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There are many types of transfer mechanisms that are used to transfer parts between stations. They can be classified into two categories which are those that offer linear motion for in-line machines and those that provide an rotary movement for dial indexing machines.
Linear transfer mechanisms
The most frequently used linear transfer mechanisms include (a) using the transfer bars for walking,
(2) (3) the conveyor with a powered roller as well (3) chains-driven conveyor system.
(a) Walking beam systems
Utilizing the transfer of walking beams mechanism parts of the equipment are lifted from their places of work with a transfer bar, and transferred one place ahead to the next station. The transfer bar is then lowered to lower them into housings, which place them in a more precise position to process. To ensure speed and precision beams, the motion of the beam likely to be generated by a rotating camshaft driven through an electric motor, or the movement of a roller in a profile driven by a hydraulic piston. Figure 1.17 illustrates the workings in the mechanism for beams. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
(b) Conveyors with powered rollers system
This kind of system is employed in all stock handling systems and also for automated lines of flow. The conveyor can be utilized to move pallets or pans with plain riding areas. The rollers are powered with two different mechanisms. The one can be referred to as a belt drive where a flat, moving belt underneath the rollers allows for the movement of the rollers via friction. Chain drives are another common mechanism to drive the rollers. The roller conveyors that are powered are versatile transfer systems since they can be used to redirect work pallets to workstations, or other tracks. This is illustrated on Figure 1.18. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
(c) Chain-drive conveyor system
In the chain-drive conveyor, it is either a chain or adjustable steel belt will be used in order to carry the work-carriers. Chains are driven with pulleys, either in the “over-and under” arrangement, where the pulleys spin around an axis horizontal, or in an “around-the-corner” arrangement that is where the pulleys turn around the vertical axis. Figure 1.19 illustrates an example of the transfer chain system. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
The transfer system can be utilized for intermittent, continuous, or non-synchronous movements of workpieces. In non-synchronous motions the workpieces will be pulled back by friction. They are ridden through an oil film on an incline with the belt or chain that is supplying the movement. It is essential to have an exact place for the workpieces once they reach their stations.
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Rotor transfer mechanisms
There are a variety of methods to adjust the angularity of the table’s circular or dial to different angles, which corresponds to the workstation’s location.
(a) Rack and pinion
The mechanism is straightforward, but isn’t considered to be ideally suitable for the high-speed operation frequently associated with indexing equipment. The mechanism is illustrated on Figure 1.20 and makes use of pistons that drives the rack which triggers the pinion gear and indexing table attached to it to turn. A clutch or another device is employed to allow rotation in the direction you want. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
(b) Ratchet as well as Pawl
A ratchet is a tool that allows rotary or linear movement only in one direction, and blocks movement from the reverse direction. Ratchets are made up of an inclining gearwheel and an elongated spring-loaded finger, also known as a pawl, that is engaged by the teeth. The teeth or the pawl are inclined at an angle. This means that when the teeth move towards one side, the pawl moves across each tooth with the spring pushing it back by clicking to the depression prior to the next tooth. When the teeth move in the opposite direction, the pawl’s angle causes it to be caught against the tooth and stop further movement in the opposite direction. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
(c) Geneva mechanism
The two earlier mechanisms convert a linear movement into a rotary motion. The Geneva mechanism employs a constantly moving driver to make the table more indexable as shown in figure 1.22. If the driver includes six slots in an indexing machine with six stations every rotation of the driver can cause the table to move by one-sixth turn. The driver is only responsible for the motion of the table by the course of its rotation. For a driven member with six slots 120deg of a total drive’s rotation is utilized to determine the index of the table. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
The remaining 240deg is for dwell. If a member is driven by four slots the ratio is 90deg for index and 270deg dwell. The typical quantity of indexing in a turn of this table would be four five, six and eight.
(d) (d) CAM Mechanisms
There are a variety of cam mechanisms such as the one that is shown in Figure 1.23 They are the most reliable and accurate technique of mounting the dial. They are widely used in the industry, even though their cost is high in comparison to other mechanisms. The cam is able to provide a range of dwell and velocity properties.
