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FAQ

Our email list is divided into three categories: regions, industries and job functions. Regional email can help businesses target consumers or businesses in specific areas. Middle East Email Lists broken down by industry help optimize your advertising efforts. If you’re marketing to a niche buyer, then our email lists filtered by job function can be incredibly helpful.

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Emailproleads provides Mobile Database to individuals or organizations for the sole purpose of promoting your business. In Digital Marketing. The mobile number database of Emailproleads helps to reach the highest level of business conversations.

Mobile number databases are a crucial marketing tool with many numbers from all over the globe. Since the arrival of smartphones, there has been an exponential rise in the number of buyers because technology has changed the way of marketing. Mobile number databases are essential for every retailer today in marketing and selling their goods and services. The world is now filled with mobiles that have internet connectivity across the globe.

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What is the meaning of Phone Number Data?

A telephone number is a specific number that telecommunication firms assign to their customers, thus permitting them to communicate via an upgraded method of routing destination codes. Telecom companies give whole numbers within the limits of regional or national telephone numbering plans. With more than five billion users of mobile phones around the world, phone number information is now a gold mine for government and business operations.

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Having the number of current and potential customers and marketing professionals opens up a wealth of opportunities for lead generation and CRM. The presence of customer numbers is an excellent way to boost marketing campaigns as it allows marketers to interact with their target audience via rich multimedia and mobile messaging. Therefore, gathering phone number information is vital to any modern-day marketing strategy. The strategies consumers can use to collect data from phone numbers include:

* Adding contact forms on websites.
* Requests to be made for phone calls from customers.
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* Acquiring phone numbers that are already available information from third-party service companies with the information.

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One of the critical advantages of phone number data is that it is created to reveal the geographic location of mobile users because phone numbers contain particular strings specific to a region or country that show the user’s precise position. This is useful in targeted campaigns, mainly where marketers target a specific area that can target their marketing efforts.

To prevent duplicates and improve accessibility, the phone number information is typically stored in the E164 international format, which defines the essential characteristics of a recorded phone number. The specifications that are followed in this format are the number code for the country (CC) and an NDC, a country code (CC), a national destination code (NDC), and the subscriber number (SN).

What do you think of the phone Number Data used for?

The possibilities that can be made possible by the phone number information are endless. The availability of a phone number database means that companies worldwide can market their products directly to prospective customers without using third-party companies.

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How can an individual determine the validity of Phone Number Data?

In determining the quality of the phone number information, users should be aware of the fundamental quality aspects of analysis. These are:
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Accessibility. The phone number database should be accessible where the data is organized to allow easy navigation and immediate commercial use.

Where can I purchase Phone Number Data?

The Data Providers and Vendors listed in Datarade provide Phone Number Data products and examples. Most popular products for Phone Number Data and data sets available on our platform include China B2B phone number – Chinese businesses by Octobot, IPQS Phone Number Validation and Reputation through IPQualityScore (IPQS), and B2B Contact Direct Dial/Cell Phone Number Direct Dial and mobile numbers for cold calling Real-time verified contact email and Phone Number by Lead for business.

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What are data types similar that are similar to Phone Number Data?

Telephone Number Data is comparable with Address Data; Email Address Data, MAID Hashed Email Data, Identification Linkage Data, and Household-Level Identity Data. These categories of data are typically employed to aid in Identity Resolution and Data Onboarding.

Which are your most popular uses for Phone Number Data?

The top uses that involve Phone Number Data are Identity Resolution, Data Onboarding, and Direct Marketing.

Let’s say you’re running a business selling strategy that demands you to connect with the maximum number of people you can. If your job is laid off for you, it can often be challenging to determine what to do. First, you should create your list of prospective customers and then save your call data in an electronic database.

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Though you might believe that working with lists of telephone numbers and storing them in databases is all you need to launch a cold calling campaign, it’s not the case. Since a telephone number database could contain thousands or millions of leads, along with important data points about each potential customer, It is essential to adhere to the best practices for a Database of telephone numbers. Methods to avoid becoming overwhelmed or losing important data.

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Middle East Telephone Number Database Best Practices

After you’ve established the basis for success by acquiring high-quality lead lists and implementing dialers that can boost how many calls your team receives by up to 400 percent, you’re ready to become familiar with best practices for your industry. By adhering to a list of phones and best database practices, you’ll dramatically improve the odds that your team will succeed in the short and long term.

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Here are the best techniques for telemarketing databases that you should consider a priority to observe.

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buy Middle East Phone Number database for marketing

Get Organized
A well-organized Middle East mobile phone directory includes contacts organized according to phone country, postal, area, city, and province. By narrowing your calls to only one of the criteria, it is possible to incorporate new business information into your list, then sort and retarget top leads.

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Create a strategy to manage your phone lists. Naturally, your organizational plan must be based on the purpose of your cold-calling campaign. Your business’s goals will affect the traits your most promising prospects have. Make a profile of the most appealing candidate based on the plans for your marketing campaign. Make sure you make your leads list to ensure that the candidates who best meet your ideal profile of a prospect are first on your list of leads. List.

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Determine Who Has Access to and edit your database
Your phone number list doesn’t only represent an investment in money but also a resource that your team can use to increase sales. Although your phone number list is essential because you bought it, it’s also advantageous due to the possibility that it can improve your bottom line. In this regard, you should think carefully about who has access to and control your database.

It is generally recommended to restrict the number of users who have access to your database to only those who use it to communicate with potential customers to achieve your campaign’s goals. If an individual is not active with your marketing campaign, then there’s no reason for them to gain access to your telephone number database.

It’s also advisable to restrict access to the database you have created; it’s best to allow editing privileges to people who require them. This generally means that you only give editing rights to agents that will be conducting cold calls. It will be necessary to modify the database to make changes to records and notes that could aid in subsequent calls.

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Create Your Database
Databases are knowledge centers that store information for sales personnel. They are vital to gain knowledge and share it with your sales staff. Even if it’s just to keep call notes, callback databases can help your sales team to achieve maximum value and benefit from lists of telemarketing calls.

As time passes, your phone number list will likely expand and include more contact numbers and information on your customers. When you get recommendations from your current prospects or purchase leads lists, or either, it’s essential to grow the size of your database to include as much data as you can to assist you in achieving your goals for the business in the near and far future and at every step in between.

4. Keep Your Database
Although you want your database to expand with time, you do not want it to contain obsolete or ineffective details. To keep your database from overloading with useless information, it’s essential to maintain it regularly, including removing old records and updating your prospective customers with their contact details.

One of the most effective ways to ensure your database is to ensure that it doesn’t contain numbers listed on the Do Not Call list. If you make a call to an address that is listed on a Do Not List, you could result in your business spending lots of money, perhaps even millions. With the free tools available online, think about scrubbing all your data against the Do Not Call registry at least twice yearly.

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Today, download the mobile phone/cell numbers directory of all cities and states based on the network or operator. The database of mobile numbers is an excellent resource for advertising and bulk SMS, targeting specific regions of people, electoral campaigns, or other campaigns. Before you use these numbers, verify the ” Do Not Disturb” status in conjunction with TRAI. If it is activated, it is not permitted to use these numbers to promote your business. Buy Middle East Phone Number Database

It’s the quickest method of building an extensive list of phone numbers for your potential customers. Pay a fixed sum (per list, contact, country, or industry) and get every mobile number you paid for and have in your possession. You can then utilize them several times to reach out to customers to convince them to purchase their products or products. Doesn’t that sound great?

