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When the developers of an altcoin have succeeded in establishing a community and an exchange market that is real and have been extremely rich. This is because they probably have a substantial amount of coins, as an example, they may be early miners prior to the time the rate of hash increases or “pre-mining,” which we will discuss later. When the exchange rate of altcoins increases, the creators are in a position to sell their assets if they decide to.
The potential for making money has drawn entrepreneurs and venture capitalists to altcoins. But, not surprisingly this has also drawn fraudsters. In fact, the distinction between these two can be fuzzy. A fraudster may employ various techniques to exaggerate the potential of an altcoin and create interest. They could exaggerate its claims of technical benefits, fabricate the appearance of support from grassroots or purchase the altcoin from the market at prices that are inflated and other such tactics. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
Actually, this scam could be mastered by a person who isn’t the person who created an altcoin. The first step is to purchase shares of an obscure altcoin and then convince the general public of its alleged unknown possibility (i.e., “pump” the altcoin). If they succeed in boosting the price and then sell their shares and earn the benefits (i.e., “dump” their money). In this case, investors will likely become aware of fraud, and prices will drop, with a lot of individuals left with worthless coins.
This type of scam is a common occurrence in the world of mainstream finance, employing the use of obscure, low-cost stocks and was prevalent in the beginning of altcoins, when the people were enthralled and investors were unable to distinguish genuine cryptocurrency in comparison to “me-too” systems with slick marketing, but with not really innovative. In the end, both investors and customers are uneasy about altcoins in the present. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
Initial allocation. In Bitcoin, currency is distributed to users by mining. However, due to various reasons altcoin creators have been looking for alternative methods for initial currency allocation as well as mining.
Developers could “pre-mine” the currency, by reserving a part of the currency for themselves or a specified organization (such as a foundation that is non-profit that has a charter to create cryptocurrency).
The concept is that the prospect of a windfall provides developers more motivation to work on developing and bootstrapping a brand new cryptocurrency. Sometimes, they conduct an “pre-sale,” where they sell pre-mined units other speculators in exchange for bitcoins or other fiat currencies. It’s similar investment in startups the investors can get rich if the altcoin succeeds in making it to the top of the pile. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
Another reason for looking for additional methods for the initial distribution is that it helps make sure that there is a diverse group with early users who are owners of the cryptocurrency and have an interest in its growth as mining in the present is a bit centralized and could result in a concentrated possession of valuable assets. One method to allow different ownership is to distribute Bitcoin units that are altcoin to current Bitcoin owners.
What can we do to develop a system to ensure that everyone who has bitcoins is able to claim their portion of the altcoin with the claim automatically decided upon? One option is a proof of burn that we have discussed in chapter 3: Users can be able to claim units from an altcoin, in proportion to the amount of bitcoins they are able to eliminate. Buy Oncologists email lists online. The owner must commit to certain information within the evidence of burn like a unique string that is identifying the specific altcoin to prove that they have burned bitcoins only to gain new units of the specific altcoin.
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Allocating altcoins using a proof of-burn is also known as an “one-way peg” or “price ceiling”. Affixing one altcoin unit with (say) 1 bitcoin does not necessarily mean that it is worth one bitcoin. This ensures that the altcoin is valued at the most one bitcoin, because bitcoins are able to be converted into an altcoin and vice versa.
Another option that is less unwieldy that is to require proof of ownership for bitcoins, without burning them, in order to claim altcoins. In particular this altcoin could be identified as having the Bitcoin block in height (perhaps being in conjunction with the date of launch for the altcoin) in which any person who had an unredeemed Bitcoin transaction at the time of the block could be entitled to a percentage of altcoins. In this model there’s not necessarily an unchanging relationship between the value of bitcoin and that of an altcoin because bitcoins aren’t “converted” to altcoins via the proof-of-burn. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
In order to accomplish this the miners of altcoins must remain on top of their position on the Bitcoin block chain too. The altcoin should define what constitutes a valid Bitcoin transaction. One possibility is to have a certain number of verifications, such as six. A different option is to include that the latest Bitcoin block for every altcoin Block. In this means that Bitcoin transactions will be immediately available for use within the alternative coin.
This is similar to the way that, within Bitcoin itself, the outputs of transactions are available for use in the next block or even within one block. This merge mining technique, which we’ll talk about in the next section is one method to connect bitcoin blocks with altcoins. Bitcoin blocks. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Additionally, donating coins already allocated is another option to increase the variety of currency holders. One option is to tip different services permit sending tips via email or social media accounts as an incentive to encourage the recipient to become aware of and take a stake in the currency. The tipping service holds the money in escrow until the person receiving the tip receives a notification to inform them that they’ve got coins that they can take home.
The customer can collect the coins after authenticating to the service with an email account or a social media accounts. You’ll also have to install wallet software , or provide another method of receiving coins. Another method of donation is to use a faucet. These are websites that provide some coins to any person who visits the website and possibly provides their email addresses. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
A Few Altcoins in Detail
In the next section, we’ll concentrate on some of the most popular altcoins and look at their strengths in more in depth.
Namecoin.We’ve observed how Bitcoin’s block chain functions as a safe, global database. After data is recorded to it, it’s unalterable and can be verified for the rest of time. Can we alter Bitcoin’s design to accommodate other types of safe global databases like the Naming system?
We’ll need to establish a few ground guidelines to make this database more useful to non-currency applications. First, we will consider the data entries as names/value pairs that are globally unique. Buy Oncologists email address lists online. This lets everyone search for the value that is that is mapped to a name as the hash table or database that has a primary-key field. To ensure that the name is unique across all in names, when the name/value pair is the same as an earlier database entry the database will consider it to be an update of the value instead of the creation of a new entry.
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We also agree that only the person who created the initial entry for a specific name is able to edit the name. This can be easily enforced by linking each name to an Bitcoin address, and then requiring updates to be verified by the private key of that particular address.
All this could be done by utilizing Bitcoin as a base in the same way we stated in the chapter on Chapter 9, that you can create any other overlay currency by with bitcoin as an append-only log. However, it’s easier to build it on an altcoin since we could use this gentleman’s agreement to include it in those rules that govern the altcoin.
