept.

In general, a database is a logical collection of data. The

A database or information system that is organized serves as a basis on which information is able to be accessed.

can be found or a decision taken by further processing or recognizing the information. The data is used by people to

numerous databases that they use in their daily routine. Dictionary, Telephone directory, Library

catalog, etc. are examples of databases in which entries are arranged in accordance with

Classified or alphabetical order.

The term “DATA” could be described as the value of the attribute or property of an individual. Any

the collection of related data items of entities with the same attributes could be called

“DATABASE”. A mere accumulation of data is not enough to create a database. how it’s used

designed to be efficient and effective in its use , it is an effective database that is well-organized and efficient.

The database technology is called “one of the fastest expanding areas

of information and computer of information and computer science”. It first came into existence in the final Sixties because of

A combination of different circumstances. There was a rising popularity among users of

additional information to be supplied by the computer regarding the day-today operations of

the organization, as well as data to plan and control. The

technology developed to process information of different kinds can be described as

“DATABASE MANAGEMENT Technology” and the software it produces are

also known as ‘DATABASE-MANAGEMENT SYSTEM’ (DBMS) which they manage as a

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Social referrals and testimonials are becoming more powerful as the world becomes more media-savvy. User-generated content, or UGC, is the solution.
UGC refers to any content created by your fans (unpaid contributors) for you. UGC is marketing material that comes from your fans and not from you. It serves as a powerful source of testimonials from users and social referrals.

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Your brand’s nature will determine the type of user-generated material you should be focusing on. Examples of user-generated content that is effective include photos of customers wearing your clothes and posts praising your brand, demonstrations of your product working in real life, and fun content that revolves around a campaign or theme.

This post will show you how to use user-generated material to improve your marketing. But first, let’s take a look at why user-generated information is so important and how to collect it.
User-generated content is a great way to place your customers front and center and give your audience some social proof.

UGC is a great way to engage audiences and drive conversions. It’s a lot more efficient than traditional marketing materials. Here’s why:
Higher Engagement

Your marketing materials will not be able to match the level of engagement and relatability provided by user-generated content.
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User-generated content makes your products look more genuine and trustworthy than relying only on your own brand content. UGC is a great source of social referrals because people will naturally trust content from real users.
Extended Reach

UGC can help you expand your reach because people will share their brand content for their followers to see. This is a great way to increase awareness, boost visibility, and build positive associations.
Building Community

A campaign to generate UGC can be a great way to get people involved in your brand and to build loyalty, engagement, and community.

User-generated content is much cheaper than traditional marketing materials. If you are looking to encourage UGC creation, the only cost is the cost of a prize.
How to Collect User-Generated Content

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We’ve looked at the benefits of user-generated content as a marketing tool. But before we dive into the best ways to use UGC in your marketing, we’ll show you how to create and collect valuable fan-made content.
Run A Hashtag Campaign

A hashtag campaign is one of the best ways to collect user-generated content.

A hashtag campaign is a way to encourage users to share and create content using a hashtag on social media. There are many online platforms that you can use to run hashtag campaigns, with Instagram and Twitter being most popular.
Boohoo promotes their hashtags on Instagram bio

You can create any kind of content by running a hashtag campaign, including photos that highlight your product or videos that show your product in action.

You can encourage participation in hashtag campaigns by simply asking. This is a great way to build excitement and increase participation.

Regular reminders about your campaign
To inspire and foster a sense community, we showcase user submissions
To encourage participation, make use of the possibility of being featured on your social media channels

Find out more about running a Hashtag campaign All country email database.

Learn how to create your hashtag and run powerful campaigns that drive engagement and produce amazing user content.
Let’s go!
Run A Photo Contest

You can really get people to participate in photo contests and offer a great prize for the winners.

Your audience will be more inclined to share and create photos. This will not only increase participation but also allow for more advanced content, such as videos of your product being used or creative projects.