Although it may seem like the fastest method of building a list of numbers, it’s not the case. There are a lot of risks associated with purchasing mobile marketing lists which won’t generate sales:

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Testing Services Using SPRING CLOUD CONTRACT

Two popular contract testing frameworks are Spring Cloud Contract  which is a consumer contract testing framework for Spring applications, and the Pact family of  which support a variety of languages. This FTGO application is an Spring framework-based program, so in this chapter, I’m going explain how to use Spring Cloud Contract. It offers a Groovy specific language (DSL) for writing contracts. Each contract provides a concrete instance of interaction between a buyer and a service provider for example, the HTTP request and a response. Spring Cloud Contract code generates contracts for the service provider. It also creates mocks, for example, mock HTTP server, to allow tests of integration for consumers. buy Middle East Phone Number database online

Let’s say, for instance that you’re working with API Gateway and want to create a consumer contract test in order to Order Service. Figure 9.8 illustrates the process that requires collaboration together with Order Service teams. You draft contracts that outline the way that API Gateway interacts with Order Service. It is the Order Service team uses these contracts to test Order Service, and you employ the contracts for testing API Gateway. The steps are as the following: Middle East Phone Number b2b database

Middle East Phone Number database

Middle East Phone Number database

You create at least one contract, for example, the one listed in figure 9.1. Each contract consists in the HTTP Request which API Gateway might send to Order Service and an expected HTTP response. The contracts are given by way of an Git pull request and then and Order Service. Order Service team. Middle East Phone Number database

The Order Service team tests Order Service by using consumer contract test which Spring Cloud Contract code generates from contracts.
Order Service team Order Service team publishes the contracts used to test Order Service to a Maven repository. Middle East Phone Number b2b database

You can use the contracts published to create testing to test the API Gateway.

As you test API Gateway using the published contracts and contracts, you are able to be certain that it is compatible in conjunction with the Order Service.

Contracts are the most important element of this testing strategy. This listing provides an illustration of a Spring Cloud Contract. It comprises in an HTTP request as well as the HTTP response. Middle East Phone Number database

It is an HTTP request to the REST endpoint, GET /ordersor orderId. It refers to an HTTP response which describes an order that is to be fulfilled by the API Gateway. The Groovy contract is an integral part of the code base. Each consumer team has contracts that define the way their service works with the provider. They also provide the contracts, possibly through a Git pull request to the team of the provider. This team of providers is accountable to package the contracts into JARs JAR and publishing them into Maven. Maven repository. Consumer-side tests take from the JAR directly from Maven’s repository. Middle East Phone Number b2b database

Every contract’s request and response have two roles: test data as well as the spec-ification of the expected behaviour. When a test is conducted on the consumer side, it is utilized to set up an stub that is identical to the Mockito mock object, and mimics how Order Service behaves. Order Service. It allows API Gateway to be tested without the need to run Order Service. The provider-side test is where the test class generated invokes the service using the con-contract’s request, and then checks to see if it is able to return an answer that is consistent with that of the agreement’s. The next chapter discusses details of how to utilize Spring Cloud Con-tract. However, this time we’ll examine how to utilize mes-sending APIs. buy Middle East Phone Number database online

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CONSUMER CONTRACT TESTING CONSUMER CONTRACT TESTS MESSAGING APIS

The REST client isn’t the only type of user that is conditioned to use the API of a service provider. Services that subscribe to domain events and use asynchronous request/response-based communication are also consumers. They use a different service’s messaging API and they make assumptions about the nature of the API. Additionally, we must develop con-sumer contracts to test these APIs. Middle East Phone Number database providers

Middle East Phone Number database

Middle East Phone Number database

Spring Cloud Contract also provides the ability to test messaging-based interactions. The form of a contract and the method of use by tests is contingent upon the kind of interaction. A contract for publishing a domain event includes an example of a domain event. A test for the provider causes the provider to issue an event and verify that it’s in accordance with the event specified in the contract. A test for consumers confirms that the consumer is capable of handling the event. The next section I will describe an example of a test. Middle East Phone Number b2c database

The contract that governs an asynchronous response/request interaction is like the HTTP contract. It is comprised of two messages: a request and a response. A test performed by a provider invokes the API by using the request message from the contract and confirms that the response matches with the contract’s response. Consumer tests use the contract to create the stub subscriber. It is able to listen for the request message of the contract and responds with the specified response. The following chapter will go over the test in detail. We’ll first examine the deployment pipeline that also runs other tests. Middle East Phone Number database

The pipeline for deployment

Every service comes with a deployment pipeline. Jez Humble’s book Continuous Delivery (Addison-Wesley 2010.) describes a pipeline for deployment as the process that automates getting code from the desktop of the developer to production. As the figure 9.9 illustrates, it’s comprised of a set of stages where test suites are executed and then a final stage that deploys or releases the service. It should be completely automated, however it could also include manual steps. The deployment-ment pipeline is usually run by using the continuous Integration (CI) server like Jenkins. Middle East Phone Number b2c database

When code moves throughout the process, test suites are subject to increasingly rigorous testing in environments that are more like production. In the same way the time to execute each test suite usually increases. The goal is to give feedback on the failures of tests as quickly as is possible.

The deployment pipeline that is illustrated in figure 9.9 is comprised of the following steps:

The pre-commit test stage runs Unit tests. This is done by the developer prior to the commit of their modifications.

Commit Tests stage — Compiles the services and runs unit tests and also performs static analysis of code. Middle East Phone Number database

Integration tests stage — Runs through the tests for integration.

Component tests stage — Runs the component tests to test the service.

Deploy stage – Converts the service to production.

The CI server is responsible for the commit stage whenever the developer commits changes. It runs extremely fast thus providing quick feedback on the change. The subsequent phases take longer to complete giving more delayed feedback. If all tests are successful the final stage will be when the pipeline goes into production. Middle East Phone Number database

In this case the deployment pipeline has been completely automated from commit to deployment. However, there are instances where manual steps are required. For instance, you could require a manual test stage, for instance, the staging environment. In this scenario the code is moved to the next stage after an individual tester clicks on the button to signal that the test was successful. In another case, a pipeline for deployment for an on-premise application will release the latest versions of its service. In the future, the newly new services could be packaged into the form of a product release, and then shipped to customers. Middle East Phone Number b2c database

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After we’ve examined the design of the pipeline for deployment as well as when it is executing the various types of tests, we’ll go to the lowest point of the pyramid of test and examine the process of writing unit tests for the service.

Writing unit tests for a particular service

Imagine you need to create a test that ensures it is true that FTGO Application’s Order Service correctly calculates the total of an order’s subtotal. Tests could be written which run Order Service to invoke its REST API, create an Order and then verify whether the HTTP response is in line with the expected values. The disadvantage of this approach is that, not only is the test difficult and time-consuming, but also it’s slow. In the event that these were test that compiles time for Order you’d be wasting lots of time waiting for the test to be completed. The most efficient method is to create Unit tests that test for the class Order. Middle East Phone Number customers database
There are two types of unit tests

Solitary unit test—Tests a class in isolation using mock objects for the class’s dependencies

Sociable unit test—Tests a class and its dependencies

The responsibilities of the class and its role in the architecture determine which type of test to use. Figure 9.11 shows the hexagonal architecture of a typical service and the type of unit test that you’ll typically use for each kind of class. Controller and service classes are often tested using solitary unit tests. Domain objects, such as entities and value objects, are typically tested using sociable unit tests. buy Middle East Phone Number database online

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The typical testing strategy for each class is as follows:

Entities, such as Order, which as described in chapter 5 are objects with per-sistent identity, are tested using sociable unit tests.