These rules will then be unbreakable and enforced by miners, instead of requiring every user (i.e. fully node) to verify the rules by itself and then decide on its own what action to take if the rules are not followed. Buy Oncologists email address lists online. If done correctly, it could even allow proofs in the SPV style that a light client will be able submit an inquiry (i.e an address) at a computer operating the full node. Then, the server would then return the name with a value as well as a proof that the value returned is in actually the latest version of such name on the database.
That’s Namecoin in an easy to understand way. It’s a worldwide name/value exchange which allows each user to sign up for any number of names (for the cost of a small cost) and then make updates to the names’ values each of their names. Users are also able to change control on their name to another. In fact, you could create a transaction that gives your domain to someone while at the simultaneously, you transfer parts of the Namecoin cryptocurrency from the other party to. Because this is one atomic transaction, it’s a safe option to sell the domain you own to someone who you’ve never met , and you don’t trust. As of the year 2015 Namecoin doesn’t have the use of secure lightweight clients. However, an extension that can support this has been suggested. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Namecoin’s aim is to provide an alternative to DNS. Domain Name System (DNS) with the names that are stored in the database are domain names, with the value are IP addresses. You aren’t able to make use of this with an unmodified browser. However, you can install a browser extension to say Firefox or Chrome which will let you type in an address such as example.bit — or any domain name ending in .bit -and it will locate the address within the Namecoin registry instead of using the traditional DNS.
Namecoin is technically fascinating as well as historically fascinating — it was actually the first altcoin introduced in April of this year just two years following the time that Bitcoin was introduced. It has “merge mining” which we’ll be discussing later in this chapter. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Namecoin hasn’t been used much in 2015. The majority of domains registered are owned from “squatters,” hoping (but having failed in the past) to market their domains to earn profits. Namecoin’s supporters claim that the current DNS gives too many control over a vital element of the Internet to one entity. This is a popular view within the Bitcoin community which is not surprising but it doesn’t seem like the majority of users are calling for a DNS alternative which is robbing Namecoin of the coveted application that it requires to gain widespread adoption.
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Litecoin.Litecoin was launched in 2011, a year following Namecoin. Over the last several decades, Litecoin has been the most popular altcoin by popularity and users. It’s also the second most popular codebase to be forked. In fact the codebase has seen forks more than Bitcoin itself.
The most significant difference in the technical aspects between Litecoin as opposed to Bitcoin can be seen in the fact that Litecoin has a memory-hard mining puzzle (based on the scrypt algorithm) which we have talked on in Chapter 8. When Litecoin was first launched, Bitcoin mining was in the GPU age, which is why the purpose of Litecoin’s implementation of memory-hard mining was to provide GPU-resistance.
At the time of its launch in the early days, you could mine with an CPU, even after this was no longer a viable option for Bitcoin. Since the time it was launched, Litecoin hasn’t succeeded in staying away from the switch to GPU mining and eventually ASICs. Every one of these mining changes took a little longer in Litecoin as compared to Bitcoin however it’s unclear if that is because the Litecoin’s technology was much more difficult to implement on hardware or due to the fact that Litecoin’s low exchange rate was less of a reason to make the switch. Buy Oncologists email outlook lists online.
In any event the improvements in performance of ASICs in comparison with CPU mining is the same to Litecoin like they are for Bitcoin. In this regard, Litecoin failed in its initial goal of creating a decentralized system , by maintaining an active crowd of miners. Importantly, this storyline was still effective for bootstrapping Litecoin . It attracted a lot of people who decided to stay even though the initial idea was rejected. Litecoin has since formally changed its story, saying it’s initial distribution was fair than Bitcoin’s due to its resistance to ASICs for a longer time. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Litecoin has a few minor tweaks to its parameters: For instance, blocks in Litecoin are delivered four times faster than those in Bitcoin each 2.5 minutes. Litecoin however, borrows the same amount of Bitcoin as is possible. Actually, its growth has been a direct follow-up to Bitcoin in such a way that, since patches and enhancements have been added in Bitcoin, Litecoin has also accepted these changes.
Peercoin.Peercoin is sometimes referred to as PPCoin, first came into existence in the latter part of 2012. It was also the very first altcoin that utilized proof-of-stake mining. We have discussed proof-of-stake-mining (and Peercoin’s implementation) within Chapter 8 however, Peercoin is fascinating to talk about because of an entirely distinct reason. Its administrators own a public key they trust that they utilize to assign checkpoints of “blessed” blocks every so often. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
This is designed to serve as a protection against forking attacks, however it’s controversial due to the capacity of administrators to regulate the system makes it clear that Peercoin isn’t decentralized in the sense that it is. The checkpoint mechanism isn’t integral to Peercoin and may be eliminated at some point in the future, however its existence implies it isn’t possible to conclude that proof-of-stake led to an unsecure system in the real world. We don’t have any idea what would be the consequences if this safeguard was taken away. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Dogecoin.Dogecoin is perhaps the most vibrant of altcoins that have been released to date. It was launched in the latter half of 2013 and the thing that distinguishes it from other altcoins isn’t primarily technological (it is a to a fork of Litecoin) instead, it is an ensemble of values for the community such as generosity, tipping in addition to not taking the cryptocurrency too seriously. Indeed, it is named after Doge, an amusing Internet meme featuring a grammatically-challenged Shiba Inu dog.
The group has been involved in several intriguing and effective marketing campaigns like sponsorship of the NASCAR driver and placing Dogecoin designs on his vehicle. Buy Oncologists email address lists online. The community also raised more than $30k to help Jamaica’s National Bobsled Team, so that they can travel to participate at this year’s Winter Olympics. Funny thing is, this closely resembles the plot of the 1990s film Cool Runnings.
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Its combination with the generosity of the community as well as its PR efforts and the inherent memes of Doge resulted in Dogecoin gained a lot of attention in the year 2014. It’s apparent that most of the early adopters were not familiar with cryptocurrency prior to the introduction of Dogecoin. It was a brand new community for the currency to harness its value without needing to present an engaging story regarding its advantages in comparison to other currencies.