Photo contests can be a great way to engage your users and drive the creation of tons of amazing content. However, it is crucial to properly execute the campaign’s promotion, collect submissions and draw winners.
Find out more about running photo contests

Learn everything you need about photo contests for user-generated content collection and massive engagement.
Find out More

Photo contests and hashtag campaigns are two exceptional ways to generate engaging user-generated content you can use to improve your marketing efforts.

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Users can also submit content to their social networks. This is a great way to get your brand out there in a real way that will allow you to foster positive associations with new leads and help you find new ones.
Permission to use user-generated content

It’s crucial that you get permission before you use all of the UGC you have collected in your marketing efforts.

You can display your UGC in a social media community gallery. However, if you wish to repost user content from one of your social media accounts or email addresses, you will need explicit permission.
Request permission to use UGC

This can be done by reaching out directly to users to ask for permission to use their content. Or, you can make it easier and host a photo contest in which you clearly state that the entrants have given you permission to use their content.

Our guide will help you learn how to get the UGC permissions you need.
Permission to use user-generated content All country mailing leads 

Find out everything you need about obtaining permission to use UGC for your own marketing efforts.
Take a look at it
Sharing user-generated content on social media

After you have a lot of quality user-generated content, it’s time for you to use it in your own marketing efforts.

UGC’s effectiveness and power comes in large part from its users sharing it with others through their social channels. However, this doesn’t mean UGC generated can’t be used to enhance your marketing communications.

You can share high-quality UGC across all your social media channels.

User-generated content can be easily incorporated into social media. It is personable and easy to relate to.

UGC is more appealing to people browsing social media than traditional marketing materials because it offers authenticity. People will not dismiss it as another advertisement, but it will be a reflection of your product’s value and the company you work for.

UGC is a great tool for building trust and promotion of your product on social media.
Add User-Generated Content to Your Emails

Like posting UGC on social networks, incorporating UGC in your email newsletters can help you connect with your audience.

Emails promoting products and offers should be sent out to real customers. This will give credibility to your message, and increase click-throughs and conversions.
Pipcorn includes customer photos in its emails

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Email marketing emails can sometimes come across as impersonal and generic. UGC is a great way to spice them up and increase engagement.

Written testimonials are a powerful form of user content that you can include in your emails. They highlight the quality of your product or service.
Helm Testimonial Email
Display User-Generated Content on Your Website

You can make the most of user-generated content by gathering all your valuable submissions and displaying them on a website.

UGC is a great way for your website to showcase social proof and create a sense of authenticity around your brand. This will increase website visitors’ interest in your product and help them feel more confident about purchasing it. This is a great way to build product interest and drive conversions.

These are the top ways to use user-generated material on your website.
Galleries for the Community

You can make your website more user-generated by creating a gallery with all the fan-made photos and videos that you have.

This is a great way to show your community to your website visitors. It also highlights social proof that will help build product trust and get potential clients excited about your offering. This will provide the confidence users need to make purchase decisions and convert.

Gleam’s Galleries app allows you to easily create and personalise your own community or customer galleries. It will automatically import content from your chosen hashtag (or any number of other sources).

You can also moderate or curtail your gallery to make sure that only the best fan content appears.

By adding your gallery to your website navigation, you can encourage visitors to visit your gallery. You can also drive traffic to your site via social media by inviting people to view your amazing community. All country email lists
Importing Content

Use #hashtags and @mentions to collect content for your community or customer gallery. Simply ask your followers to use your hashtag to share content that @mentions you. Gleam will then automatically import the photos and videos to your gallery for you curate and display.

Instagram Mentioned Import Action Setup

It’s a good idea to encourage both @hashtags as @mentions when you import media from Instagram. Hashtags are great for engagig users, and increasing awareness. Mentions will give you full control over the campaign, and you can access @usernames, timestamps, and other media that you import.

This is a great way for you to source content through hashtag contests and campaigns. You can also populate your UGC galleries in other ways than hashtags. Gleam Galleries allows you to import content directly from Instagram mentions or your own social media feeds. You can also manually add items from Instagram, Twitter, and YouTube to your gallery. This will ensure that you don’t lose any great content.