Value objects, such as Money, which as described in chapter 5 are objects that are collections of values, are tested using sociable unit tests.

Sagas, such as CreateOrderSaga, which as described in chapter 4 maintain data consistency across services, are tested using sociable unit tests. Middle East Phone Number database providers

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Domain services, such as OrderService, which as described in chapter 5 are classes that implement business logic that doesn’t belong in entities or value objects, are tested using solitary unit tests. Middle East Phone Number database

Controllers, such as OrderController, which handle HTTP requests, are tested using solitary unit tests.

Inbound and outbound messaging gateways are tested using solitary unit tests.

Let’s begin by looking at how to test entities.

Developing unit tests for entities

The following listing shows an excerpt of OrderTest class, which implements the unit tests for the Order entity. The class has an @Before setUp() method that creates an Order before running each test. Its @Test methods might further initialize Order, invoke one of its methods, and then make assertions about the return value and the state of Order.

. They are sociable unit tests for the Order class and its dependencies. You can use them as compile-time tests because they execute extremely quickly. The Order class relies on the Money value object, so it’s important to test that class as well. Let’s see how to do that. Middle East Phone Number customers database

Writing unit tests for value objects

Value objects are immutable, so they tend to be easy to test. You don’t have to worry about side effects. A test for a value object typically creates a value object in a particu-lar state, invokes one of its methods, and makes assertions about the return value. List-ing 9.3 shows the tests for the Money value object, which is a simple class that represents a money value. These tests verify the behavior of the Money class’s methods, including add(), which adds two Money objects, and multiply(), which multiplies a Money object by an integer. They are solitary tests because the Money class doesn’t depend on any other application classes.
Entities and value objects are the building blocks of a service’s business logic. But some business logic also resides in the service’s sagas and services. Let’s look at how to test those. Middle East Phone Number database

Developing unit tests for sagas

A saga, such as the CreateOrderSaga class, implements important business logic, so needs to be tested. It’s a persistent object that sends command messages to saga partic-ipants and processes their replies. As described in chapter 4, CreateOrderSaga exchanges command/reply messages with several services, such as Consumer Service and Kitchen Service. A test for this class creates a saga and verifies that it sends the expected sequence of messages to the saga participants. One test you need to write is for the happy path. You must also write tests for the various scenarios where the saga rolls back because a saga participant sent back a failure message. Middle East Phone Number customers database

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One approach would be to write tests that use a real database and message broker along with stubs to simulate the various saga participants. For example, a stub for Consumer Service would subscribe to the consumerService command channel and send back the desired reply message. But tests written using this approach would be quite slow. A much more effective approach is to write tests that mock those classes that interact with the database and message broker. That way, we can focus on testing the saga’s core responsibility. buy Middle East Phone Number database online

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Listing 9.4 shows a test for CreateOrderSaga. It’s a sociable unit test that tests the saga class and its dependencies. It’s written using the Eventuate Tram Saga testing framework (https://github.com/eventuate-tram/eventuate-tram-sagas). This frame-work provides an easy-to-use DSL that abstracts away the details of interacting with sagas. With this DSL, you can create a saga and verify that it sends the correct com-mand messages. Under the covers, the Saga testing framework configures the Saga framework with mocks for the database and messaging infrastructure. Middle East Phone Number database providers

Send a failure reply indicating that Consumer Service rejected Order.

The @Test shouldCreateOrder() method tests the happy path. The @Test should-

RejectOrderDueToConsumerVerificationFailed() method tests the scenario where

Consumer Service rejects the order. It verifies that CreateOrderSaga sends a Reject-

OrderCommand to compensate for the consumer being rejected. The CreateOrder-

SagaTest class has methods that test other failure scenarios. Middle East Phone Number business database

Let’s now look at how to test domain services.

Writing unit tests for domain services

The majority of a service’s business logic is implemented by the entities, value objects, and sagas. Domain service classes, such as the OrderService class, implement the remainder. This class is a typical domain service class. Its methods invoke entities and repositories and publish domain events. An effective way to test this kind of class is to use a mostly solitary unit test, which mocks dependencies such as repositories and messaging classes.

Listing 9.5 shows the OrderServiceTest class, which tests OrderService. It defines solitary unit tests, which use Mockito mocks for the service’s dependencies. Each test implements the test phases as follows: Middle East Phone Number database

Middle East Phone Number listing

Middle East Phone Number listing

Setup—Configures the mock objects for the service’s dependencies

Execute—Invokes a service method

Verify—Verifies that the value returned by the service method is correct and that the dependencies have been invoked correctly

Listing 9.5 A simple, fast-running unit test for the OrderService class

public class OrderServiceTest {

private OrderService orderService; private OrderRepository orderRepository; private DomainEventPublisher eventPublisher; private RestaurantRepository restaurantRepository; Middle East Phone Number business database

private SagaManager createOrderSagaManager; private SagaManager cancelOrderSagaManager; private SagaManager reviseOrderSagaManager;

@Before

public void setup() {

orderRepository = mock(OrderRepository.class); eventPublisher = mock(DomainEventPublisher.class);
restaurantRepository = mock(RestaurantRepository.class);

Create Mockito mocks for OrderService’s dependencies.

Invoke OrderService .create().

Verify that OrderService published an Order-CreatedEvent.

createOrderSagaManager = mock(SagaManager.class); Middle East Phone Number database

cancelOrderSagaManager = mock(SagaManager.class);

reviseOrderSagaManager = mock(SagaManager.class);

orderService = new OrderService(orderRepository, eventPublisher,

restaurantRepository, createOrderSagaManager, cancelOrderSagaManager, reviseOrderSagaManager);
} Create an OrderService injected Middle East Phone Number business database

with mock dependencies.
@Test Configure RestaurantRepository.findById()

public void shouldCreateOrder() { to return the Ajanta restaurant.
when(restaurantRepository

.findById(AJANTA_ID)).thenReturn(Optional.of(AJANTA_RESTAURANT_);

when(orderRepository.save(any(Order.class))).then(invocation -> { Order order = (Order) invocation.getArguments()[0];

order.setId(ORDER_ID);
Configure OrderRepository.save()
return order;
to set Order’s ID.

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Middle East Phone Number leads

Order order = orderService.createOrder(CONSUMER_ID,

AJANTA_ID, CHICKEN_VINDALOO_MENU_ITEMS_AND_QUANTITIES);

verify(orderRepository).save(same(order)); Verify that Middle East Phone Number database

OrderService saved Middle East Phone Number Profile

the newly created
verify(eventPublisher).publish(Order.class, ORDER_ID, Order in the database.
singletonList(
new OrderCreatedEvent(CHICKEN_VINDALOO_ORDER_DETAILS)));
verify(createOrderSagaManager) Verify that Order-
.create(new CreateOrderSagaState(ORDER_ID,
Service created a
CHICKEN_VINDALOO_ORDER_DETAILS), CreateOrderSaga.
Order.class, ORDER_ID);
}

}

The setUp() method creates an OrderService injected with mock dependencies. The @Test shouldCreateOrder() method verifies that OrderService.createOrder() invokes OrderRepository to save the newly created Order, publishes an OrderCreated-Event, and creates a CreateOrderSaga. Middle East Phone Number id list

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Now that we’ve seen how to unit test the domain logic classes, let’s look at how to unit test the adapters that interact with external systems.