Dogecoin demonstrated that bootstrapping can be effective with the use of a non-technical explanation. However, as with many Internet phenomenons, its popularity did not last long, and the Dogecoin exchange rate has since plummeted.
Relationship Between Bitcoin and Altcoins
To understand the size and impact of various altcoins, there are several metrics that we can employ. Buy Oncologists email directory online.
Comparing altcoins: market capitalization.Traditionally, market capitalization or market cap is a simple method of estimating the value of a public corporation by multiplying the price of a share by the total number of shares outstanding. For altcoins this market cap is frequently used to calculate the value of an altcoin by multiplying the value of each amount of an altcoin (measured possibly at the most popular third-party exchanges) by the total amount of currency units in the altcoin believed to be being circulated. Buy Oncologists email directory online.
According to this measure, Bitcoin is by far the biggest — as in 2015 it is responsible for more than 95% of the market cap of all the cryptocurrency’s combined. The ranking of other altcoins varies considerably, but the fact is that many altcoins are small in terms of their value.
It is important not to overly interpret markets cap. Firstof all, it doesn’t tell you the amount it would cost to buy all the coins currently that are currently in circulation. The number could be different due to the fact that large orders can change the cost for the coin. Buy Oncologists email directory online.
Furthermore, while the calculation is based on only coins in circulation at the moment it is expected that market participants incorporate into their exchange rates the possibility that new coins are expected to be introduced in the near future which can further complicate the understanding of the figure. Furthermore, it is impossible to precisely estimate the amount of coins in circulation since the owners of certain coins might be missing their keys to private accounts and we’d be unable to verify this. Buy Oncologists email directory online.
Comparing altcoins and mining power.Iftwo altcoins share the same mining algorithm we can easily evaluate them based on the amount of mining power each of miners for each altcoin. This is commonly referred to as the hash rate because of the prevalence of puzzles that use hash. Buy Oncologists email directory online. As an example, Zetacoin is an altcoin which uses SHA-256 mining algorithms similar to what Bitcoin has, however, it also has a hash rate in the network of around 5
Terahashes per second (5*10 hashes/second) in December 2015. This is roughly 100-thousandths of Bitcoin’s total mining power. It’s a bit more difficult to evaluate the mining power of the coins that utilize various mining puzzles can require different amount of time to calculate. In addition, the mining equipment that is designed for one coin isn’t always suitable for mining (including attack) one coin.
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For an altcoin that has an entirely new mining algorithm We can still gain something from the shift in the mining power of the coin in the course of time. Increases in mining power indicate the possibility that more people have joined the group or have upgraded to stronger mining equipment. The loss of mining power typically signifies that miners have opted to abandon the altcoin. It is generally an indication of danger.
Comparing altcoins with other indicators.
There are other indicators to take a look at. The changes in an altcoin’s exchange rate over time provides indications of its health and is often linked to the changes to its hash rates across long intervals of time. The volume of exchange on different third-party exchanges is an indicator of interest and activity for the cryptocurrency. Buy Oncologists email id database online.
However the amount of transactions carried out on the block chain does not tell us much since it could just be a result of individuals transferring their own money around in their wallets maybe even in a way that is automated. In addition, we could examine the number of companies and merchants are able to accept the altcoin. Only those that are most popular are typically accepted by payment processors.
The economic perspective of Bitcoin-altercoin interactions.The connection with Bitcoin as well as altcoins can be complex. In one way the two cryptocurrencies compete with one with respect to their respective capabilities, since they all provide a method to pay online. If there are two standard or protocols or formats which are similar in terms of the services they provide in terms of functionality, then one tends to win because of what economists refer to as “network effects.” Buy Oncologists email id database online.
For instance, HD-DVD and Blu-ray were in an intense battle in the late 2000s for the title of the successor to DVD formats. In the course of time, Blu-ray began gain popularity in large part due to the cult PlayStation 3 console functioned as Blu-ray player.
This made Blu-ray an appealing format for film studios, and this popularity was reflected in the following: when more films were made on Blu-ray, more people purchased standalone Blu-ray players which led to more movie releases, and the list goes on. In the same way, if your family members own Blu-ray players you’d probably want one for yourself instead of an HD DVD player since it would be possible to switch movies. Within 2 years HD DVD had become a footnote to the past. Buy Oncologists email id database online.
Sidebar: Who wins the race? Long before HD DVD has been invented, there were countless instances of technology standards that rapidly fell to a rival and fell into obscurity, starting from Betamax old-fashioned videotapes and Russian railroad tracks that were gauged. If you’ve not heard of them effects, then network effects are the main reason.
Sometimes, as the case with Thomas Edison’s direct-current power grid and. Nikola Tesla’s alternating current power grid, which one won (AC) was decided by the overwhelming superiority of technology. In many other instances the opposite is true, for instance Betamax tapes losing out to VHS cassettes, the loser could be actually superior in terms of technology and network effects sufficient to overcome the small technological disadvantage. Buy Oncologists email id database online.
This argument suggests that one cryptocurrency will be the dominant — most likely Bitcoin which is by from being the largest and most favored one in the world today, even though other systems might be considered to be superior in terms of technology. This is an oversimplification. There are at minimum two main reasons that the competition between cryptocurrency isn’t like the rivalry with discs formats.
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It’s first, it’s fairly easy for people to change one currency to another and also for merchants accepting more than one currency this means that several currencies can easily be able to coexist and prosper.
In terms of economics, cryptocurrency have relatively low costs for switching. In comparison to DVD players, which is where the majority of people don’t require two devices in their homes and cannot convert their existing collection of discs in case they upgrade to a device that plays the different format.
Costs for switching are definitely not zero when it comes to cryptocurrencies. For instance, people may purchase hardware wallets that can’t be upgraded. However, it’s generally easy to change cryptocurrencies or use multiple currencies simultaneously. Buy Oncologists mailing lists online.
As we mentioned previously, many altcoins come with distinctive features that give them the reason why they exist. They shouldn’t be viewed as merely substitutes for Bitcoin and could be in some ways orthogonal or even in some cases, they are complementary. When viewed this way, complimentary altcoins can actually enhance the value of Bitcoin instead of competing with it. If Namecoin is successful, for instance, Bitcoin users have one additional thing they can accomplish with their Bitcoins. Buy Oncologists mailing lists online.