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1.13 CONTROL FUNCTIONS
Automating a flowline can be a difficult problemdue to the numerous sequential steps to be completed.
There are three primary functions that can be used to regulate the functioning of an automated transfer system. First, it are operational requirements, while the second is a security requirement and the third is dedicated to enhancing the quality.
1. Sequence control: The purpose of this job is to control the sequence of actions from the flow system as well as its workstations. The different activities of an automated flowline should be performed using split-second timing and accuracy.Sequence control is the most fundamental aspect of the functioning for the flow line.
2. Monitoring safety: This feature assures that the line isn’t operating in a dangerous or unsafe state. Sensing devices can be added to verify that the cutting tool’s status is acceptable for it to continue processing the workpiece in the event of a machine-type transfer line. Other checks may include monitoring specific critical steps in the sequence control system to ensure that all steps have performed in the proper sequence. Air or hydraulic pressures could also be examined if they are vital to the operation of flow lines that are automated. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
3. Quality monitoring Quality monitoring: The third function of control is to check certain aspects of quality of the component. Its goal is to detect and perhaps reject defective parts or assemblies. The inspection equipment required to conduct quality control are often integrated into the existing process stations. In other instances separate stations are added on the line with only the purpose of inspecting the workpiece.
4. Alternative control strategies:Conventional thinking on the control of the line has been to stop operation when amalfunction occurred. While there are some issues that indicate unsafe conditions that require the shut-down for the entire line, there’s many circumstances where shutting down the line isn’t necessary and may not be necessary. There are other control strategies that can be used. 1.Instantaneous control and 2. Control of memory. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
(1) Instantaneous control: This type of control shuts down the the flow line instantly when the line is found to be malfunctioning. It’s simple affordable, low-cost, and trouble free. Diagnostic tools are frequently included to help identify the source of the issue for the operator, so that repairs can be swiftly made.However stopping the machine can result in reduction in production for the entire line, and this is the biggest disadvantage of the system. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
(2) Control of memory: Contrary to immediate control this system of memory is created to ensure that the machine is running. It controls the quality and protect the machine by stopping subsequent machines from handling the specific part and segregating the component as being defective when it is finished. The principle on which memory-type control is built is that the failures that happen at the stations are random and unfrequent. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
However, if the failures at stations are due to the same cause, and are likely to occur again the memory system won’t enhance production, but rather decrease it. The flow line will continue to function, which means that the parts that are defective will continue to be manufactured. To prevent this, counters are often used in the event of a malfunction that occurs at the same station for a period of two or three cycles The memory logic causes the machine to stop to repair the problem.
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1.14 BUFFER 1.14 BUFFER
Automated flow lines can be fitted with extra features above the fundamental transfer mechanism and workstations. It is common that production flow lines have storage zones that are used to collect parts throughout the line.
An example of the use of storage zones is two systems of transfer that operate intermittently that have no storage capacity, connected by a workpart inventory. There is the possibility of connecting four, three, or more lines using this method. Another instance of storage for work parts in flow lines would be transfer line that is synchronous. It is possible to create the workparts of a work part bank for each station of the line.
There are two main reasons to use buffer zone storage. The first one is to minimize the impact of single station failures on process. The intermittent or continuous transfer system functions as a unitary machine. If there are breakdowns at individual stations, or during preventative maintenance performed on the machine, it is necessary for production to be stopped. In many instances the amount of time the line is not in operation could be substantial, at least 50. Buy Insurance Industry email database lists online.
The most common causes that cause line stoppages are
* Tool failures or adjustments at each processing station
* Scheduled tool modifications
* Parts and components that are damaged at assembly stations need to be cleaned
* Feed hoppers must get replenished when an assembly station is in place
The Limit Switch or another electrical malfunction
• Mechanical malfunction of the transfer system or workstation
If a fault occurs in the automated flow line the reason for buffer storage zones is to permit a part that is affected to continue to function while the rest is being repaired and stopped. Consider, for instance, that a 20-station line separated into 2 sections, and joined to a storage zone for parts which collects the parts of the first section and then feeds them into in the other section. Buy Insurance Industry email database lists online.