Developing unit tests for controllers Middle East Phone Number database providers

Services, such as Order Service, typically have one or more controllers that handle HTTP requests from other services and the API gateway. A controller class consists of a set of request handler methods. Each method implements a REST API endpoint. A method’s parameters represent values from the HTTP request, such as path variables. It typically invokes a domain service or a repository and returns a response object.

OrderController, for instance, invokes OrderService and OrderRepository. An effective testing strategy for controllers is solitary unit tests that mock the services and repositories.

You could write a test class similar to the OrderServiceTest class to instantiate a controller class and invoke its methods. But this approach doesn’t test some import-ant functionality, such as request routing. It’s much more effective to use a mock MVC testing framework, such as Spring Mock Mvc, which is part of the Spring Framework, or Rest Assured Mock MVC, which builds on Spring Mock Mvc. Tests written using one of these frameworks make what appear to be HTTP requests and make assertions about HTTP responses. These frameworks enable you to test HTTP request routing and conversion of Java objects to and from JSON without having to make real network calls. Under the covers, Spring Mock Mvc instantiates just enough of the Spring MVC classes to make this possible. Middle East Phone Number Profile

Middle East Phone Number Profile

Middle East Phone Number Profile

Are these really unit tests?

Because these tests use the Spring Framework, you might argue that they’re not unit tests. They’re certainly more heavyweight than the unit tests I’ve described so far. The Spring Mock Mvc documentation refers to these as out-of-servlet-container inte-gration tests (https://docs.spring.io/spring/docs/current/spring-framework-reference/ testing.html#spring-mvc-test-vs-end-to-end-integration-tests). Yet Rest Assured Mock MVC describes these tests as unit tests (https://github.com/rest-assured/rest-assured/wiki/Usage#spring-mock-mvc-module). Regardless of the debate over termi-nology, these are important tests to write. Middle East Phone Number database

Listing 9.6 shows the OrderControllerTest class, which tests Order Service’s Order-Controller. It defines solitary unit tests that use mocks for OrderController’s depen-dencies. It’s written using Rest Assured Mock MVC , which provides a simple DSL that abstracts away the details of interacting with controllers. Rest Assured makes it easy to send a mock HTTP request to a controller and verify the response. OrderController-Test creates a controller that’s injected with Mockito mocks for OrderService and OrderRepository. Each test configures the mocks, makes an HTTP request, verifies that the response is correct, and possibly verifies that the controller invoked the mocks. Middle East Phone Number Profile

A simple, fast-running unit test for the OrderController class

public class OrderControllerTest {

private OrderService orderService; private OrderRepository orderRepository;

@Before

public void setUp() throws Exception { orderService = mock(OrderService.class); orderRepository = mock(OrderRepository.class);
controllers, message adapters tend to be simple classes that invoke domain services. Each of a message adapter’s methods typically invokes a service method with data from the message or event. Middle East Phone Number leads

We can unit test message adapters using an approach similar to the one we used for unit testing controllers. Each test instances the message adapter, sends a message to a channel, and verifies that the service mock was invoked correctly. Behind the scenes, though, the messaging infrastructure is stubbed, so no message broker is involved. Let’s look at how to test the OrderEventConsumer class. Middle East Phone Number database

Listing 9.7 shows part of the OrderEventConsumerTest class, which tests Order-EventConsumer. It verifies that OrderEventConsumer routes each event to the appro-priate handler method and correctly invokes OrderService. The test uses the Eventuate Tram Mock Messaging framework, which provides an easy-to-use DSL for writing mock messaging tests that uses the same given-when-then format as Rest Assured. Each test instantiates OrderEventConsumer injected with a mock Order-Service, publishes a domain event, and verifies that OrderEventConsumer correctly invokes the service mock.
A fast-running unit test for the OrderEventConsumer class

public class OrderEventConsumerTest {

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Middle East Phone Number customers database

private OrderService orderService; Middle East Phone Number id list

private OrderEventConsumer orderEventConsumer;

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public void setUp() throws Exception { orderService = mock(OrderService.class);
orderEventConsumer = new OrderEventConsumer(orderService);

}

@Test Configure Middle East Phone Number address lists
public void shouldCreateMenu() { OrderEventConsumer
domain handlers.

given(). Middle East Phone Number leads

eventHandlers(orderEventConsumer.domainEventHandlers()).

Publish a Restaurant-Created event.

}
when().

aggregate(“net.chrisrichardson.ftgo.restaurantservice.domain.Restaurant”,

AJANTA_ID).

publishes(new RestaurantCreated(AJANTA_RESTAURANT_NAME, RestaurantMother.AJANTA_RESTAURANT_MENU)) Middle East Phone Number database

then().
verify(() -> { Verify that OrderEventConsumer
verify(orderService)
invoked OrderService.createMenu().
.createMenu(AJANTA_ID,

new RestaurantMenu(RestaurantMother.AJANTA_RESTAURANT_MENU_ITEMS));

})

;

}

The setUp() method creates an OrderEventConsumer injected with a mock Order-

Service. The shouldCreateMenu() method publishes a RestaurantCreated event

and verifies that OrderEventConsumer invoked OrderService.createMenu(). The

OrderEventConsumerTest class and the other unit test classes execute extremely quickly.

The unit tests run in just a few seconds.

But the unit tests don’t verify that a service, such as Order Service, properly inter-acts with other services. For example, the unit tests don’t verify that an Order can be persisted in MySQL. Nor do they verify that CreateOrderSaga sends command mes-sages in the right format to the right message channel. And they don’t verify that the RestaurantCreated event processed by OrderEventConsumer has the same structure as the event published by Restaurant Service. In order to verify that a service prop-erly interacts with other services, we must write integration tests. We also need to write component tests that test an entire service in isolation. The next chapter discusses how to conduct those types of tests, as well as end-to-end tests.Middle East Phone Number leads

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Middle East Phone Number b2c database

Summary

Automated testing is the key foundation of rapid, safe delivery of software. What’s more, because of its inherent complexity, to fully benefit from the microservice architecture you must automate your tests.

The purpose of a test is to verify the behavior of the system under test (SUT). In this definition, system is a fancy term that means the software element being tested. It might be something as small as a class, as large as the entire applica-tion, or something in between, such as a cluster of classes or an individual ser-vice. A collection of related tests form a test suite. Middle East Phone Number database

A good way to simplify and speed up a test is to use test doubles. A test double is an object that simulates the behavior of a SUT’s dependency. There are two types of test doubles: stubs and mocks. A stub is a test double that returns values to the SUT. A mock is a test double that a test uses to verify that the SUT cor-rectly invokes a dependency. Middle East Phone Number listing 

Use the test pyramid to determine where to focus your testing efforts for your services. The majority of your tests should be fast, reliable, and easy-to-write unit tests. You must minimize the number of end-to-end tests, because they’re slow, brittle, and time consuming to write.

Writing integration tests
Services typically interact with other services. For example, Order Service, as fig-ure 10.1 shows, interacts with several services. Its REST API is consumed by API Gateway, and its domain events are consumed by services, including Order History Service. Order Service uses several other services. It persists Orders in MySQL. It also sends commands to and consumes replies from several other services, such as Kitchen Service.