However, this image of a happiness and cooperation is an oversimplification. Many altcoins, including Litecoin, just try to provide the same functions that Bitcoin does Bitcoin however in a different and perhaps more efficient way. Although new features are being provided, many uses-cases are accomplished inside Bitcoin however in a less attractive manner (we’ll be talking more on this subject in chapter 11). Supporters of the do-it-on-top-of-Bitcoin model argue that having numerous altcoins divides the hash power available and makes each currency less secure. Buy Oncologists mailing lists online.
The advocates of altcoins argue contrary to what they say, altcoins let market forces determine what features are worthwhile as well as which systems are superior and other such things. They also claim that having several altcoins mitigates the potential damage caused by a catastrophic failure for any system.
They also note they believe that Bitcoin developers are risk-averse, and the process of adding additional features or functions to Bitcoin through the use of a soft or hard fork can be slow and challenging. On the other hand, it is easy to try out a new idea via an altcoin; altcoins can be seen as a research-and-development test bed for potential Bitcoin features. Buy Oncologists mailing lists online.
The reality is that there’s some tension between the supporters of Bitcoin and those who support altcoins. However, there is the feeling of collaboration.
In this section , and the nextone, we’ll set aside the issues of culture, politics and economics. Instead, we’ll focus on technological interactions that occur between Bitcoin as well as altcoins. Buy Oncologists mailing lists online.
Altcoin infanticide.As in 2015, Bitcoin’s hashing power is greater than all other altcoins. In fact the mining industry is dominated by powerful players and pools that have greater mining power than the entire altcoins. This type of miner or organization could be able to carry out an attack against a smaller altcoin (if it utilizes the same SHA256 mining algorithm like Bitcoin) which could result in the forks to split and other havoc that can be enough to destroy the altcoin. This is known as altcoin infanticide.
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Why would anyone commit this, when they’ll have to use their valuable mining power and will not receive a substantial cash reward? Let’s look at the 2012 attack against a tiny altcoin known as CoiledCoin The operator of Bitcoin mining platform Eligius believed the CoiledCoin was a fraud and a slap in the face to the cryptocurrency community.
Thus, Eligius targeted its mining resources towards CoiledCoin mining blocks that reversed days of CoiledCoin transactions and also mining a lengthy chain of empty blocks, causing an attack of denial of service that stopped CoiledCoin customers from engaging in transactions. After a relatively short battle CoiledCoin was abandoned by its users, and the cryptocurrency is no longer. In this case, and in many other altcoin infanticide incidents it is believed that the attacker was driven by something other than direct financial gain. Buy Oncologists mailing address lists online.
Merge mining.By default, for instance, that an altcoin modifies the Bitcoin source code, but makes any other changes, mining for the altcoin is only available to. This means that you could try to find the puzzle of mining to determine a block that is valid to mine the altcoin or Bitcoin however, you shouldn’t attempt at solving the two puzzles simultaneously. Of course, you could split your mining resources so that you allocate some of them to mining the altcoin, and some for working on Bitcoin. You could even split your resources between several altcoins, and you can alter your allocation as time goes by however, there’s no way for you to use your mining power to serve double work.
Exclusive miningand network-related effects, it could make it challenging for an altcoin to get its bootstrapped. If you were to start an altcoin, and convince the current Bitcoin miners to join your network, they’d need to cease working on Bitcoin (with minimum a portion part of their assets) that would result in the immediate loss of Bitcoin mining benefits. The altcoin you choose to launch is likely to be a small one as it is a hashing capacity and more vulnerable to attacks of infanticide from Bitcoin miners. Buy Oncologists mailing address lists online.
Could we create an altcoin to allow us to mine blocks on the altcoin as well as on Bitcoin simultaneously? In order to do this, we have to design blocks that incorporate transactions that are derived from each of Bitcoin along with the altcoin to make them applicable to both chain of block. It is easy to design the altcoin such it permits Bitcoin transactions to be included in its blocks because we can define the rules for the altcoin as we wish. However, the reverse is much more challenging. What is the best place to put transactions from altcoins into Bitcoin blocks? in Chapter 3, and in Chapter 9, we’ve learned how to insert random data in Bitcoin blocks, however, the speed of these methods is extremely restricted. Buy Oncologists mailing address lists online.
However, there’s a trick in the event that we cannot include the details of the transactions of altcoins into Bitcoin blocks it is possible to put an overview of the transactions made by altcoin into Bitcoin blocks by way of a hash pointer that is attached to the block of altcoins. Finding a method of putting an individual hash pointer inside every Bitcoin block is simple. Particularly, remember that every Bitcoin block is associated with a specific transaction known as the coinbase transaction. This is in which the miner generates new coins to be used as a block reward. The scriptSig field in the transaction is not important and therefore can be used to store any data (there’s no requirement to verify the Coinbase transaction because it’s not consuming any transaction outputs prior to it). Therefore, in a merge-mined altcoin the mining job is to calculate Bitcoinblocks that’s Coinbase scriptsig has the hash of the block of an altcoin.
This block now has the ability to do double duty: to Bitcoin users, it appears exactly like every similar Bitcoin block, except that it contains a hash inside the coinbase transaction that is not recognized. Altcoin clients can interpret the block by not noticing the Bitcoin transactions, and examining the altcoin transactions triggered by the hash of this transaction. It is important to note that although this does not need any modifications to Bitcoin but it will require the altcoin to understand Bitcoin and to accept merge-mined blocks. Buy Oncologists mailing address lists online.
If our altcoin is merg-mined We hope that a large number of Bitcoin miners will take it to mine since it doesn’t require more hash power. It will require a small amount of additional computational power to process transactions and blocks, and miners must be aware and appreciate our altcoin in order mining it. Let’s say that 25 percent of Bitcoin miners using ishing power mining altcoins. Buy Oncologists mailing address lists online. This would mean that, on average, 25 percent of Bitcoin blocks have points to altcoin block. So, it appears to be that, in the altcoin we have, a new block will be mining on average each 40 min. Even more disturbingly, since the altcoin’s blockchain is bootstrapped and the proportion in Bitcoin miners who mine it tiny The time between blocks could last for long or even days and that’s not acceptable.