Gleam will allow you to import entries directly into a contest gallery. We’ll be more specific about this soon.
Get started showcasing your user-generated content

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Get started now!
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Carousels are a great option

It’s a great way for visitors to interact with you and build trust. However, sometimes your UGC should be displayed in a subtler way that complements your other content.

Gleam’s Carousel Galleries allows you to display user-generated content in elegant galleries. These galleries are great for displaying your best UGC anywhere on the web.

These are the top Carousels you can use:

Carousels can be used to display UGC on your homepage. This will help you build trust and authenticity from the moment users arrive at your site.

Gleam Carousel Galleries can be used on your website

Carousels can be used to showcase customer photos on product pages. This will give potential customers the social proof they need to buy. Fashion retailers can use this tactic to show off their clothes in a professional manner that drives sales.

If your page is dedicated to testimonials or reviews, adding customer photos or videos to the mix can be a great way of increasing engagement, visual flair, and more weight to your social referrals.

Carousels can also be used to showcase your social media feed within your website. This tactic can be used to showcase your Instagram feed on your site. It will allow you to liven up the website and promote your social media channels.

Learn More about Carousels All country email leads

See how carousels can be used to promote your community, increase engagement, and maximize conversions.
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Gallery of Photo Contests

You should collect and display submissions to a contest if you are running one.

The gallery can be displayed on your website. This will encourage your audience visit the gallery to see all the amazing content that your fans and customers have created.

This is a great way for users to engage and share valuable user-generated content with their fans. It also encourages participation in your contest which will help grow your community and increase your UGC.

You can also create photo contest galleries and get permission to display submissions. This saves you the effort of reaching out to each user whose content is you wish to use.
Encourage users to vote for their favourites

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While a gallery of contest submissions can be valuable, you might want to increase engagement and draw more attention by running a photo contest in which people vote for their favorite submissions.

Gleam makes it easy to run a contest like this. You can import submissions directly into your gallery and allow voting with one click.

You can increase traffic to your contest gallery by giving people the opportunity to vote. This will allow you to show off your UGC and connect to your audience.

You can also award prizes to the most popular entries to encourage participants to share their submissions and your gallery to gain more votes. This is a great way to make branded UGC more accessible to a wider audience and encourage greater participation.

Gleam allows users to embed individual gallery images on their website or blog posts. This is a great way to get more votes from influential participants. They can also share their submissions on their blog, drawing attention to your campaign.
Every business faces its own set of challenges, hurdles, and opportunities as they move from their infancy to maturity. Your business’s unique journey will depend on the industry, your offering, and the customers you serve. But there is one constant:

It is important to find and connect with new potential customers.

It doesn’t really matter what product you are selling, or how great it is. People won’t purchase your product if they don’t know anything about it. It is important to reach out to your target market in order for them to be interested in your product and turn them into buyers.

This process is known as lead generation.
This post will cover:

What are the Leads
To generate leads, use on-site content
Opt-In Forms Help You Capture Leads
Create Content to Generate Leads
Use Social Media to Generate Leads
Use Giveaways to Generate Leads
Reaching out to Potential Leads
Bonus Tips for Generating Leads

What is a Lead?

This post will walk you through the best ways to generate leads and get sales. But first, let’s take a look at what a lead actually is.

A lead is basically any user who has expressed interest in your product/service. Lead generation is the process of initiating customer interest and opening communication.
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You can capture leads by asking users to take an action that indicates their interest in your offer. This usually involves collecting data from leads such as their email address and name.

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You can create and capture leads to communicate with potential customers, kick start customer journeys, and position yourself to drive acquisition from those who already have expressed interest in your product.

There are two types of leads that you can pursue when it comes to lead generation. And there are two ways to generate them.
Outbound Leads

Outbound leads are people who have expressed interest in your product or service. You can find them by reaching out directly to them. Most likely, outbound leads won’t even know you until you reach them. The first contact they have with you will be through the marketing materials you send.

Although there is much debate about what constitutes outbound marketing, the general idea is that any activity in which you reach out to establish contact can be considered outbound lead generation. This could include paid ads, cold email campaigns, and social media campaigns to initiate content.
Inbound Leads

These are your inbound leads. These users will find you and your content through search engines, social networks, and other online platforms.