In order to be confident that a service such as Order Service works as expected, we must write tests that verify that the service can properly interact with infrastructure services and other application services. One approach is to launch all the services and test them through their APIs. This, however, is what’s known as end-to-end testing, which is slow, brittle, and costly. As explained in section 10.3, there’s a role for end-to-end testing sometimes, but it’s at the top of the test pyramid, so you want to minimize the number of end-to-end tests. Middle East Phone Number id list

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A much more effective strategy is to write what are known as integration tests. As fig-ure 10.2 shows, integration tests are the layer above unit tests in the testing pyramid. They verify that a service can properly interact with infrastructure services and other ser-vices. But unlike end-to-end tests, they don’t launch services. Instead, we use a couple of strategies that significantly simplify the tests without impacting their effectiveness. Middle East Phone Number address lists

The first strategy is to test each of the service’s adapters, along with, perhaps, the adapter’s supporting classes. For example, in section 10.1.1 you’ll see a JPA per-sistence test that verifies that Orders are persisted correctly. Rather than test persistence through Order Service’s API, it directly tests the OrderRepository class. Similarly, in section 10.1.3 you’ll see a test that verifies that Order Service publishes correctly structured domain events by testing the OrderDomainEventPublisher class. The bene-fit of testing only a small number of classes rather than the entire service is that the tests are significantly simpler and faster. Middle East Phone Number listing

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Middle East Phone Number b2b database

The second strategy for simplifying integration tests that verify interactions between application services is to use contracts, discussed in chapter 9. A contract is a concrete example of an interaction between a pair of services. As table 10.1 shows, the structure of a contract depends on the type of interaction between the services. Middle East Phone Number database

A contract consists of either one message, in the case of publish/subscribe style inter-actions, or two messages, in the case of request/response and asynchronous request/ response style interactions.

The contracts are used to test both the consumer and the provider, which ensures that they agree on the API. They’re used in slightly different ways depending on whether you’re testing the consumer or the provider: Middle East Phone Number listing

Consumer-side tests—These are tests for the consumer’s adapter. They use the contracts to configure stubs that simulate the provider, enabling you to write integration tests for a consumer that don’t require a running provider.

Provider-side tests—These are tests for the provider’s adapter. They use the con-tracts to test the adapters
using mocks for the adapters’s dependencies. Middle East Phone Number database

Later in this section, I describe examples of these types of tests—but first let’s look at how to write persistence tests. Middle East Phone Number database

Persistence integration tests

Services typically store data in a database. For instance, Order Service persists aggre-gates, such as Order, in MySQL using JPA. Similarly, Order History Service maintains a CQRS view in AWS DynamoDB. The unit tests we wrote earlier only test in-memory objects. In order to be confident that a service works correctly, we must write per-sistence integration tests, which verify that a service’s database access logic works as expected. In the case of Order Service, this means testing the JPA repositories, such as OrderRepository.

Each phase of a persistence integration test behaves as follows:

Setup—Set up the database by creating the database schema and initializing it to a known state. It might also begin a database transaction.

Execute—Perform a database operation.

Verify—Make assertions about the state of the database and objects retrieved from the database.

Teardown—An optional phase that might undo the changes made to the database by, for example, rolling back the transaction that was started by the setup phase.

Listing 10.1 shows a persistent integration test for the Order aggregate and Order-Repository. Apart from relying on JPA to create the database schema, the persistence integration tests don’t make any assumption about the state of the database. Conse-quently, tests don’t need to roll back the changes they make to the database, which avoids problems with the ORM caching data changes in memory. Middle East Phone Number database

The shouldSaveAndLoadOrder() test method executes two transactions. The first saves a newly created Order in the database. The second transaction loads the Order and verifies that its fields are properly initialized. Middle East Phone Number database

One problem you need to solve is how to provision the database that’s used in per-sistence integration tests. An effective solution to run an instance of the database during testing is to use Docker. Section 10.2 describes how to use the Docker Compose Gradle plugin to automatically run services during component testing. You can use a similar approach to run MySQL, for example, during persistence integration testing.

The database is only one of the external services a service interacts with. Let’s now look at how to write integration tests for interservice communication between applica-tion services, starting with REST.

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Middle East Phone Number Profile

10.1.2 Integration testing REST-based request/response style interactions

REST is a widely used interservice communication mechanism. The REST client and REST service must agree on the REST API, which includes the REST endpoints and the structure of the request and response bodies. The client must send an HTTP request to the correct endpoint, and the service must send back the response that the client expects. Middle East Phone Number database

For example, chapter 8 describes how the FTGO application’s API Gateway makes REST API calls to numerous services, including ConsumerService, Order Service, and Delivery Service. The OrderService’s GET /orders/{orderId} endpoint is one of the endpoints invoked by the API Gateway. In order to be confident that API Gateway and Order Service can communicate without using an end-to-end test, we need to write integration tests.

As stated in the preceding chapter, a good integration testing strategy is to use consumer-driven contract tests. The interaction between API Gateway and GET /orders/{orderId} can be described using a set of HTTP-based contracts. Each con-tract consists of an HTTP request and an HTTP reply. The contracts are used to test API Gateway and Order Service. Middle East Phone Number id list

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Figure 10.3 shows how to use Spring Cloud Contract to test REST-based interac-tions. The consumer-side API Gateway integration tests use the contracts to configure an HTTP stub server that simulates the behavior of Order Service. A contract’s request specifies an HTTP request from the API gateway, and the contract’s response specifies the response that the stub sends back to the API gateway. Spring Cloud Con-tract uses the contracts to code-generate the provider-side Order Service integration tests, which test the controllers using Spring Mock MVC or Rest Assured Mock MVC. The contract’s request specifies the HTTP request to make to the controller, and the contract’s response specifies the controller’s expected response. Middle East Phone Number address lists

The consumer-side OrderServiceProxyTest invokes OrderServiceProxy, which has been configured to make HTTP requests to WireMock. WireMock is a tool for effi-ciently mocking HTTP servers—in this test it simulates Order Service.

On the provider side, Spring Cloud Contract generates a test class called HttpTest, which uses Rest Assured Mock MVC to test Order Service’s controllers. Test classes such as HttpTest must extend a handwritten base class. In this example, the base class BaseHttp instantiates OrderController injected with mock dependencies and calls RestAssuredMockMvc.standaloneSetup() to configure Spring MVC. Middle East Phone Number

Let’s take a closer look at how this works, starting with an example contract.

AN EXAMPLE CONTRACT FOR A REST API

A REST contract, such as the one shown in listing 10.2, specifies an HTTP request, which is sent by the REST client, and the HTTP response, which the client expects to get back from the REST server. A contract’s request specifies the HTTP method, the path, and optional headers. A contract’s response specifies the HTTP status code, optional headers, and, when appropriate, the expected body. Middle East Phone Number database

CONSUMER-DRIVEN CONTRACT INTEGRATION TESTS FOR ORDER SERVICE

The consumer-driven contract integration tests for Order Service verify that its API meets its clients’ expectations. Listing 10.3 shows HttpBase, which is the base class for the test class code-generated by Spring Cloud Contract. It’s responsible for the setup phase of the test. It creates the controllers injected with mock dependencies and configures those mocks to return values that cause the controller to generate the expected response.

The argument 1223232L that’s passed to the mock OrderRepository’s findById() method matches the orderId specified in the contract shown in listing 10.3. This test verifies that Order Service has a GET /orders/{orderId} endpoint that matches its client’s expectations.

Let’s take a look at the corresponding client test. Middle East Phone Number

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Middle East Phone Number b2b database

CONSUMER-SIDE INTEGRATION TEST FOR API GATEWAY’S ORDERSERVICEPROXY

API Gateway’s OrderServiceProxy invokes the GET /orders/{orderId} endpoint. List-ing 10.4 shows the OrderServiceProxyIntegrationTest test class, which verifies that it conforms to the contracts. This class is annotated with @AutoConfigureStubRunner, provided by Spring Cloud Contract. It tells Spring Cloud Contract to run the Wire-Mock server on a random port and configure it using the specified contracts. Order-ServiceProxyIntegrationTest configures OrderServiceProxy to make requests to the WireMock port.

Each test method invokes OrderServiceProxy and verifies that either it returns the correct values or throws the expected exception. The shouldVerifyExisting-Customer() test method verifies that findOrderById() returns values equal to those specified in the contract’s response. The shouldFailToFindMissingOrder() attempts to retrieve a nonexistent Order and verifies that OrderServiceProxy throws an Order-NotFoundException. Testing both the REST client and the REST service using the same contracts ensures that they agree on the API.

Let’s now look at how to do the same kind of testing for services that interact using messaging. Middle East Phone Number

Integration testing publish/subscribe-style interactions

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Middle East Phone Number business database free download

Services often publish domain events that are consumed by one or more other ser-vices. Integration testing must verify that the publisher and its consumers agree on the message channel and the structure of the domain events. Order Service, for example, publishes Order* events whenever it creates or updates an Order aggregate. Order History Service is one of the consumers of those events. We must, therefore, write tests that verify that these services can interact. buy Middle East Phone Number database

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Figure 10.4 shows the approach to integration testing publish/subscribe interac-tions. Its quite similar to the approach used for testing REST interactions. As before, the interactions are defined by a set of contracts. What’s different is that each contract specifies a domain event.
Each consumer-side test publishes the event specified by the contract and verifies that OrderHistoryEventHandlers invokes its mocked dependencies correctly. Middle East Phone Number address lists

On the provider side, Spring Cloud Contract code-generates test classes that extend MessagingBase, which is a hand-written abstract superclass. Each test method invokes a hook method defined by MessagingBase, which is expected to trigger the publication of an event by the service. In this example, each hook method invokes OrderDomainEventPublisher, which is responsible for publishing Order aggregate events. The test method then verifies that OrderDomainEventPublisher published the expected event. Let’s look at the details of how these tests work, starting with the contract.

THE CONTRACT FOR PUBLISHING AN ORDERCREATED EVENT Middle East Phone Number database

Listing 10.5 shows the contract for an OrderCreated event. It specifies the event’s channel, along with the expected body and message headers.
CONSUMER-DRIVEN CONTRACT TESTS FOR ORDER SERVICE Middle East Phone Number

The provider-side test for Order Service is another consumer-driven contract inte-gration test. It verifies that OrderDomainEventPublisher, which is responsible for publishing Order aggregate domain events, publishes events that match its clients’ expectations. Listing 10.6 shows MessagingBase, which is the base class for the test classes code-generated by Spring Cloud Contract. It’s responsible for configuring the OrderDomainEventPublisher class to use in-memory messaging stubs. It also defines the methods, such as orderCreated(), which are invoked by the generated tests to trigger the publishing of the event.

CONSUMER-SIDE CONTRACT TEST FOR THE ORDER HISTORY SERVICE

Order History Service consumes events published by Order Service. As I described in chapter 7, the adapter class that handles these events is the OrderHistoryEvent-Handlers class. Its event handlers invoke OrderHistoryDao to update the CQRS view. Listing 10.7 shows the consumer-side integration test. It creates an OrderHistoryEvent-Handlers injected with a mock OrderHistoryDao. Each test method first invokes Spring Cloud to publish the event defined in the contract and then verifies that OrderHistory-EventHandlers invokes OrderHistoryDao correctly. Middle East Phone Number lists

The shouldHandleOrderCreatedEvent() test method tells Spring Cloud Contract to publish the OrderCreated event. It then verifies that OrderHistoryEventHandlers invoked orderHistoryDao.addOrder(). Testing both the domain event’s publisher and consumer using the same contracts ensures that they agree on the API. Let’s now look at how to do integration test services that interact using asynchronous request/response.

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Middle East Phone Number database free

10.1.4 Integration contract tests for asynchronous request/response interactions

Publish/subscribe isn’t the only kind of messaging-based interaction style. Services also interact using asynchronous request/response. For example, in chapter 4 we saw that Order Service implements sagas that send command messages to various ser-vices, such as Kitchen Service, and processes the reply messages.Middle East Phone Number database

The two parties in an asynchronous request/response interaction are the requestor, which is the service that sends the command, and the replier, which is the service that processes the command and sends back a reply. They must agree on the name of com-mand message channel and the structure of the command and reply messages. Let’s look at how to write integration tests for asynchronous request/response interactions.

Figure 10.5 shows how to test the interaction between Order Service and Kitchen Service. The approach to integration testing asynchronous request/response interac-tions is quite similar to the approach used for testing REST interactions. The interac-tions between the services are defined by a set of contracts. What’s different is that a contract specifies an input message and an output message instead of an HTTP request and reply.

The consumer-side test verifies that the command message proxy class sends correctly structured command messages and correctly processes reply messages. In this exam-ple, KitchenServiceProxyTest tests KitchenServiceProxy. It uses Spring Cloud Con-tract to configure messaging stubs that verify that the command message matches a contract’s input message and replies with the corresponding output message. Middle East Phone Number lists

The provider-side tests are code-generated by Spring Cloud Contract. Each test method corresponds to a contract. It sends the contract’s input message as a com-mand message and verifies that the reply message matches the contract’s output mes-sage. Let’s look at the details, starting with the contract. Middle East Phone Number database

EXAMPLE ASYNCHRONOUS REQUEST/RESPONSE CONTRACT

Listing 10.8 shows the contract for one interaction. It consists of an input message and an output message. Both messages specify a message channel, message body, and mes-sage headers. The naming convention is from the provider’s perspective. The input message’s messageFrom element specifies the channel that the message is read from. buy Middle East Phone Number database
In the same way, the output message’s sentTo element identifies the channel to which the response is to be sent.

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In this particular example contract in this example, the message input is the CreateTicket command, which is delivered via the KitchenService channel. The result message is a successful response that’s delivered to the CreateOrderSaga’s response channel. Let’s take a look at how we can test this contract beginning with the consumer-facing testing using Order Service. Middle East Phone Number database for sale

Middle East Phone Number consumer database

Middle East Phone Number consumer database

CONSUMER-SIDE CONTRACT INTEGRATION TESTS ASSYNCHRONOUS REQUEST/RESPONSE

The approach to write an integration test for consumers for an asynchronous response/request interaction is identical to testing the REST client. The test calls the messaging proxy of the service and tests the following aspects about its operation. It first confirms that the mes-saging proxy is sending an appropriate command message to the terms of the contract. The second step is to verify that the proxy correctly handles the message in reply.

Listing 10.9 illustrates the integration for consumers test for KitchenServiceProxy it is the communication proxy that is used to communicate with Order Service to invoke Kitchen Service. Each test sends out a command message through KitchenServiceProxy and checks that it is able to return the desired result. It utilizes Spring Cloud Contract to configure messages stubs that can be sent to Middle East Phone Number lists

Kitchen Service that find the contract whose input message is in line with the command message, and then sends its output message as a response. The tests utilize in-memory messages to speed up and simplify the process.

Let’s explore how to write integration tests.

CONTRACTS WITH PROVIDER-SIDE DRIVEN CONSUMER Tests for ASYNCHRONOUS REQUEST/RESPONSE INTE

The integration tests for providers should ensure that the provider is able to handle the command message correctly by sending the correct response. Spring Cloud Contract generates test classes that include tests for every contract. Every test method relays the input message of the contract and ensures that the reply is in line with the output message of the contract. Middle East Phone Number mailing lists

The provider-side integration tests for Kitchen Service test KitchenService-CommandHandler. The KitchenServiceCommandHandler class handles a message by invoking KitchenService. The following listing shows the AbstractKitchenService-ConsumerContractTest class, which is the base class for the Spring Cloud Contract-generated tests. It creates a KitchenServiceCommandHandler injected with a mock KitchenService. Middle East Phone Number database

KitchenServiceCommandHandler invokes KitchenService with arguments that are derived from a contract’s input message and creates a reply message that’s derived from the return value. The test class’s set() method allows its kitchenservice mock Kitchen-Service to return values that are in line with the output message of the contract.

Integrity tests, as well as unit tests test the operation of the individual components of the service. Integration tests confirm that the service can connect to their customers and dependents. Unit tests confirm the logic of a service is accurate. Both types of tests run the whole service. To verify the service in its entirety works then we’ll go higher up the ladder and learn the best way to write components tests.

Developing component tests

We’ve already explored ways to test individual classes as well as groups of classes. However, imagine that we are looking to ensure the Order Service works as expected. That is we’d like to create acceptance tests for the service that treat it as a black box , and then test its behaviour using its API. One option is to write what’s fundamentally end-to end tests and implement Order Service and all of its dependencies on transit. As you’re probably aware already, this is an inefficient, slow and costly method to test a service. Middle East Phone Number mailing lists

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Pattern: Service component test

The best way to create acceptance tests for the service is to utilize components testing. As the figure 10.6 illustrates, the component tests are placed between integration tests as well as end-to-end tests. Component testing checks the operation of a service on its own. It replaces the dependencies of a particular service by stubs that mimic their behaviour. It may even employ in-memory versions for infrastructure services like databases. In the end, component tests are much simpler to write and are faster to execute. Middle East Phone Number database

In the beginning, I briefly describe how you can use an testing DSL known as Gherkin to create acceptance tests for certain services like Order Service. In the next section, I will discuss different aspects of com-ponent testing design. I also show you how to design Acceptance tests to test Order Service. buy Middle East Phone Number database

Definition of acceptance tests

Acceptance tests are tests for business for a component of software. They define the desired behavior externally from the point of view of the clientele for the component instead of in relation to its internal application. These tests are derived from user-generated stories or case studies. For instance, one of the main stories that are used for Order Service is the Place Order story:

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As a customer from the Order Service

I’ll be able make an order Middle East Phone Number database for sale

It is possible to expand the story into scenarios like the following:

If you are a legitimate consumer

Provided with an active credit card

The restaurant is currently accepting orders

When I place an order Chicken Vindaloo at Ajanta

Then the order needs to be approved

Additionally, an OrderAuthorized event should be made public

This example describes the expected performance that is expected from Order Service in terms of its API. Each scenario specifies one acceptance test. The givens match the test’s set-up

The when phase is mapped to the execution phase, and the next and as well as the verification phase, the and maps to the verifica-tion. In the next step, you can are able to see a test of this scenario, which will do the following: Middle East Phone Number mailing lists

Creates an Order by calling the POST/orders endingpoint

Verifies the status of the Order by calling the GET /orders/orderId endpoint

Checks to see if you have verified that the Order Service published an OrderAuthorized event by subscribing the appropriate channel for messages.

The scenario could be translated to Java code. A better option, however it is to write acceptance tests with the help of a DSL like Gherkin.

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Writing acceptance tests with Gherkin Middle East Phone Number database

Writing acceptance tests using Java is a challenge. There’s a possibility there’s a chance that scenarios as well as Java tests will diverge. There’s also a difference between high-level scenarios in addition to those of the Java test, that are composed of details for implementation at a low level. There’s also a chance that a scenario isn’t precise enough or is unclear and cannot be converted in Java code. An alternative is to skip the manual translation and write executable scenarios.

Gherkin is an DSL that allows you to write executable specifications. If you are using Gherkin you create your acceptance tests using scenarios that resemble English such as those that was shown earlier. Then, you execute the requirements with Cucumber which is a test automation frame-work that is compatible with Gherkin. Gherkin and Cucumber make it unnecessary to manually convert scenarios into executable code. Middle East Phone Number quality lists

It is the Gherkin specifications for a service like Order Service consists of a set of specifications. Every feature can be described with an array of scenarios, like the one you just saw. A sce-nario is a given-when-then format. It is composed of the given conditions that determine the when moment or event that happens and the then/and are the anticipated outcomes.

For instance, the desired behaviour for Order Service is specified by various options, such as Place Order, Cancel Order along with Revise Order. The following listing 10.11 is an example from the Place Order feature. The feature is comprised of several components:

Name–For this feature Name–For this feature, Name will be Place Order. Middle East Phone Number database

The specification brief explains the reason the reason for why this feature is there. The specifications brief will be the story of the user.

Scenarios: Orders are authorized but Order was rejected because of an the expiration of your credit card.

This is the Gherkin Definition of Place Order feature and some of its scenarios

Features the ability to place orders Middle East Phone Number quality lists

As a customer in the Order Service

I’ll be able make an order

Scenario: Order authorized

With a valid consumer buy Middle East Phone Number database

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If you have an active credit card

Since the restaurant accepts orders

When I make an order Chicken Vindaloo at Ajanta Middle East Phone Number database for sale

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Then, the order must be approved

Additionally, an OrderAuthorized event should be made public

Scenario: Purchase is denied due to an expired credit card

With a valid consumer

It was made using an expired credit card.

The restaurant is currently accepting orders Middle East Phone Number database

When I place an order Chicken Vindaloo at Ajanta

The order will then be VOID

The OrderRejected event, in turn, should be made public

In both instances the consumer tries to make an order. In the first instance they are successful. In the second case the order is denied due to the fact that the credit card of the customer has been expired. For more details on Gherkin check out this book Writing Great Specifi-cations: Using Specification through Example or Gherkin from Kamil Nicieja (Manning 2017, 2017). Middle East Phone Number quality lists

EXECUTING GHERKIN Specifications Using CUCUMBER

Cucumber can be described as an automatic test framework that runs test scripts written using Gherkin. Cucumber is available in a range of languages that include Java. When you use Cucumber for Java it is necessary to define a step definition classes like the one in Listing 10.12. The step definition class is composed of methods to define the purpose of each given-then when step. Every steps definition is marked with @Given, @When and. Each annotation has the value element, which is an expression that is regular, and is matched to the steps. Middle East Phone Number database

The Java step definition class makes Gherkin scenario executable.

StepDefinitions for public classes … {•

@Given(“A legitimate consumer”)

public void useConsumer()

@Given(“using a(.?) (. *) credit card”)

public void useCreditCard(String ignore, String creditCard)

@When(“I make my order to purchase chicken Vindaloo in Ajanta”)

public void placeOrder()

@Then(“the sequence should read (. *)”)

public void theOrderShouldBe(String desiredOrderState) Middle East Phone Number quality lists

@And(“an (. *) event should be made public”)

public void verifyEventPublished(String expectedEventClass)

}

Every type of test is part of a specific section of the test purchase Middle East Phone Number lists

@Given – The stage of setup

When – The execute phase

@Then and @And – The verification phase Middle East Phone Number database

In section 10.2.4 When I go over the class in greater detail you’ll notice that a lot of these methods use REST calls towards the Order Service. For instance the placeOrder() method creates an Order using the REST endpoint POST /orders. This the-orderShouldBe() method checks that the Order is in good order using GET orders/orderId.

Before we get into the specifics of writing step-based classes, lets examine the design challenges using components tests.

Designing component tests

Imagine that you’re developing the tests on components for Order Service. Section 10.2.2 describes how to define the desired behavior you want to achieve using Gherkin and then execute it with Cucum-ber. However, before an application test can run scenarios using Gherkin situations, the test needs to first start Order Service and set up the service’s dependencies. You must try Order Service in isolation, therefore the test component must create stubs to test several services, such as Kitchen Service. Also, it must create a database and the infrastructure for messaging. There are several choices that combine real-time realism for speed and efficiency. purchase Middle East Phone Number lists

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IN-PROCESS COMPONENT TESTING

Another option is to write component tests. In-process component tests run the service using in-memory stubs as well as mocks to test its dependency. As an example, you can create a component test for a service that is based on Spring Boot by using an application that uses the Spring Boot testing framework. The test program, associated with @SpringBootTest, executes the service on exactly the same Java VM that the test. It makes use of dependency injection to set up the service to run mocks as well as stubs. For example testing of Order Service would configure it to run on memory-based JDBC database, like H2, HSQLDB, or Derby as well as in-memory stubs of Eventuate Tram. In-process tests are much easier to write and speedier however they have the disadvantage of not testing the deployable service. Middle East Phone Number database

IN-PROCESS COMPONENT TESTING

An alternative is to pack the service in an production-ready format, and then execute the service as an independent procedure. For instance chapter 12 explains how it’s becoming increasingly commonplace to bundle services into Docker containers. A component test that is out-of-process uses real infrastructure services like messages brokers and databases however, it uses stubs for all dependencies that are applications services. For instance, an out-of-process component test of FTGO Order Service could use MySQL as well as Apache Kafka, and stubs for other services such as Consumer Service and Accounting Service. Since Order Service interacts with those services via messaging, the stubs would be able to consume messages sent by Apache Kafka and send back replies. email marketing database Middle East Phone Number

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The main benefit of out of-process test is the fact that it enhances the test’s coverage since what’s being tested is closer to the component being tested. The downside is that this kind of test is more difficult to write, slow to run, and possibly more fragile as compared to an in-process component test. It is also necessary to find out how to connect the application service. Let’s examine how to accomplish that. Middle East Phone Number database for sale

HOW to STUB SERVICES IN PROCESSES THAT ARE NOT IN COMPONENT Tests

The service in question typically uses interactions that involve the sending of with a response. Order Service, for example utilizes asynchronous request and response, and transmits commands to various services. API Gateway uses HTTP, which is a response/request interaction like. A test that is out-of-process must set up the stubs to handle these types of dependencies. These manage requests and then send back the responses.

Another option is to utilize Spring Cloud Contract, which we discussed earlier in Sec-tion 10.1 in the discussion of integration tests. It is possible to write contracts that create stubs for component tests. Another thing to take into consideration however is these contracts, in contrast to those for integration could only be utilized by the tests for the component. purchase Middle East Phone Number lists

Another disadvantage of the use of Spring Cloud Contract for component testing is that, since its primary focus is testing consumer contracts it requires a more hefty method. The JAR files that contain the contracts have to be placed to the Maven repository, rather than simply being put on the classpath. The handling of interactions that involve values generated dynamically is complicated. Thus, a better alternative is to create stubs within the test. Middle East Phone Number database

A test could set up, for instance, an HTTP stubbing stub by using an application like the WireMock stubbing DSL. Similar to a test on the service that utilizes Eventuate Tram messaging can configure messaging stubbing. In the next section, I’ll show a user-friendly Java library that performs this.

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After having looked at the design of components tests, let’s look at the way to write test components to test The FTGO order service.

10.2.4 Tests for writing component for FTGO Order Service purchase Middle East Phone Number lists

As you’ve seen in this section There are several options to set up test-components. This section will explain the components of tests for Order Service that use the out-of-process method to test the application running as an Docker container. You’ll be able to see how the tests make use of the Gradle plugin to begin as well as end the Docker container. I will discuss the best way to make use of Cucumber to carry out Gherkin-based scenarios to determine the desired behavior for Order Service. Middle East Phone Number database

10.7 illustrates the design of the component tests. 10.7 shows the layout of the tests performed on the components of Order Service. Order-

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ServiceComponentTest Test is the class of test that executes Cucumber:

@RunWith(Cucumber.class)

@CucumberOptions(features = “src/component-test/resources/features”)

public class OrderServiceComponentTest { buy Middle East Phone Number targeted list

}

The annotation is @CucumberOptions which specifies the location of CucumberOptions annotation that specifies where to find Gherkin file for features. It’s also annotated with @RunWith(Cucumber.class), which tells JUNIT to use the Cucumber test runner. But , unlike a typical JUNIT test class, this one doesn’t include any tests methods. Instead, it defines the tests by reading the Gherkin features and uses the OrderServiceComponentTestStepDefinitions class to make them executable.

The use of Cucumber in conjunction with using the Spring Boot Testing framework needs an odd structure. Despite not being a test class, OrderServiceComponentTestStepDefinitions is still annotated with @ContextConfiguration, which is part of the Spring Testing framework. It is the source of Spring ApplicationContext which specifies the different Spring components, such as messaging stubs. Let’s examine the specifics of the steps definitions. email marketing database Middle East Phone Number

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THE ORDERSERVICECOMPONENTTESTSTEPDEFINITIONS CLASS

The OrderServiceComponentTestStepDefinitions class is the heart of the tests. The class defines the purpose of each step within the Order Service component tests. The following listing demonstrates that the usingCreditCard() method that defines the meaning of the given credit card step … Credit Card step. buy Middle East Phone Number database for marketing
The following list demonstrates that the “placeOrder”() method that defines the time when I make the order to purchase Chicken Vindaloo at Ajanta step. It uses the Order Service REST API to generate an Order and will save the response for validation in a subsequent step.

A statement of desired state is wrapped up in the call to ultimately() and it continuously executes the assertion.

The following listing shows the verifyEventPublished() method, which defines the And an … event should be published step. It confirms that the desired Domain event has been published. Middle East Phone Number database

The Cucumber step definitions class used for Order Service component tests. Order Service component tests

@ContextConfiguration(classes =

OrderServiceComponentTestStepDefinitions.TestConfiguration.class)

public class OrderServiceComponentTestStepDefinitions { buy Middle East Phone Number targeted list

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@Autowired

secured MessageTracker messageTracker;

@And(“an (. *) event should be announced”)

public void verifyEventPublished(String expectedEventClass) throws ClassNot FoundException {

messageTracker.assertDomainEventPublished(“net.chrisrichardson.ftgo.order Middle East Phone Number database

service.domain.Order”,

(Class )Class.forName(“net.chrisrichardson.ftgo.order service.domain.” + expectedEventClass));

The verifyEventPublished() method uses the MessageTracker class, a test helper class that records the events that have been published during the test. This class and SagaParticipantStubManager are instantiated by the TestConfiguration @Configuration class.

Now that we’ve examined the steps definitions we can look at the procedure to perform the compo-nent test.

Running the COMPONENT TESTING

Since these tests are quite slow, we wo