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Can we guarantee that blocks of a merg-mined altcoin are produced in a regular manner that is as high or as low as we like, regardless of the proportion that Bitcoin miners who mine it? Yes, it is possible.
The problem is that, even while the mining procedure for the altcoin is exactly the same as for Bitcoin but the target for mining should not be the same.
The altcoin network calculates the goal and the difficulty of its blocks independent of Bitcoin. Bitcoin network. As Bitcoin adjusts its mining targets to ensure that blocks are found every 10 minutes, on average The altcoin network would alter its target to ensure that blocks from the altcoin are discovered every 10 minutes or any other value that is fixed. Buy Oncologists mailing id database online.
Blocks in Altcoin
Bitcoin blocks are mined by merge-miners for altcoins.
Bitcoin blocks are mined by miners who are not altcoins
An attempt to Bitcoin blocks discovered by miners of altcoins who met the altcoin’s target for difficulty, but not Bitcoin’s .
This means that the goal of the altcoin will usually be lower than Bitcoin’s and certain (or even the majority of) altcoin block will not be identified by legitimate Bitcoin blocks. This is fine! It is best to think of your Bitcoin block chain as well as that of the altcoin block chain to be two separate chains that occasionally point from an Bitcoin block that point to or from an altcoin block. The illustration is by Figure 10.5. In this case 60 percent of Bitcoin miners use the altcoin to mine while the altcoin’s block-to-block time is five minutes. This means that the altcoin’s complexity is 60% * 5/ 10, which is 30% of Bitcoin. Be aware that 40 percent of Bitcoin blocks do not have hash points to altcoin block. Buy Oncologists mailing id database online.
However, every valid altcoin block comes from attempts to mine an Bitcoin block, however less than 30% achieve Bitcoin’s difficulty goal. For the remaining 70% of altcoin block the altcoin network has to be able verify the solution to the mining puzzle. One way to do that is by broadcasting the Bitcoin near-block along with the block for altcoins. However, a more effective method is to broadcast only the head for the Bitcoin near-block, and also the Merkle evidence of the including the Coinbase transaction within the Bitcoin block.
It is also possible (although not often noticed) that the altcoin could actually have more difficulty than Bitcoin. This isn’t common since the majority of altcoins would like to see blocks discovered more frequently than every 10 minutes. However, in the event that you desired a lower rate, it would be possible to achieve. In this scenario you’ll see Bitcoin blocks that they hoped would be an altcoin block but they’ll be rejected on the altcoin exchange due to the fact that they don’t reach the higher difficulty threshold. Buy Oncologists mailing id database online.
Also, take note that all altcoins can be combined with Bitcoin and each miner can choose any of the altcoins that they want to merge. In this instance there is a Coinbase scriptSig itself would be an Merkle chain of hash pointsers to different altcoin block. Pay attention to the various degrees of complexity: proving whether an altcoin transactions is in fact included is the verification of the following: (1) a Merkle evidence of the inclusion of the transaction within the block of altcoins (2) the Merkle evidence of the inclusion of the block hash from the altcoin within the Coinbase scriptSig, and (3) an Merkle evidence of the that the Coinbase scriptSig within the Bitcoin block or near-block!
Mining with Merge and security.Merge mining can be an unintended blessing. Buy Oncologists mailing id database online. It helps with bootstrapping as we’ve previously discussed, and the increase to your altcoin’s total hash strength increases its resistance to attack. Someone who wants to purchase computing power to degrade your altcoin would require an immense initial investment.
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However you could claim that this argument is not true and creates an illusion of security, as an adversary is likely to be able to recoup the cost of his investment through mining Bitcoin in the first place, so the cost of attacking your cryptocurrency is minimal.
It is much easier to understand by considering an adversary that is already a major Bitcoin mining. In reality, CoiledCoin, the altcoin mentioned earlier, which suffered infanticide, was also merge-mined. It is believed that the Eligius mining group and their users didn’t have cease Bitcoin mining to target it. Actually, participants in the pool did not know of the computing resources being used for the attack!
Sidebar: the latest trends regarding altcoins mining puzzles.As as of 2015, a small number of altcoins have the same SHA256 mining puzzle as Bitcoin as well as without merge mining. This indicates that it could be thought to be a security risk. Scrypt is the more well-known choice that renders Bitcoin ASICs unsuitable to mine or attack altcoins. Naturally, scrypt ASICs designed to be used in Litecoin mining might be employed to attack them. Buy Oncologists mailing id lists online.
If we look at the rationality of a miner’s decision to merge to merge or not merge their mines, we discover many issues regarding the security and security of merging mining. Remember that, roughly speaking, mining is only appropriate in the event that the expected return equals or exceeds the anticipated costs. In the case of Bitcoin mining, the expense is mostly a result computed hash.
For those who are an active Bitcoin miner who is deciding whether or not to with an altcoin, there is no cost additional from hashing. The additional cost is due to two elements that include the calculation of bandwidth, storage, and computation required to validate altcoin transactions. They also necessity to keep the up-to-date software and possibly make educated decisions when the altcoin is in the midst of soft or hard forks. Buy Oncologists mailing id lists online.
This logic yields two conclusions. First, merge mining benefits from huge economies of scale since all miners pay the same expenses regardless of their hash strength. This is quite different from Bitcoin where the cost is proportional to hash power at least in the initial estimation.
For a lower-value altcoin an individual mining operation will not be able to combine mining it as it will cost more than the tiny rewards they can earn due to their lack of hash power. Be aware that, as of 2015 the potential earnings from mining altcoins has remained only a tiny fraction of Bitcoin mining earnings. This suggests that when compared with Bitcoin the altcoins that are merged will have greater centralization or the concentration of mining power. Buy Oncologists mailing id lists online.