Inbound marketing can help you generate inbound leads. This includes creating valuable and engaging content, optimizing your website for lead generation and engaging in SEO activities.
Google Search for Email Marketing Automation

Due to the complexity and interconnectedness of the online landscape, the lines between inbound and outbound marketing are often blurred.

Optimizing your content for Google search is inbound marketing. But what about targeted Google Ads.

Are you unsure if social media is inbound or outbound? Either way, it is possible to make a compelling argument.

These questions are not definitive, but it is good to know that they don’t really matter.

You will need to find a balance between both the inbound and outbound approaches to create a comprehensive and successful lead generation strategy.

Continue reading to learn our top tips and strategies for generating lead which will help build awareness, drive sales and grow your company.
Use Your Onsite Content To Generate Leads

You can generate leads by using a variety strategies to drive traffic and then using your onsite content as well as special offers to get users to sign up for your email address.

Your website should be optimized to convert visitors to leads. This will allow you to focus your efforts on finding the right users and then sending them to your site with the confidence that they can convert into leads.
Typeform Landing Page

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These are our top tips for using your website as a way to generate leads.
Make a stunning landing page

You want users to feel immediately engaged when they land on your site.

This is best achieved with an engaging landing page that grabs attention and highlights the value of your product. It also encourages them to sign-up.

Squarespace created a stunning landing page to encourage sign-ups. You can also see their features and clear CTAs as you scroll down.
Squarespace Landing Page

It is important to explain or demonstrate what your offer is, how it solves a problem, its benefits, and why people should sign up for it in order to create a landing page that works. You can offer anything, including access to the most recent news, special offers, content or contest entries, as well as a discount or free trial.

There are some key elements that you need to ensure your landing page is complete when you create it. These are the elements you should include in your landing page.

A headline that is eye-catching, exciting and has a value statement.
A unique selling proposition. Only you can offer it.
Highlight the benefits of what you offer.
Appealing images and videos that focus on product use.
Refer to testimonials or social proof.
It is a clear and concise call for action.

This is Slack’s amazing landing page, which ticks all the boxes.
Slack Landing Page

You can increase product interest and get leads if your landing page is executed well.
Pages for Pre-Launch Landing

A landing page is an effective strategy for prelaunch businesses that want to create hype and cultivate a following.

This is a great way to make sure that your launch is memorable to a passionate audience who can’t wait for their product.
Visage Landing Page

If you haven’t yet released your product, you should get out there and create hype. Then funnel traffic back to a landing page that you can use to capture leads.
Take a look at the best pre-launch strategies

We have compiled a helpful guide that outlines all the ways you can grow your company before you launch with Gleam.
Take a look at it
Create Contextual Landing Pages

A single landing page may not be sufficient depending on what you are offering. It’s best to have a separate landing page for each category or product you offer.

This can be a great way for E-commerce retailers to generate sales leads.
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Contextual landing pages allow you to make highly targeted pitches that will resonate with an audience looking for a specific product. This is far better than a generic landing page trying to sum up all your products.

This is where Upwork excels. They have created a variety of landing pages that cover every area they work in.
Upwork Design Contextual Landing page

It is a smart move to create unique landing pages for your products.

If you have a SaaS product that can be used in multiple industries or purposes, you might consider creating a landing page specifically for each one.
Zendesk Retail Landing Page

This will enable you to reach a wider audience that is looking for specific solutions. It also gives you the chance to create tailored propositions for each consumer segment, which can increase your conversion rate.

If you are offering a location-based service, you can follow the same approach and create landing pages to each location. This personalization will allow you to connect with the right audience and create personalised pitches that can be used to generate leads.
Free Trials and Discounts

Offering free trials and discounts to your users is a great way to get your lead generation going.
Netflix Free Trial Landing Page

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This is an amazing way to generate leads and also gives you an opportunity to convert them into customers. Get them to test your product or make an immediate purchase.
Autopilot Landing Page offers free trials

Autopilot is a good choice for generating leads by using free trials. However, that’s not all they rely upon as their landing page also contains customer testimonials and product videos.