If a jam in the station was to cause one section on the line to cease operation then the second section would continue to run for as long as the supply of parts within the buffer zone continues to last. If the second section was to close it would be possible for the first section to continue to run for as long as there’s enough buffer space to store the parts. It is possible that the average rate of production on the first section will be similar to that of the other section. Through dividing the line by using the storage space, the average production rate could be enhanced over the original 20 station Mow line. Figure 1.24 illustrates the buffer for storage between two different stages of the production line.
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The main reasons to use buffers to store data are as follows:
* To lessen the impact of station breakdowns
* To supply an inventory of components to provide the line
* Provide a space to place the line’s output
* To allow for curing time or any other necessary delay
* To smooth the cycle time fluctuations
* To store items in different stages and at different production rates
The drawbacks that buffer storage can bring to flow lines is the increased floor space in factories as well as a higher inventory of in-process items as well as more material handling equipment as well as more complex of the overall process flow system. The advantages of buffer storage can be enough to override these drawbacks. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
AUTOMATION for MACHINING OPERATIONS
Transfer systems are designed to execute a wide range of different metal cutting procedures. In actual fact, it’s difficult to imagine any machining tasks that cannot be excluded from the list of. The most common applications include things such as drilling, boring, milling as well as reaming and tapping. However, it’s also possible to perform processes like turning and grinding using transfer-type equipment.
There are many kinds of mechanized and automated equipment which perform a variety of tasks simultaneously on different components of the work. They include dial indexing machines as well as trunnion and trunnion machine transfer lines. In order to consider these machines in the range of complexity increasing We begin with one that does not fit in even if it is a single-station machine. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
(a) Machine with a single station
The mechanized production machines can execute multiple tasks within a single component that is fixed in a single position during the entire cycle. The operation is performed on different surfaces with work heads placed around the workpiece. The available space around the workpiece is limited by to the amount of machine heads that are able to be utilized. This limit on the number of operations is the principaldisadvantage of the single-station machine. Production rates tend to be medium to low. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
To increase the rate of production to increase production, the rotary indexing device executes a sequence of machining actions across a number of workpieces simultaneously. The parts are fixed to an horizontal circular table or dial, and then indexed at intervals of a few stations.
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Trunnion machine is a horizontal drum that is mounted to a horizontal line therefore it is a variant on the indexing dial machine depicted in figure 1.27. It is referred to as the Trunnion.
It is surrounded by several fixtures that hold the pieces of workpieces during the process. Trunnion machines are ideal for small-sized workpieces. The design that the machine has, having the vertical and not horizontal indexing dial, offers the ability to carry out tasks on the opposite side of the workpiece. Additional stations can be set up in the periphery to the outside of the trunnion in case it is needed. The trunnion-type machine is ideal for parts that are within the medium production range.
(d) Machine for center column
Another variant that utilizes the indexing dial is the central column model as shown on Figure 1.28. Alongside the radial machining heads that are located on the periphery of the horizontal table Vertical units sit on the central column on the machine. This allows for a greater number of machine operations that are possible when compared to the normal dial indexing. Center column machines are thought as a high-production machine that makes efficient use of the floor space. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
(e) Transfer machines
The most efficient and flexible of machine are the transfer lines. as explained earlier, workstations are laid out in a straight-line flow and the parts are moved automatically between stations (Figure 1.29). The transfer system is both synchronous and asynchronous. Work components can be moved with pallet fixtures or without, buffer storage can be integrated into the line’s operation when desired, and a variety of monitoring and control options can be utilized to control the line.
The transfer machine provides the greatest flexibility of all the machines described. The transfer line is able to hold larger workpieces than rotary indexing systems. Furthermore there are more stations and thus the amount of operations that can be performed in the lines is higher than an arrangement that is circular. The transfer line has historically been utilized to machine an individual product in huge numbers over lengthy production runs. Recently the transfer line has been created to make it easy to change over to allow multiple, but identical workpieces to be made within the same process. This attempt to bring the flexibility of the design of transfer lines enhance the appeal of these systems of high-production. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
In production on a flow line, there are numerous distinct and distinct processing and assembly processes to be carried out to the finished product. The sequence of the processing or assembly steps is limited at the very least to a certain degree, with regard to what order the operations are carried out. For instance the threaded hole needs to be dug before it can be tapped. When using mechanical fasteners it is necessary to have the washer put over the bolt prior to the nut is rotated and then tightened. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
These restrictions are known as priority constraints in the language of line balance. It is the norm that the product has to be produced at a certain production rate to meet customers’ demands of the item. Whether we areconcerned with performing these processes & assembly operations on automatic machinesor manual flow lines, it is desirable to design the line so as to satisfy all of the foregoingspecifications as efficiently as possible.
The problem of line balancing is to set up the individual assembly and processing tasks at the workstations in a way that the time needed for each workstation is the same. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
If the elements of work can be organized so that the times of each station are identical, there is a an ideal balance in the line, and it is possible for that the production process to run effortlessly. In the majority of situations, it is extremely difficult to achieve an ideal balance. If the time of the workstations is not equal The slowest station is responsible for the total production rate of the line.In order to understand the balance problems on the line, there are some terms and concepts must be considered.
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Minimum Rational Work Element
To spread the work to be completed over a number of stations, the task has to be broken down into its constituent tasks.
The work elements that are rational in their minimum are the most compact indivisible tasks in which the work could be divided. They cannot be further subdivided. For example, the drilling of an opening is typically thought of as a minimal reasonable work component. In a manual assembly, if two parts are connected using a screw and nuts, it is reasonable to consider these tasks to be combined.
Constraints on Precedence:
They can also be referred to by the term “technological needs for sequencing”. The sequence in which work components can be completed is restricted to a certain extent. In the example that was discussed above, the switching device has to be mounted on the bracket that supports the motor prior to it is possible to cover the appliance so that it is able to be attached. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
The right-hand column of the table above provides all the rules of precedence for assembling the electric appliance that is in the scenario. In almost every assembly or processing job there are pre-requisites which limit the order that the task can be completed.
Apart from the priority constraint mentioned above, there could be different constraints that could be imposed in the line balancing system. They are based on the arrangement of stations, not the order of work components. The first is known as Zoning Constraint. A zoning restriction can be a positive or a negative one. A positive zoning restriction means that specific work components must be located close to each other and preferably on one workstation.
For instance, all spray painting components are required to be carried out in tandem since the workstation must be enclosed in order been designed to work with. The negative zoning constraint means that the work elements could interfere with each other and should be avoided within close to each other. For example one example, an element that requires precise adjustments or intricate coordination shouldn’t be placed near a station with excessive vibrations and loud noises. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
Another restriction on the arrangement of workstations can be known as the position constraint. This is typically encountered during the assembly of big products like cars or other major appliances. The item is too big for one person to do tasks on both sides. Thus, in the interest of efficiency the workers are situated in both directions of the flowline. This kind of scenario is called an obstruction to position.
In this example, there is no zoning or constraints on position given. Line balancing techniques do not have the capacity to handle these constraints in a timely manner. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
It is a graphic representation of the order of work elements , as determined by the precedence constraint. It is typical to use nodes as symbols for the work elements, and to use the arrows connecting them to show what order elements have to be executed. Things that have to be accomplished first appear as nodes to the left side of the diagram. The process of processing or assembly moves towards the left. The times of the elements are listed above each node to provide ease of use. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
(g) The Balance Delay
Sometimes, it is referred to as the balancing loss, it is an indicator of line inefficiency that is caused by the inefficiency of idle time caused by the improper distribution of work between stations.
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The balance delay is typically expressed in a percentage instead of an decimal fraction. The balance delay shouldn’t be misinterpreted as the percent to the downtime, D, in the automated flow line.
The D measure is an indicator for the inefficiency that occurs when the line stoppages. The balance delay is a measure of the inefficiency of line balance.
The Methods to Line Balancing (Manual)
(A) Largest Candidate Rule (LCR)
Step 1. Record all elements in ascending in order of Te value, with the largest Te is at the highest in the listing.
Step 2. In order to assign the elements on the initial workstation, begin at the highest point on the list. Once you have your finish by selecting the most feasible element to be placed in the workstation. The most feasible component is the one which is able to meet the prerequisites for precedence and doesn’t result in the sum of Te value at the station to be greater than the cycle time Tc .
Step 3. Repetition step 2, until more elements can be added to the mix without exceeding Tc . Buy Insurance Industry mailing lists online.
(B) Kilbridge, Wester’s Method (KWM)
* It is a heuristic process that selects work components for the assignment to stations in accordance with their location on the diagram of precedence.
* This solves one of the problems with the rule of largest candidate (LCR) that is, elements near the end of the priorence diagram could be the first to be considered because their value is high.
Step 1. Make the precedence diagram in such a way that the nodes representing elements of work with identical precedence are vertically arranged in columns. Buy Insurance Industry mailing lists online.
Step 2. List the elements in the order of their columns, with column I being at the highest on the list. If the element is found in multiple columns then list all columns that contain the element to demonstrate the transferability of the element.
3. assign elements to workstations beginning with element in column I. Continue assigning elements by column number until the cycle time has been completed ( Tc ).
(C) (C) Method (RPW)
* First introduced through Helgeson and Birnie in the year 1961. Buy Insurance Industry mailing lists online.
* Combining with the LCR with the KWM.
* The RPW is based on as well the value Te of an element as well as its location on the previous diagram.Then all elements will be assigned workstations in the arrangement of the RPWvalues.
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Step 1. Determine your RPW on each of the elements by adding the element’s Te along and adding all the Te figures for the rest of elements following this element in the sequence in the diagram of precedence.
Step 2. List the elements in the order of their RPW, with the with the largest RPW at highest in the listing. For ease of use, include the Te value and the immediate predecessors for each element.
Step 3. Attribute elements to stations in accordance with RPW to avoid precedence constraints and time-cycle violation. Buy Insurance Industry mailing address lists online.
Increase the rate of production = 1 0.92 / 0.92 is 1.075 units/min.
*The RPW solution provides the most efficient assignment of work components to stations than the two previous solutions. This result is based on an unspecified cycle time that is not the stated cycle time of one minute.
* If the issue were changed to Tc = 0.92 minutes using LCR and WKM methods, it may be possible to replicate the efficiency achieved by RPW method. Buy Insurance Industry mailing address lists online.
1.16.2 Computerized Line Balancing Methods
Computer programs have been created in response to a number of methods for line balancing that are heuristic. However using the computer permits a much more comprehensive list of possibilities for solving the line balancing issue that is not possible with the manual method of solving. Therefore, computer-based line balancing algorithms are typically designed to investigate various possible assignments of components to computers. Computer-aided methods include:
The acronym is Computer Method of Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines. It was that was developed by Chrysler Corporation and reported by Arcus in the year 1966. While it wasn’t the first line-balancing computer program designed, it is believed to have garnered more attention than the programs that preceded it. The method is to go through a variety of options and then select the most effective one. The fundamental algorithm for COMSOAL is as follows:
Step 1. Create a list of A that shows the work elements that are in one column as well as the total amount of elements that preceding each element in the column next to it. This is shown in Table 1. It is important to note that these kinds of data are easy to manipulate and compile by computers. Buy Insurance Industry mailing address lists online.
Step 2. Build List B (Table 2) with all the elements of list A with no immediate predecessors.
Step 3. Choose a random selection of the elements on List B. The computer is programmed to execute this random selection procedure. The only requirement is that the element chosen cannot create a cycle-time Tc that could run out.