An additional prediction is that the majority of miners will decide for outsourcing of their transaction verification. The lower the value of the altcoin the more incentive there is to outsource. The most natural method to accomplish it is join the Bitcoin mining group. This is because pool operators typically remove these calculations from miners who are in charge. The pool operator creates an Bitcoin block that combines blocks of (zero and more) altcoins after confirming the transactions within the Bitcoin block and the other altcoin blocks. The miner is simply trying to find the nonce. The predictions are proven in actual. For instance, GHash.IO, at one time the biggest Bitcoin mining network, permits to merge mining Namecoin, IXCoin and DevCoin. These were the most popular merging altcoins.
The third insight from the economic argument is more alarming in terms of security than the power of mining concentrated. If the primary cost for miners is the proof of their work, there is no opportunity that miners can “cheat”. There is no way to cheat in mining due to how secure hash functions and, in addition that other miners are able to and will confirm the work proof. Both theories fail in the case of validation. Buy Oncologists mailing id lists online. The miner may believe that transactions that they’ve heard about are legitimate and be able to get away with it. Additionally the fact that other miners must confirm a block as well as its transactions is about as difficult than it would be for the person who came across it. Because of this, we can expect that, at a minimum for smaller merger miners, they have a motivation to slack on verification. Incorrectly validating miners is a way to make it easier for attacks since a malicious miner could create a block that can cause the rest of the miners to argue over which branch is the longest valid one. is. Buy Oncologists mailing id lists online.
To sum up, merge mining can solve one security issue however it creates a host of other security issues partly because the economics of merging mining are different in significant ways from those of mining on its own. It’s far from evident that merging mining is a great idea for a new altcoin worried about mining-related attacks.
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Atomic Cross-chain Swaps
In Bitcoin it is easy to make one transaction that exchanges the currency or other assets owned by various entities or individuals. This is the idea behind Coinjoin which we looked at during Chapter 6. Coinjoin can also be used to trade smart property which we briefly discussed in chapter 9 and we will be discussing at the end of Chapter 11. This same concept allows selling domain names using Namecoin like we discussed earlier in the chapter.
In all cases the swap transactions are limited to one block chain even if they involve various kinds of assets within the block chain. A transaction on a particular altcoin is totally independent and is not capable of connecting to a transaction that is happening on another altcoin’s history of transactions. Buy Oncologists mailing id directory online.
However, is this really an inherent limitation or is there a alternative to swap one kind of coin to another? For instance the case if Alice would like to sell a portion of altcoin to Bob to exchange for a certain amount of his bitcoin, could they achieve this in a synchronized manner, without having to be able to trust one another or using an intermediary for instance, or exchange company? At first glance, this appears impossible because there’s no way to make transactions between two block chains to take place simultaneously. Buy Oncologists mailing id directory online.
If one chain such as Alice is able to complete her transfer prior to another, then what would stop him from not honoring his commitment to the contract?
The method is innovative, it involves cryptographic commitments, as well as time-locked deposits Both of these have been used before. Figure 10.6 is the description of the method. At the moment, suppose that the blocks in the two block chains are created in lockstep. A block is generated each time unit. Let be the time that was at the beginning in the process. Buy Oncologists mailing id directory online.
Alice deposits altcoins with value that can be exchanged by one of two methods (a “deposit” simply means that you transfer the coins to an ScriptPubkey which specifies two possibilities for how to spend it). If, firstly, Alice and Bob are in agreement that they want to redeem it, they will. In actual fact, Alice publishes the deposit only after ensuring to have a refund transaction approved by Bob and this permits her to redeem her deposit once 2 time units are elapsed and the deposit hasn’t been accepted.
Another way to get Alice’s deposit at any point it is to provide Bob’s signature along with the value x, which will open the hash commit h.Note that we use inDepositAto to indicate that Alice actually records the amount of the Hinto to the ScriptPubkey. Because x is only known to Alice at the close of stage 1 , neither party can claim the deposit in this manner. The concept would be that Bob will discover the value xand allow him to claim the altcoins only the case that Alice takes his bitcoins as we’ll discover. Buy Oncologists mailing id directory online.
Step 2 is essentially the opposite of step 1: Bob deposits bitcoins of value so that they is able to be exchanged using one of two methods. The major distinction is that he doesn’t select a new secret, instead, he applies exactly the same value for hash h(he simply copies the value of depositatransaction DepositAtransaction and then transfer it to DepositB transaction). DepositB transfer). This is the most important factor in connecting transactions across the two chains.
The ball is now in Alice’s court. She may change her mind regarding the exchange — but only in the event that TAlice is present. Buy Oncologists mailing id directory online.
If Alice doesn’t reveal xto Bob If he doesn’t do anything, he’ll just claim his bitcoins and then stop the protocol. Alice’s alternative is to take Bob’s bitcoins prior T.But she’s only able to do it by starting a new account and
broadcasting the broadcast. A ScriptSig that contains the value x. Bob can listen to the broadcast and then apply the similar to x to get Alice’s altcoins, thus completing the swap. Buy Oncologists mailing id directory online.
Be aware that Alice attempts to get Bob’s bitcoins bit late (after time T, but earlier than the time of T), Bob
could be eligible to take both deposits. In the same way, if Alice takes Bob’s bitcoins at the right time, but Bob is waiting too long, Alice might be able to return home with both deposits. However, this isn’t an issue: we’re content in the event that there is no possibility of a player abusing the rules to deceive another player.
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Additionally blocks that are part of Bitcoin or any other altcoins don’t arrive in fixed time intervals This can create some confusion especially since the two chains might not be coordinated. Let’s assume that both chains are synchronized and have an average that is 10 minutes in between block. So, we’d need to select an “time unit” of say 1 hour.
In other words, we’d want to have Tbe at least current_altcoin_block + 12and Tbe at least
current_bitcoin_block + 6,possibly with a greater safety margin. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
There’s a slim but not a zero possibility that the 12 block blocks of altcoins will be discovered before the next Bitcoin block. In this scenario, Alice could be able take both deposits. The probability of this happening is lowered by raising the duration unit however at the expense of speed.
It’s a great method, but in 2015, no one is using it. Instead, cryptocurrency is traded on traditional, central exchanges. There are a variety of reasons behind this. The most important is the difficulty in the process, as well as the inconvenience and speed that the protocol has. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
The second is that while the protocol is able to prevent theft, it is not able to stop a denial of service. Some people might offer incredible exchange rates but then stop after the first step or step 2 and waste everyone else’s time. To prevent this from happening and combine and match offers from different people it is likely that you will require an exchange that is centralizedhowever, one you don’t have to be able to trust to not be able to steal your coins, making it less effective. the protocol. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
Bitcoin-Backed Altcoins, “Side Chains”
In this chapter, we have discussed two different ways that we could assign units of a brand new altcoin that are not owned by existing bitcoin holders or burning bitcoins to purchase altcoins or simply allocating altcoins to holders of bitcoins on the basis of bitcoin addresses with unspended transaction outputs. As we have seen, neither option allows an exchange of prices between altcoins to the price of Bitcoin.
Without this peg prices of altcoins will be likely to fluctuate during the initial phase of bootstrapping. The main reason behind sidechains is the belief that price volatility is unavoidable: it creates distracting and makes it hard for altcoins to compete based on their technical advantages. Buy Oncologists email lists online.
What we require in terms of technological features in order to fix the price of an altcoin to Bitcoin’s exchange rate. In the first place, you must be able to transfer your bitcoin into an escrow account and then mint one altcoin (or the equivalent of a set amount of altcoins).
It should be possible to spend the altcoin through the block chain of altcoins. In addition you are able to burn the altcoin you own, and redeem it for the bitcoin you previously escrowed. Buy Oncologists email lists online. Similar to Zerocoin which lets us can escrow basecoins in order to make zerocoins. However, there is a difference that in this case we have to perform this on two distinct block chains.
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The problem is that, as currently there’s no way to accomplish this without altering Bitcoin since Bitcoin transactions aren’t dependent on events that occur in a different block chain.
Bitcoin script isn’t strong enough to be able to verify an entire block chain. The good thing is that it could be made possible by a fairly practical change to the soft-fork of Bitcoin which is the concept behind Sidechains.
Sidechains’ vision is of many flourishing altcoins which quickly innovate and test with the use of Bitcoin as a reserve currency. At the time of writing, it’s an idea that is only a suggestion however it is actively being worked on and is gaining a lot of attention in the Bitcoin community. The plan is under development, so we’ll simplify some of the details for teaching reasons. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
The most obvious, but not practical way to expand Bitcoin to allow the conversion of the coins of a secondary chain to bitcoins is to encode all the rules of the sidechain into Bitcoin which includes validating each sidechain’s transaction and verifying the sidechain’s proof-ofwork. The reason for this to be unpractical is because the subsequent extensions to Bitcoin’s code are too complicated, and the effort required to verify to verify Bitcoin Nodes is insurmountable. Additionally the difficulty and complexity would increase as the amount of sidechains pegged. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
The SPV trick.The method to avoid this level of complexity is to utilize “SPV proofs.” Recall in chapter 3 in Chapter 3 that the Simplified Payment Verification can be used by clients that are lightweight, like mobile applications for Bitcoin.
SPV nodes do not verify transactions that they aren’t interested in, they just check block headers. Instead of focusing on the longest validbranch SPV clients just verify that the transaction they’re concerned about is on the branch with the longest length, whether in good or bad condition, and it has been confirmed by a numbers of validations. They presume that the miners that created the blocks wouldn’t taken the time to mine them if they didn’t validate the transactions within the blocks. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Maybe, then, we could expand Bitcoin’s script with an instruction to confirm the authenticity of a specific transaction (say the one that destroyed a currency) was carried out within the sidechain. The Bitcoin nodes that are performing this verification would be 100% valid in the sense that the block chain of Bitcoin is concerned, however they could perform a relatively light SPV verification of the events that occur in the sidechain.
Contesting the validity of a transfer.This is an improvement, but it’s not the best option. For even a simple authentication, Bitcoin nodes would still be required to connect to sidechain’s peer-to -peer network (for every segmented sidechain!) and keep track of all sidechain block headers in order they can identify which sidechain branch is the longest. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
We want this: when a payment attempts to convert a coin on a sidechain back to Bitcoin, it has all the information Bitcoin nodes require to confirm its authenticity and, in other words, to confirm that a particular sidechain transaction actually took place. This is the concept of the term “SPV proof.”
This article outlines one method to be implemented, but with the caveat that this part of Sidechains is still a topic of study. To refer to a sidechain transaction in Bitcoin users must prove (1) the inclusion of the transaction in an associated block in addition to (2) Sidechain Block Header headers that prove that the block has received a specific number of confirmations, which together constitute a certain amount as evidence of the work. Bitcoin nodes will validate the claims of the user, but they will not make any attempt to confirm that the block header chain that are presented are the longest. Buy Oncologists email address lists online.
Instead, they wait for a specific time, for instance, one or two days for others to show to show that the blocks provided in the previous step do not belong to that branch which is the largest. If this evidence is submitted within the specified time then the acceptability of the sidechain transaction within Bitcoin will be invalidated.
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The reasoning is that even if an SPV proof is presented which isn’t valid because the transaction doesn’t belong located on the branch with the longest length there is a sidechain user who is harmed due to the acceptance of this evidence.
This person will have an incentive to provide evidence to discredit the evidence. If there isn’t a single user that will be hurt (perhaps the side chain was subject to fork or restructuring of the chain that was not a fork, however, the transaction that was in question was also in another branch) then there’s no harm in taking the evidence. Buy Oncologists email database online.
In general, the system isn’t designed to be bulletproof against sidechain issues, and it’s not able to stop you from falling on your face. If you move your bitcoin onto an existing sidechain with broken crypto, for instance it could be the case that someone else is capable of stealing your bitcoin in the sidechain and transform it back to bitcoin. Also, all mining on the sidechain could be halted because of bugs, leaving the bitcoins locked indefinitely lost. However, what the plan will ensure is that issues on sidechains won’t affect Bitcoin. Particularly, there’s no method to redeem the same currency twice from a sidechain no matter how faulty it might be — which means that sidechains can’t be used to mint bitcoins. Buy Oncologists email database online.
Small SPV proofs using the proof of-work samples.There is one more issue. Certain sidechains could have a high rate of block possibly one block every couple of seconds. In this situation, checking SPV confirmations could be too difficult in the case of Bitcoin nodes. We can utilize a smart method of statistical analysis to reduce the computation required to verify confirmations of Nblocks in the range of O(N) to an amount that is much faster than linear.
The premise is that If we’re checking the block’s location located deep within the chain of blocks We’re checking that each block built on it is in line with the difficulty target, i.e., it meets the hash target.Now these hash numbers of the blocks will be evenly distributed within the range (0, target). (0, target),which means that statistically speaking, around 25% of the blocks will actually meet the criteria of hash target / 4.In reality it is the same amount of work required to determine N/4 blocks that meet the hash target ratio of 4 is similar to the amount of work required to find N blocks each satisfying the hash target.There is nothing unique in the number 4; it could be replaced by any number of factors. Buy Oncologists email database online.
This means that if we had a method to determine which blocks of the chain had satisfied hash
Target / 4 and only verified the block headers (or the block headers) and we’d have completed the task, putting in only
One-quarter of verification! How do we determine which blocks meet hash target / 4. The block itself can tell us. In Figure 10.7 Each block would have a reference to its predecessor and to the latest block that was able to satisfy hash target 4. Buy Oncologists email database online.
What is the maximum we can go? Can we choose arbitrarily large multiples? No, not really. The reasoning behind this is the same as pooled mining, however in reverse. In pooled mining the pool operator checks shares that are blocks that have a lower difficulty (that is an increased target value).
The miners can find greater shares than block, which means that the operator has to do additional work to validate the shares. The advantage of doing this is that it allows you to calculate the hash power of the miner more accurately . Also, the estimation’s variance is reduced.
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In this case, we can see the opposite trade-off. Since we perform less and do less to determine the amount of work that went into creating the chain, the estimate will show a higher and more significant variation.
This is an illustration. Let’s say N=4, so that, with no skiplist solution we’d look for four blocks that meet the hash target.The anticipated amount of work an adversary needs to perform to fool us is four times the amount of work required to discover an element.
If the adversary does only half the amount of work. If we calculate and find that the adversary has a 14% probability of finding four blocks that meet hash target. Buy Oncologists email directory online. On the contrary, using the skiplist solution having an inverse of 4 the task of the adversary would be to find one block that meets the criteria of hash target/4.In this case the adversary who is only doing half of the amount of work would be able to trick us by offering a chance of 40 percent instead of 14 percent.
Ethereum and Smart Contracts
We’ve seen a variety of ways to utilize Bitcoin’s scripting language for exciting applications, like an escrowed transaction for payment. We’ve also noticed that Bitcoin scripting is a bit limited and has a limited instruction set that’s not Turing-complete. In the end, some of the new altcoins have proposed adding specific functionality for applications. Namecoin has been the initial one to be considered, however many others have also proposed cryptocurrency that resembles Bitcoin but with gambling support and stock issuance, forecast markets, and more. Buy Oncologists email directory online.
What if, instead needing to develop a brand new system to support each application, we developed a cryptocurrency that can accommodate any app we can think of in the near future? That’s what Turing-completeness is about To the best of our knowledge, a Turing complete programming language allows you to define the functionality you want to be accessed in any computer.
To a certain extent, the current situation harks back to the beginning of computers in the 1940s when increasingly complex machines were created for various purposes in World War II (such as the brute-forcing of keys utilized by mechanical cipher machines , or making firing trajectories to be used by naval artillery) which prompted researchers to develop the first computers with reprogrammable general purpose capabilities which could be used in all kinds of applications. Buy Oncologists email directory online.
Ethereum is an exciting altcoin which aims to create a Turing-complete programming language to write scripts, (also known as “contracts”. Although there are many other ideas for it, Ethereum is the most noteworthy because it came up with new ideas in technology, conducted an extremely successful crowd-funding campaign which raised $20 million over a period of months, and also made aggressive options for parameters like block time. In this article, we’ll give an introduction to Ethereum even though it’s a complex system that it could be a good idea to dedicate an entire book to it!
Smart Contract Programming Model. Buy Oncologists email directory online. Smart contract was first used to refer to the use of computers (or other methods that are automated) to ensure the compliance of contracts. For instance you can think of vending machines as a mechanical smart contract which is a means of establishing a contract that you have with owner of the machine which involves the purchase of candy bars.
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In Ethereum the term “contract” refers to an application that runs within the Ethereum blockchain. Anyone can create an Ethereum contract, at an affordable fee by uploading their program code into a particular transaction.
The contract is created in bytecode, and executed by an Ethereum-specific virtual machine which is commonly referred to simply as EVM. Once the contract is uploaded, it is stored on the Ethereum blockchain. It is able to maintain its own funds balance Other users can also use the procedure call using whatever APIs the program provides and the program can transfer and receive funds.
An easy example is Namecoin within Ethereum.We have claimed that Ethereum could be utilized to implement any specific application altcoin’s capabilities. As an example, we will demonstrate how to implement Namecoin’s functionality using a easy Ethereum contract. Buy best Oncologists email leads online.
A sample implementation is displayed in figure 10.8. The code is written in Solidity the Ethereum’s high-level programming language used to define contracts. This contract implements a simple name/value store, or name registry in which names are assigned values once for the duration of. The contract defines a data variable registryTable that is a mapping of the 32-byte string to the public key. Initially, it maps every number of strings to the null address 0x0000000000…000. The contract also specifies an entry point that is known as “claimName”. This entry point can accept only one argument, named.
The contract first makes sure that the person calling has provided a value of at minimum 10 wei. Wei being the smallest unit used for currency in Ethereum. If funds are not received, the contract is terminated in failure (the “throw” statement does this) and there is no action taken. If the funds are sufficient but the name isn’t yet officially taken, it will be assigned permanently the value of the address that used to invoke the function.
This contract is able to do in only 8 line of code. Buy best Oncologists email leads online.
We could however add any of the other capabilities that are available in Namecoin with a bit of work. For instance we could keep more information in each mapping than an address for the company that registered it. Name owners could be required to register regularly by recording an “last updated” time and permitting others to claim names that haven’t been updated for an extended period of time.