Free trials and discounts can be used to generate leads. You can either place these offers in the forefront of your landing page, or you can make a stylish popup with products such as Gleam’s Capture App.
Gorman Welcome Offer Popup

It’s essential to demonstrate the value of your product, how it solves problems and what it does.
Learn How to Make Discount Popups

Capture can be used to create discount popups. These can then be used to generate leads and sales.
Take a look at it

You should also include a few important features to your landing page that will help you make yourself more approachable and familiar with users. This will allow you to build trust and product familiarity and drive people towards signing up.
Host webinars

You can help your audience solve a problem, teach them a new skill or show them how your product could help. This is one of the best ways to connect with them and build interest.
Squarespace Webinars Landing Page

Hosting a webinar is a great way to share valuable insights, knowledge and skills with your target market. A webinar on your topic of expertise is the best way to go. You should choose a topic that is relevant to your industry, incorporates your product and is useful for people to learn. After all, you need people who want to participate in your webinar.

Remember to provide real value and not just to promote your product. This will make everything seem incoherent and lackluster.
HubSpot Webinar Signup

You will connect with your target market and position yourself as an authority in your field. A webinar will help you explain your product and generate leads.
It is important to increase awareness and participation in webinars by getting out and spreading the word. This can be done by sending out on-site notifications about your webinar, sharing the news on social media and incentivizing signups through Rewards campaigns that offer discounts for users who sign up for your webinar.

This strategy doesn’t require you to host a live webinar. A pre-recorded webinar can be created and made available to all who sign up. This flexible approach will enable you to reach more people, and gain a lot more value over the long-term from your webinar.

Two-way interaction is the main drawback of automated webinars. This allows for participants to ask questions and provide a more personal and valuable experience. Although this can be partially overcome by adding live chat to your webinars, it will reduce the time-savings of automated webinars.

Both live and automated webinars each have their pros and cons. It all comes down to which one works for you.

Learn How to Drive Webinar Registrations
Display customer testimonials

It is a great way to market your product in a trustworthy and reliable manner.

Customers will always be more trustworthy than your praise.
Gleam Customer Testimonials

Referring to testimonials and customers’ success stories is a great way to generate leads.

Customer testimonials can be included on your landing page. You could also provide case studies that highlight customer success stories. If you are in the right industry, you can even create a gallery of satisfied customers.

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Gleam allows you to create customer photo galleries

Learn more about collecting user-generated content
Demonstrations Live

It is important to show people your product in action if you want them to take an interest in it. The way you do this will depend on your business, but there is always a way.

You should make high-quality live demos if you are a SaaS provider.

This feature is available on all product pages. To give our users a clear understanding about how our products work, we even annotate demos.
Gleam Live Demo

A product video should be created if you are selling physical products. It should explain what the product is and why it is important.
GoPro Product Explainer Video

It may not be necessary to show high-quality photos if you are selling a simple E-commerce product.

You can also use this opportunity to showcase product photos from your local community.

Find out more about showcasing your E-Commerce community with carousels
Use live chat and FAQ to engage users

Live chat allows users to ask questions of your business and give them all the information they need.

Live chat can be a great way for you to overcome any potential barriers that may prevent users from signing up.
A comprehensive and accessible FAQ can help you solve the same problem. Live chat, however, has the advantage of allowing potential leads to engage directly with you and address their individual needs.
For a growing list, opt-in forms are a great way to grow it

Landing pages are powerful, but they’re not the only way to generate leads on your website. Opt-in forms can be used to send targeted messages and encourage visitors to sign up.

Gleam’s Capture app allows you to create many personalised opt-in forms you can use from any part of your website.

It’s also much easier than creating a landing page entirely from scratch.
Grow your list with opt-in forms

E-commerce retailers that are willing to give up a sign-up landing page for traffic to their products or store can opt-in to be an effective lead generation strategy.

Opt-in forms can be used to drive signups from informative pages, product pages, blog posts, or any other location. Let’s look at the best ways to use opt-in forms for leads generation: