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There are many types of transfer mechanisms that are used to transfer parts between stations. They can be classified into two categories which are those that offer linear motion for in-line machines and those that provide an rotary movement for dial indexing machines.
Linear transfer mechanisms
The most frequently used linear transfer mechanisms include (a) using the transfer bars for walking,
(2) (3) the conveyor with a powered roller as well (3) chains-driven conveyor system.
(a) Walking beam systems
Utilizing the transfer of walking beams mechanism parts of the equipment are lifted from their places of work with a transfer bar, and transferred one place ahead to the next station. The transfer bar is then lowered to lower them into housings, which place them in a more precise position to process. To ensure speed and precision beams, the motion of the beam likely to be generated by a rotating camshaft driven through an electric motor, or the movement of a roller in a profile driven by a hydraulic piston. Figure 1.17 illustrates the workings in the mechanism for beams. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
(b) Conveyors with powered rollers system
This kind of system is employed in all stock handling systems and also for automated lines of flow. The conveyor can be utilized to move pallets or pans with plain riding areas. The rollers are powered with two different mechanisms. The one can be referred to as a belt drive where a flat, moving belt underneath the rollers allows for the movement of the rollers via friction. Chain drives are another common mechanism to drive the rollers. The roller conveyors that are powered are versatile transfer systems since they can be used to redirect work pallets to workstations, or other tracks. This is illustrated on Figure 1.18. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
(c) Chain-drive conveyor system
In the chain-drive conveyor, it is either a chain or adjustable steel belt will be used in order to carry the work-carriers. Chains are driven with pulleys, either in the “over-and under” arrangement, where the pulleys spin around an axis horizontal, or in an “around-the-corner” arrangement that is where the pulleys turn around the vertical axis. Figure 1.19 illustrates an example of the transfer chain system. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
The transfer system can be utilized for intermittent, continuous, or non-synchronous movements of workpieces. In non-synchronous motions the workpieces will be pulled back by friction. They are ridden through an oil film on an incline with the belt or chain that is supplying the movement. It is essential to have an exact place for the workpieces once they reach their stations.
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Rotor transfer mechanisms
There are a variety of methods to adjust the angularity of the table’s circular or dial to different angles, which corresponds to the workstation’s location.
(a) Rack and pinion
The mechanism is straightforward, but isn’t considered to be ideally suitable for the high-speed operation frequently associated with indexing equipment. The mechanism is illustrated on Figure 1.20 and makes use of pistons that drives the rack which triggers the pinion gear and indexing table attached to it to turn. A clutch or another device is employed to allow rotation in the direction you want. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
(b) Ratchet as well as Pawl
A ratchet is a tool that allows rotary or linear movement only in one direction, and blocks movement from the reverse direction. Ratchets are made up of an inclining gearwheel and an elongated spring-loaded finger, also known as a pawl, that is engaged by the teeth. The teeth or the pawl are inclined at an angle. This means that when the teeth move towards one side, the pawl moves across each tooth with the spring pushing it back by clicking to the depression prior to the next tooth. When the teeth move in the opposite direction, the pawl’s angle causes it to be caught against the tooth and stop further movement in the opposite direction. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
(c) Geneva mechanism
The two earlier mechanisms convert a linear movement into a rotary motion. The Geneva mechanism employs a constantly moving driver to make the table more indexable as shown in figure 1.22. If the driver includes six slots in an indexing machine with six stations every rotation of the driver can cause the table to move by one-sixth turn. The driver is only responsible for the motion of the table by the course of its rotation. For a driven member with six slots 120deg of a total drive’s rotation is utilized to determine the index of the table. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
The remaining 240deg is for dwell. If a member is driven by four slots the ratio is 90deg for index and 270deg dwell. The typical quantity of indexing in a turn of this table would be four five, six and eight.
(d) (d) CAM Mechanisms
There are a variety of cam mechanisms such as the one that is shown in Figure 1.23 They are the most reliable and accurate technique of mounting the dial. They are widely used in the industry, even though their cost is high in comparison to other mechanisms. The cam is able to provide a range of dwell and velocity properties.
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1.13 CONTROL FUNCTIONS
Automating a flowline can be a difficult problemdue to the numerous sequential steps to be completed.
There are three primary functions that can be used to regulate the functioning of an automated transfer system. First, it are operational requirements, while the second is a security requirement and the third is dedicated to enhancing the quality.
1. Sequence control: The purpose of this job is to control the sequence of actions from the flow system as well as its workstations. The different activities of an automated flowline should be performed using split-second timing and accuracy.Sequence control is the most fundamental aspect of the functioning for the flow line.
2. Monitoring safety: This feature assures that the line isn’t operating in a dangerous or unsafe state. Sensing devices can be added to verify that the cutting tool’s status is acceptable for it to continue processing the workpiece in the event of a machine-type transfer line. Other checks may include monitoring specific critical steps in the sequence control system to ensure that all steps have performed in the proper sequence. Air or hydraulic pressures could also be examined if they are vital to the operation of flow lines that are automated. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
3. Quality monitoring Quality monitoring: The third function of control is to check certain aspects of quality of the component. Its goal is to detect and perhaps reject defective parts or assemblies. The inspection equipment required to conduct quality control are often integrated into the existing process stations. In other instances separate stations are added on the line with only the purpose of inspecting the workpiece.
4. Alternative control strategies:Conventional thinking on the control of the line has been to stop operation when amalfunction occurred. While there are some issues that indicate unsafe conditions that require the shut-down for the entire line, there’s many circumstances where shutting down the line isn’t necessary and may not be necessary. There are other control strategies that can be used. 1.Instantaneous control and 2. Control of memory. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
(1) Instantaneous control: This type of control shuts down the the flow line instantly when the line is found to be malfunctioning. It’s simple affordable, low-cost, and trouble free. Diagnostic tools are frequently included to help identify the source of the issue for the operator, so that repairs can be swiftly made.However stopping the machine can result in reduction in production for the entire line, and this is the biggest disadvantage of the system. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
(2) Control of memory: Contrary to immediate control this system of memory is created to ensure that the machine is running. It controls the quality and protect the machine by stopping subsequent machines from handling the specific part and segregating the component as being defective when it is finished. The principle on which memory-type control is built is that the failures that happen at the stations are random and unfrequent. Buy Insurance Industry email id lists online.
However, if the failures at stations are due to the same cause, and are likely to occur again the memory system won’t enhance production, but rather decrease it. The flow line will continue to function, which means that the parts that are defective will continue to be manufactured. To prevent this, counters are often used in the event of a malfunction that occurs at the same station for a period of two or three cycles The memory logic causes the machine to stop to repair the problem.
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1.14 BUFFER 1.14 BUFFER
Automated flow lines can be fitted with extra features above the fundamental transfer mechanism and workstations. It is common that production flow lines have storage zones that are used to collect parts throughout the line.
An example of the use of storage zones is two systems of transfer that operate intermittently that have no storage capacity, connected by a workpart inventory. There is the possibility of connecting four, three, or more lines using this method. Another instance of storage for work parts in flow lines would be transfer line that is synchronous. It is possible to create the workparts of a work part bank for each station of the line.
There are two main reasons to use buffer zone storage. The first one is to minimize the impact of single station failures on process. The intermittent or continuous transfer system functions as a unitary machine. If there are breakdowns at individual stations, or during preventative maintenance performed on the machine, it is necessary for production to be stopped. In many instances the amount of time the line is not in operation could be substantial, at least 50. Buy Insurance Industry email database lists online.
The most common causes that cause line stoppages are
* Tool failures or adjustments at each processing station
* Scheduled tool modifications
* Parts and components that are damaged at assembly stations need to be cleaned
* Feed hoppers must get replenished when an assembly station is in place
The Limit Switch or another electrical malfunction
• Mechanical malfunction of the transfer system or workstation
If a fault occurs in the automated flow line the reason for buffer storage zones is to permit a part that is affected to continue to function while the rest is being repaired and stopped. Consider, for instance, that a 20-station line separated into 2 sections, and joined to a storage zone for parts which collects the parts of the first section and then feeds them into in the other section. Buy Insurance Industry email database lists online.
If a jam in the station was to cause one section on the line to cease operation then the second section would continue to run for as long as the supply of parts within the buffer zone continues to last. If the second section was to close it would be possible for the first section to continue to run for as long as there’s enough buffer space to store the parts. It is possible that the average rate of production on the first section will be similar to that of the other section. Through dividing the line by using the storage space, the average production rate could be enhanced over the original 20 station Mow line. Figure 1.24 illustrates the buffer for storage between two different stages of the production line.
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The main reasons to use buffers to store data are as follows:
* To lessen the impact of station breakdowns
* To supply an inventory of components to provide the line
* Provide a space to place the line’s output
* To allow for curing time or any other necessary delay
* To smooth the cycle time fluctuations
* To store items in different stages and at different production rates
The drawbacks that buffer storage can bring to flow lines is the increased floor space in factories as well as a higher inventory of in-process items as well as more material handling equipment as well as more complex of the overall process flow system. The advantages of buffer storage can be enough to override these drawbacks. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
AUTOMATION for MACHINING OPERATIONS
Transfer systems are designed to execute a wide range of different metal cutting procedures. In actual fact, it’s difficult to imagine any machining tasks that cannot be excluded from the list of. The most common applications include things such as drilling, boring, milling as well as reaming and tapping. However, it’s also possible to perform processes like turning and grinding using transfer-type equipment.
There are many kinds of mechanized and automated equipment which perform a variety of tasks simultaneously on different components of the work. They include dial indexing machines as well as trunnion and trunnion machine transfer lines. In order to consider these machines in the range of complexity increasing We begin with one that does not fit in even if it is a single-station machine. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
(a) Machine with a single station
The mechanized production machines can execute multiple tasks within a single component that is fixed in a single position during the entire cycle. The operation is performed on different surfaces with work heads placed around the workpiece. The available space around the workpiece is limited by to the amount of machine heads that are able to be utilized. This limit on the number of operations is the principaldisadvantage of the single-station machine. Production rates tend to be medium to low. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
To increase the rate of production to increase production, the rotary indexing device executes a sequence of machining actions across a number of workpieces simultaneously. The parts are fixed to an horizontal circular table or dial, and then indexed at intervals of a few stations.
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Trunnion machine is a horizontal drum that is mounted to a horizontal line therefore it is a variant on the indexing dial machine depicted in figure 1.27. It is referred to as the Trunnion.
It is surrounded by several fixtures that hold the pieces of workpieces during the process. Trunnion machines are ideal for small-sized workpieces. The design that the machine has, having the vertical and not horizontal indexing dial, offers the ability to carry out tasks on the opposite side of the workpiece. Additional stations can be set up in the periphery to the outside of the trunnion in case it is needed. The trunnion-type machine is ideal for parts that are within the medium production range.
(d) Machine for center column
Another variant that utilizes the indexing dial is the central column model as shown on Figure 1.28. Alongside the radial machining heads that are located on the periphery of the horizontal table Vertical units sit on the central column on the machine. This allows for a greater number of machine operations that are possible when compared to the normal dial indexing. Center column machines are thought as a high-production machine that makes efficient use of the floor space. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
(e) Transfer machines
The most efficient and flexible of machine are the transfer lines. as explained earlier, workstations are laid out in a straight-line flow and the parts are moved automatically between stations (Figure 1.29). The transfer system is both synchronous and asynchronous. Work components can be moved with pallet fixtures or without, buffer storage can be integrated into the line’s operation when desired, and a variety of monitoring and control options can be utilized to control the line.
The transfer machine provides the greatest flexibility of all the machines described. The transfer line is able to hold larger workpieces than rotary indexing systems. Furthermore there are more stations and thus the amount of operations that can be performed in the lines is higher than an arrangement that is circular. The transfer line has historically been utilized to machine an individual product in huge numbers over lengthy production runs. Recently the transfer line has been created to make it easy to change over to allow multiple, but identical workpieces to be made within the same process. This attempt to bring the flexibility of the design of transfer lines enhance the appeal of these systems of high-production. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
In production on a flow line, there are numerous distinct and distinct processing and assembly processes to be carried out to the finished product. The sequence of the processing or assembly steps is limited at the very least to a certain degree, with regard to what order the operations are carried out. For instance the threaded hole needs to be dug before it can be tapped. When using mechanical fasteners it is necessary to have the washer put over the bolt prior to the nut is rotated and then tightened. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
These restrictions are known as priority constraints in the language of line balance. It is the norm that the product has to be produced at a certain production rate to meet customers’ demands of the item. Whether we areconcerned with performing these processes & assembly operations on automatic machinesor manual flow lines, it is desirable to design the line so as to satisfy all of the foregoingspecifications as efficiently as possible.
The problem of line balancing is to set up the individual assembly and processing tasks at the workstations in a way that the time needed for each workstation is the same. Buy Insurance Industry email outlook lists online.
If the elements of work can be organized so that the times of each station are identical, there is a an ideal balance in the line, and it is possible for that the production process to run effortlessly. In the majority of situations, it is extremely difficult to achieve an ideal balance. If the time of the workstations is not equal The slowest station is responsible for the total production rate of the line.In order to understand the balance problems on the line, there are some terms and concepts must be considered.
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Minimum Rational Work Element
To spread the work to be completed over a number of stations, the task has to be broken down into its constituent tasks.
The work elements that are rational in their minimum are the most compact indivisible tasks in which the work could be divided. They cannot be further subdivided. For example, the drilling of an opening is typically thought of as a minimal reasonable work component. In a manual assembly, if two parts are connected using a screw and nuts, it is reasonable to consider these tasks to be combined.
Constraints on Precedence:
They can also be referred to by the term “technological needs for sequencing”. The sequence in which work components can be completed is restricted to a certain extent. In the example that was discussed above, the switching device has to be mounted on the bracket that supports the motor prior to it is possible to cover the appliance so that it is able to be attached. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
The right-hand column of the table above provides all the rules of precedence for assembling the electric appliance that is in the scenario. In almost every assembly or processing job there are pre-requisites which limit the order that the task can be completed.
Apart from the priority constraint mentioned above, there could be different constraints that could be imposed in the line balancing system. They are based on the arrangement of stations, not the order of work components. The first is known as Zoning Constraint. A zoning restriction can be a positive or a negative one. A positive zoning restriction means that specific work components must be located close to each other and preferably on one workstation.
For instance, all spray painting components are required to be carried out in tandem since the workstation must be enclosed in order been designed to work with. The negative zoning constraint means that the work elements could interfere with each other and should be avoided within close to each other. For example one example, an element that requires precise adjustments or intricate coordination shouldn’t be placed near a station with excessive vibrations and loud noises. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
Another restriction on the arrangement of workstations can be known as the position constraint. This is typically encountered during the assembly of big products like cars or other major appliances. The item is too big for one person to do tasks on both sides. Thus, in the interest of efficiency the workers are situated in both directions of the flowline. This kind of scenario is called an obstruction to position.
In this example, there is no zoning or constraints on position given. Line balancing techniques do not have the capacity to handle these constraints in a timely manner. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
It is a graphic representation of the order of work elements , as determined by the precedence constraint. It is typical to use nodes as symbols for the work elements, and to use the arrows connecting them to show what order elements have to be executed. Things that have to be accomplished first appear as nodes to the left side of the diagram. The process of processing or assembly moves towards the left. The times of the elements are listed above each node to provide ease of use. Buy Insurance Industry email leads online.
(g) The Balance Delay
Sometimes, it is referred to as the balancing loss, it is an indicator of line inefficiency that is caused by the inefficiency of idle time caused by the improper distribution of work between stations.
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The balance delay is typically expressed in a percentage instead of an decimal fraction. The balance delay shouldn’t be misinterpreted as the percent to the downtime, D, in the automated flow line.
The D measure is an indicator for the inefficiency that occurs when the line stoppages. The balance delay is a measure of the inefficiency of line balance.
The Methods to Line Balancing (Manual)
(A) Largest Candidate Rule (LCR)
Step 1. Record all elements in ascending in order of Te value, with the largest Te is at the highest in the listing.
Step 2. In order to assign the elements on the initial workstation, begin at the highest point on the list. Once you have your finish by selecting the most feasible element to be placed in the workstation. The most feasible component is the one which is able to meet the prerequisites for precedence and doesn’t result in the sum of Te value at the station to be greater than the cycle time Tc .
Step 3. Repetition step 2, until more elements can be added to the mix without exceeding Tc . Buy Insurance Industry mailing lists online.
(B) Kilbridge, Wester’s Method (KWM)
* It is a heuristic process that selects work components for the assignment to stations in accordance with their location on the diagram of precedence.
* This solves one of the problems with the rule of largest candidate (LCR) that is, elements near the end of the priorence diagram could be the first to be considered because their value is high.
Step 1. Make the precedence diagram in such a way that the nodes representing elements of work with identical precedence are vertically arranged in columns. Buy Insurance Industry mailing lists online.
Step 2. List the elements in the order of their columns, with column I being at the highest on the list. If the element is found in multiple columns then list all columns that contain the element to demonstrate the transferability of the element.
3. assign elements to workstations beginning with element in column I. Continue assigning elements by column number until the cycle time has been completed ( Tc ).
(C) (C) Method (RPW)
* First introduced through Helgeson and Birnie in the year 1961. Buy Insurance Industry mailing lists online.
* Combining with the LCR with the KWM.
* The RPW is based on as well the value Te of an element as well as its location on the previous diagram.Then all elements will be assigned workstations in the arrangement of the RPWvalues.
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Step 1. Determine your RPW on each of the elements by adding the element’s Te along and adding all the Te figures for the rest of elements following this element in the sequence in the diagram of precedence.
Step 2. List the elements in the order of their RPW, with the with the largest RPW at highest in the listing. For ease of use, include the Te value and the immediate predecessors for each element.
Step 3. Attribute elements to stations in accordance with RPW to avoid precedence constraints and time-cycle violation. Buy Insurance Industry mailing address lists online.
Increase the rate of production = 1 0.92 / 0.92 is 1.075 units/min.
*The RPW solution provides the most efficient assignment of work components to stations than the two previous solutions. This result is based on an unspecified cycle time that is not the stated cycle time of one minute.
* If the issue were changed to Tc = 0.92 minutes using LCR and WKM methods, it may be possible to replicate the efficiency achieved by RPW method. Buy Insurance Industry mailing address lists online.
1.16.2 Computerized Line Balancing Methods
Computer programs have been created in response to a number of methods for line balancing that are heuristic. However using the computer permits a much more comprehensive list of possibilities for solving the line balancing issue that is not possible with the manual method of solving. Therefore, computer-based line balancing algorithms are typically designed to investigate various possible assignments of components to computers. Computer-aided methods include:
The acronym is Computer Method of Sequencing Operations for Assembly Lines. It was that was developed by Chrysler Corporation and reported by Arcus in the year 1966. While it wasn’t the first line-balancing computer program designed, it is believed to have garnered more attention than the programs that preceded it. The method is to go through a variety of options and then select the most effective one. The fundamental algorithm for COMSOAL is as follows:
Step 1. Create a list of A that shows the work elements that are in one column as well as the total amount of elements that preceding each element in the column next to it. This is shown in Table 1. It is important to note that these kinds of data are easy to manipulate and compile by computers. Buy Insurance Industry mailing address lists online.
Step 2. Build List B (Table 2) with all the elements of list A with no immediate predecessors.
Step 3. Choose a random selection of the elements on List B. The computer is programmed to execute this random selection procedure. The only requirement is that the element chosen cannot create a cycle-time Tc that could run out.
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Step 4. Remove the element you chosen in step 3 from lists A and B , and make sure to update both lists as needed. It is possible that updating is required because the element you selected is likely an immediate predecessor to some others elements(s).
Therefore, there could be modifications to the amount of direct predecessors for specific elements from list A and , there could be new elements with no immediate predecessors, which must be added to the list B. For example, suppose that in the third step, element 1 is selected randomly to be entered into the workstation that is first. This means that element 3 does not have an immediate predecessor. These tables, respectively, show the latest lists B and A, respectively.
Step 5. Select an element from the list B that is suitable to cycle in a reasonable time.
Step 6. Continue steps 4, 5 and 6 until the elements are allocated to stations in the constraint Tc. One solution to this issue is provided in Table 5. The balance delay is 20% which is the same as was obtained using the largest candidate rule as well as using the Kilbridge and Wester method. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id lists online.
7. Keep the current solution in place and repeat the steps 1 through 6 again to try to identify an
Improved solution. If a better solution is found, it must be kept.
In 1968, the Advanced Manufacturing Methods Program (AMM) of the IIT Research Institute introduced a computer program known as the CALB (for Computer Assembly Line Balancing or Computer-Aided Line Balancing). Its applications include various assembled items such as trucks and automobiles electronic equipment, appliances as well as military hardware and many more. CALB is a suitable tool in both mixed-model and single model lines. For single-model lines the required data for the use of the program includes the identification of the work elements Te for every element as well as the predecessors and other restrictions that could be applicable for the lines. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id lists online.
Additionally, to ensure the line is information on the minimum and maximum allowed time for each workstation (in terms of data on the cycle duration). The CALB program begins by sorting elements in accordance with their precedence and Te requirements. Based on this sorting elements are assigned stations in order to meet the maximum and minimum allowable station hours. In order to use CALB on mixed model lines, other data is required, including the requirements for production per period for every model that is to be used along the lines, as well as an understanding of the relative element use for each model. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id lists online.
The system for computers was designed through General Motors in 1967. The acronym is “Assembly Line Planning and Control Activity.” ALPACA is described as an interactive line
Balancer system that allows users are able to transfer the work of one place to the next in the line of flow, and instantly assess the efficiency of the shift. ALPACA was developed to deal with the challenges posed by changing the product on the assembly line. ALPACA’s user can swiftly identify what adjustments in the assignment of work elements should be made in order to keep an acceptable balance on the line to keep up with the ever-changing production flow.
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Another way to improve the Line Balance
1. Differing work elements The most rational work element must be determined judiciously.
In certain situations, even though the work element may be divided further, it should be considered as a an element of work that is rational enough to avoid bottleneck situations.
2. Modifying the workhead speed at automatic stations: By to increase the speed/feed combination at stations that have a lengthy processing times and cutting down on the frequency of the feed/speed combinations for stations with idle times It should be feasible to increase the balance of flow lines. This will decrease any downtime incidents in the line.
3. Method analysis The analysis of human activities can lead to better workspace layout, improved fixing and tooling, or enhanced body and hand motions. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id database online.
4. Pre-assembly of parts: Reduce the amount of work performed on the normal assembly line through another assembly cell or through outsourcing. The reasons could be (a) the process required could not be feasible to execute on the standard machine, (b) modifications in processing times (adjustments and fitting) could lead to an extended cycle time as well (c) the assembly line that is set up within the plant or a supplier with specific capabilities for the task may be able to produce better quality.
5. Storage buffers between stations Storage buffers can be put to use to manage the variations in cycle duration caused by human activities, which is characterized by random fluctuations.
6. Parallel stations: They can be used to reduce bottlenecks due to the lines that are sequential. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id database online.
FLEXIBLE MANUAL ASSEMBLY LINS
The precise pace of an assembly line that is manually operated has its advantages in terms of maximizing the rate of production. However, the employees who work on the line typically feel like they are being pushed to the limit. Many complaints from the workers, low-quality work as well as sabotage of the equipment on the line, and other issues have been reported on flow lines with high production. To ease some of these problems the concept of assembly lines was developed where the speed of work is managed mostly by the workers at their individual stations, instead of a motorized conveyor operating at a fixed speed. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id database online.
The concept was developed through Volvo within Sweden. It is based on the utilization of independent work vehicles that are able to hold the largest parts and sub-assemblies of the vehicle and transport them to manual assembly workstations that are located along the line. The work vehicles in the system are referred to as autonomous guided vehicles (AGVs) which are designed to follow the guided routes in the factory that are then routed to various stations. Buy Insurance Industry mailing id database online.
They operate independently, and enable for the system of assembly to be customized with parallel lines as well as queues of parts that can be moved between stations, as well as other functions that are not normally found in the typical in-line assembly systems. Furthermore, manual assembly lines are constructed to be extremely flexible capable of handling variations in the quality of products and variations in the cycle time at various work stations.
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The kind of assembly system that is flexible as discussed here is usually employed when there are many different models to be created and the differences between the models can result in substantial differences in the working time that are involved.
The duration of a work cycle at any particular station can vary between four and 10 minutes depending on the type of model. Throughput of production is determined by number of stations that are in parallel. A provisioning station is typically utilized prior to the parallel assembly stations to fill the work car with the necessary components that are required.
This allows flexibility in the transport of the carriers to the various stations. Hardware items that are common for all models are available at workstations. The usual working of the system permits timing variations at one station due to worker’s skill and effort as well as the differences in models. Instead of the sub-assembly going forward in a predetermined time as is the case in a traditional stream line employee is given the time to complete the tasks needed for the model that is being processing. After the work has been completed then the work carriage is removed by the worker and can continue on to the next procedure. Buy Insurance Industry mailing directory online.
The benefits of this flexible assembly line as compared to the standard production line include higher satisfaction of the workers, higher-quality products as well as a higher capacity to adapt to model variations and better ability to deal with issues that require longer time instead of having to stop the entire production line.
AUTOMATED ASSEMBLY Systems
Automated Assembly refers to the automation and mechanization of equipment to perform different tasks in the assembly lines or cells. Automated assembly is an automated sequence to integrate multiple components to a single unit which could end up being a final product or sub-assembly. Automated assembly is best taken into consideration under the following conditions. Buy Insurance Industry mailing directory online.
High product demand
Stable product design
The assembly is comprised of only an unspecified number of parts. Buy Insurance Industry mailing directory online.
The product is intended for automated assembly.
Automated assembly systems require lower investment than transfer lines since
1. The work parts produced are smaller in size when compared with transfer lines.
2. Assembly operations don’t have the massive mechanical forces or power requirements.
3. Size is significantly smaller when than transfer lines. Buy Insurance Industry mailing directory online.
The following guidelines and principles are applicable to the design of products in order to facilitate automated assembly
* Reducing your assembly time needed The principle is achievable during the design phase by combining functions in the same component that were previously carried out by different components of the product. The use of plastic-molded parts as a substitute for sheet metal components can be a good example for this concept. A more intricate geometry that is that is molded into a plastic component could replace a variety of metal components. While the plastic component may appear to be more expensive but the benefits in assembly time will probably outweigh the change in many instances.
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Utilize modular designs for automated assembly growing the quantity of assembly processes that are performed with a single automated system can cause that there is an increased time to shut down for the entire system.
To lessen the impact of this one can suggest for the layout of the product is modular, with each module having a minimum number of either 12 or 13 components to be assembled using an assembly system. The sub-assembly is constructed around a base piece that other components can be to be added.
* Reduce the amount of fasteners that are required instead of using separate screws , nuts, or similar fasteners, incorporate the mechanism for fastening into the design of the component, by using snap fit and similar functions. Also, you can design the modules to ensure that several parts are fastened at the same time, instead of each one being fastened individually. Buy Insurance Industry mailing leads online.
* Make it less necessary for multiple components to be in one place at a time A common practice for automated assembly machines is to manage the different operations at various stations, rather than handling and fastening several components at the same station. (It is important to note that the advancement of robotics is prompting the need to rethink this process as robots are programmed to complete more complicated assembly tasks than just one station in an automated machine.)
* Limit the directions for access: This simply means that the number of directions that additions of new parts are made to subassembly need to be limited. If all the components are added vertically , from above, that is the best scenario. Naturally, the layout of the subassembly module will determine the design of the subassembly module. Buy Insurance Industry mailing leads online.
* Demand high-quality components: The performance in the automation system is dependent on constant high-quality components that are added to every workstation. Components of poor quality cause jams to the assembly and feeding mechanisms, which can cause delays within the automated system.
* Implement the concept of hopperability. This is a term used to describe the ease at the component could be fed and properly oriented to be delivered from the parts hopper the workhead of the assembly. Buy Insurance Industry mailing leads online.
Automated assembly systems of various types
Based on the kind that work transfer technology utilized for assembly systems:
* Continuous transfer system
* Synchronous transfer system
* Asynchronous transfer system
* Base part of the stationery system
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The three basic types use the same techniques of workpart transport as described in the automatic flow lines.
In the stationary base arrangement, the foundation piece that the other components are attached is put in a fixed position, which is where it stays throughout the assembly process.
Based on the physical configuration
* Dial-type machine for assembly
• In-line Assembly Machine
* System for assembling the carousel
• Single station assembly machine
The dial-type machine, or the elements that make up the base are indexed to an oval table or dial. Workstations are stationary and typically located on the outside edge that surrounds the dial. The components are positioned on the table rotating and are registered, or placed on the table. At each station. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
A new component is added to the base component.
An in-line assembly machine consists of a set of workstations that are in more or less straight line configuration as illustrated in figure 1.31. The in-line assembly machine is comprised of a number of automated workstations that are situated along the in-line transmission system. It is an automated version that is manual. Continuous, in-line, or synchronous transfer systems can be employed using this configuration in line.
The segmented In-Line configuration is made up consisting of two straight lines or more arrangements that are typically perpendicular to each other , using L-Shaped, U-shaped, or rectangular shaped shapes, as shown on Figure 1.32-1.34. The process may take just a few 90deg twists depending on the reason, such as workpieces reorientation or layout constraints at the factory or for other reasons, but can still be classified as straight line configuration. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
Carousel assembly systems are a blend of working in a circular fashion created through the machine for dials as well as straight flow of work that occurs in-line system as illustrated in figure 1.35. Carousels are operated using continuously running, synchronous, or asynchronous transfer mechanisms. Buy Insurance Industry email lists online.
For the assembly machine with a single station machines, the assembly process is performed in a single place (stationary basis part systems) as illustrated in figure 1.36. The most common procedure involves placing of the base component at the workstation. There, various elements are added onto the base. The components are brought to the station via feeding mechanisms and, in addition, some or all of the workheads are used to perform all the assembly, fastening and assembly tasks.
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Part feeding devices
In every configuration discussed above, a method of transferring the components to the workhead of assembly has to be devised.
The hardware system that is used to deliver components to workheads in an assembly machine that is automated usually includes the following components as illustrated in figure 1.37. Workstations’ delivery of components is contingent on specific pieces that are used for delivery, especially related to automatic assembly. These equipment pieces are linked to form the system for delivery of parts. The equipment used for delivery of parts comprises:
* Hopper It is the container that components are loaded when they arrive at the workstation. There is a separate hopper for each type of component. The components are generally placed into the hopper in large quantities. It means the pieces are placed in random order inside the hopper. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
* Parts feeder It is a device that takes the parts from the hopper , one at a in order to deliver them to the workhead for assembly. The hopper and the parts feeder are usually joined together to form one operation. Vibration bowl feeders, as shown in Figure 1.38 is a typical example of the hopper and feeder combination.
* Selector and/or orientor These two elements in the delivery systems determine the proper orientation of components of the assembly workhead. Selectors are devices that functions like a filter allowing only those parts properly oriented to be passed through. components that aren’t correctly aligned are discarded back into the hopper. A orientor can be described as a piece of equipment that permits pans properly oriented to move through, but also provides an opportunity to reorient components that were not correctly aligned initially. A variety of orientor and selector options are presented in figure 1.39. Selector and orientor tools are typically combined into one hopper feeder system. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
Feed tracks: These previous components that comprise the delivery mechanism are generally situated a bit away from the workhead for assembly. The feed track is utilized to transfer elements from the parts hopper as well as components feeders to the position of the assembly workhead keeping the proper orientation of the components during the process of transfer. There are two types of feed tracks one being powered and the other gravity.
A gravity-feed track will be the most frequent. In this model, the parts feeder and the hopper are set at an elevation above the level of the working head. The gravity force is employed to move the parts into the machine. The feed track powered by electricity uses vibration, air pressure, or any other methods to force the components to move on the track to the workhead of the assembly. Buy Insurance Industry email address lists online.
* Device for escapement and placement The goal of the device to escape is to eliminate components from the conveyor track intervals that match the cycle speed of the workhead for assembly. The device for placement physically puts the component in the proper place at the workstation to allow for the assembly process with the help of the workhead. Different types of escapement and placement devices are illustrated in figure 1.40.
Horizontal positioning device: Device used for dial-type assembly machines components move by horizontal delivery into empty nests that are on the dial in the order they appear, and from the feed track while the circular motion of the table implies that the nests rotate to the left of feed tracks, allowing the next component on the feeder track be moved into the next nest and so on.
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Vertical positioning device: Device that is used on assembly machines that use dials In this case, the components feeder is placed vertically over the table for dials, so it is that, when the table rotates it will reveal an empty nest the component is able to fall via gravity from the feed track to the nest that is empty.
Each successive part falls due to gravity and take their positions at the mouth of the feeder track.
Escapement device This device is operated through the upper part of the carrier touching the lower side of the rivet-shaped piece and causing its upper side to push into the spring blade that releases the piece to fall into the nest of work carriers. Work carriers move in a horizontal direction in order to release the component. Once the first piece is released from the work carrier, the released component is released and is replaced with the following work carriers, so on. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
Pick-and-place system: This method employs a pick-andplace unit that has an arm that revolve, meaning parts can be removed of the conveyor track and then placed in work carriers.
OVERVIEW OF CAD
Computer-aided design (CAD) can be described as the utilization of computers to aid in the design modifications, analyses, or optimizing an design.The computer systems comprise the hardware and the software to execute the specific design tasks needed from the end user. Contemporary CAD platforms are built of interactive computer graphic (ICG). Interactive computer graphics is a system that is user-friendly in that computers are used to generate, transform, and display information as images or symbols. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
The hardware that makes up the ICG system comprises central processing units and a few workstations (including those with graphics displays) and other peripheral equipment like plotters, printers, and equipment for drawing. The software is comprised of computer programs required to implement graphics processing in the system. It may also contain additional applications designed for completing specific engineering function needed from the end user. It is the ICG system is a component of a computer-aided design system. Buy Insurance Industry email directory lists online.
The second significant ICG element is human design. Interactive computer graphics are tool utilized by designers to tackle the design issue. which is why the ICG system increases the power for the creator. It is referred to as synergistic effects. The designer executes the component in the process of designing most appropriate to human abilities, while the computer executes the job that is best suited to its capabilities, and the resultant system surpasses all of the elements.
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Reasons to Implement the CAD
1. Increase the productivity that designers can achieve: CAD helps the designer to visualize the design and its sub-assemblies and components.
This helps reduce the time needed to synthesize, analyze , and record the design. This efficiency improvement does not only translate in lower design costs but also in shorter timeframes for the completion of design projects.
2. Improve the design quality A CAD system allows an extensive engineering analysis in the shortest amount of time by using various software , and a greater variety of design options can be examined. Design errors are also minimized through the accuracy that is that is built into the system through the use of calculations and checks provided by the software. These factors result in improvement in quality and accuracy of the design.
3. To enhance communication by ensuring documentation To improve communication, the CAD systems provides better engineering drawings, more uniformity in drawings, better recording of designs, less mistakes in drawing, and better accessibility to the drawing. Buy top Insurance Industry email leads online.
4. In order to create a database for manufacturing in the process of creating documentation for the design of the product (geometry and dimensions of components as well as bill of material, etc.) The majority of the necessary database to produce is also built that can be utilized to a variety of computer integrated manufacturing (CIM) applications, such as CNC programing, the programming robots and process planning, and so on. Buy top Insurance Industry email leads online.
2.2 The DESIGN PROCESS
Design is the process of coming up with a new solution to a challenge through using a mix of concepts materials, resources, and products in the design process. Design is the process of actions used by the designer when coming up with a solution for an issue in technology. The initial design is created using the information available and it is refined as more more information is collected. The design process is divided into six phases as illustrated in figure 2.1. The process of designing is both repetitive and creative. Buy top Insurance Industry email leads online.
The repetitive tasks could be done by computers. However creativity tasks (stages 1 , 2) are performed only through the efforts of a humans.
Stage 1: Recognition of the need. Recognizing that there’s a need for a product or service that is new.
to fulfill the intended purpose. This could also mean a modifications to the product to meet the intended purpose. Buy top Insurance Industry email leads online.
Stage 2 : Problem definition. The problem is defined fully by its functionality and the requirements of
other requirements , such as ergonomics; performance data and statutory, for example.
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This is why they are you must meet all
Specifications of the product may be provided. (Crude representation of the concept.Specifications of product can be provided.
Stage 3: Synthesis. The design is synthesised and is joined by its many elements.
Stage4 : Analysis and Optimization. Analysis of the product reveals flaws and
The weaknesses that are present can be identified as areas for improvement. The process continues until there is a solution.
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Stage 5: Evaluation. The optimized design is evaluated from the perspective of anticipated
performance. This can be accomplished via prototype modeling, and also against the set of
Stage6 : Presentation. The stages 4 and 5 will be repeated till an they are acceptable the design is optimized.
achieved. The stages are generally they are iterative in their nature. The amount of iteration is dependent on
creativity, ingenuity (skill to think up ideas) and the experience of designers as well as the
software (tools) tools are available. The steps (stage one and two) are dependent on humans. Buy best Insurance Industry email lists online.
the stages 3, 4 5, and 6 (four four stages) are computer-based (CAD).
Designing with computers
Engineering design is traditionally done on drawing boards, with the design documented as an engineering sketch that is detailed. This procedure is iterative and takes a lot of time. Computers can assist to design the process CAD. The design work is completed by a CAD system , rather than a designer working with the drawing board. The different design-related tasks that are carried out by CAD systems, can be classified into four areas of operation (Figure 2.1):
1. Geometric modeling
2. Engineering analysis
3. Evaluation and design review
4. Automated Drafting
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1. Geometric Modeling
Geometric modeling concerns the computer-friendly mathematical description geometrical shape that an object.
The mathematical description permits the shape of the object to be displayed and edited using a graphic terminal by signals from the CPU in the computer-aided design system. The software which provides geometric modeling capabilities should be designed to make use of them by both the computer as well as the human designer.
There are many ways to represent the object using geometric modeling. The most basic model employs wire frames to depict the object. In this type of model the object is shown through interconnected lines. Geometric modeling can be divided into three different types.
a. 2D A representation in two dimensions is used to describe the flat surface of an object.
b. 2 1/2 D: This extends the 2D capability as it permits the use of a three-
A three-dimensional object can be depicted as long as it does not have sidewalls or details. Buy best Insurance Industry email address lists online.
C. 3D: This allows the full 3-D modeling of more complicated
Geometric models created in CAD may be classified as wire frame models and solid designs. Wire-frame models employ inter-connecting lines to represent the objects drawn. These interconnecting lines are sometimes confusing when they are used with complex geometries of parts, since many lines overlap. Solid models are things which have been modeled in three dimensions solidly giving the user a an image of the object identical to the appearance it has in real life. This process generally uses solid geometric shapes , or primitives, to build the model. Buy best Insurance Industry email address lists online.
2. Engineering Analysis
After a design is designed, it will need to undergo an analysis by engineers. This may involve a variety of tests, based on the design however, it could include stress-strain calculations and heat transfer analysis as well as dynamic simulation. These kinds of analyses can be extremely complicated, leading to the creation of computer-aided design (CAE) software applications which allow complex engineering analyses can be conducted using computers. Buy best Insurance Industry email address lists online.
Dynamic analysis and FEM software applications are typically employed for this purpose. Engineering analysis comprises:
* Analysis of mass properties that involves the calculation of aspects of the basis of the solid model including volume weight, surface area, surface area and the centre of gravity;
* Tolerance analysis – this analyzes how tolerances of the product would impact the performance and function of the product and how simple it will be to put together products, as well as how differences in the dimensions of components could influence the total size of the assembly;
* Finite element analysis it aids in stress-strain calculations and heat transfer, as well as fluid flow, and various engineering calculations.
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Kinematic and dynamic analysis – this examines the mechanics of mechanical linkages, and analyzes their movements; and
* Discrete event simulation – it simulates complex operational systems that have events that occur at different times in time that affect the state and performance that the systems perform.
3. Design Review and Evaluation
Following a thorough analysis of engineering The design that is proposed must be analyzed and reviewed to ensure coherence. Certain CAD features that can be useful in reviewing and evaluating designs are:
Automated dimensioning- after model completion, the CAD program will automatically calculate measurements of the model
* Error-checking- this tests the accuracy and the coherence of dimensions and tolerances to determine if the correct design documentation format was followed.
* Animation of discrete event simulation solutionsThis displays the results as a discrete simulation, in which the parameters of the input like probability distributions, a probability distribution and other parameters are able to be altered to evaluate the impact they have upon the effectiveness of the model as well as
* Scores for layout design of plantsThis provides numerical scores for layouts of plants that are based on factors such as material flow and closeness scores. Buy best Insurance Industry email address leads online.
In many instances it is utilized as a substitute for the actual prototypes which was traditionally constructed at this point. Physical prototypes can be time-consuming to build, and to analyse Therefore, alternatives in the form of rapid prototyping and virtual prototyping, both of which are based on the geometric model, could be utilized in lieu.
Rapid prototyping can be that refers to a collection of fabrication techniques that permit the engineering of prototypes for solid parts to be created with the shortest amount of time, in accordance with an CAD geometry model. It is done by breaking parts of the object to be divided into layers and then delineating the area for each one. The rapid prototyping process creates the object by beginning at the bottom layer then moving towards the highest layer. The accuracy of the approximate created through this process is contingent on the thickness of the layer at the beginning (with higher accuracy when using thinner layers). Buy best Insurance Industry email address leads online.
Virtual prototyping is based on virtual reality technology. It utilizes technology like the CAD geometry model in order to create digital models that represents the actual product. The model allows the designer to experience the feel of a tangible product, without making the physical prototype.
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Rapid prototyping produces an actual prototype through the process of dividing an CAD geometries into a number of layers, and then building according the model according to the specifications. virtual prototyping makes use of this CAD geometries to create a digital model that represents the final product.
A procedure called layering is often helpful in design review. For instance, a successful layering procedure involves overlaying the geometric representation of the final design of the machined component over the picture of the raw casting. This will ensure that sufficient material is present within the casting to create the final dimensions that are machined. This process is able to be done in stages, allowing you to test each step before the final stage of processing,
Another procedure that is used that is used for review of design processes is interference testing. It involves the examination of an assembly that has there is a chance that the parts of the unit could be in an area. This can be a problem when designing large chemical plant, air-separation chill boxes and various other complex piping structures. Buy best Insurance Industry email address database online.
The most intriguing assessment features that are available on certain CAD systems is kinematics. the available kinematics programs offer the ability to animated the movement of basic mechanisms, such as hinged components and links. This feature enhances the designer’s ability to visualize the workings of the mechanism. It also assists to avoid interference from other components without graphic kinematics in an computer. Buy best Insurance Industry email address database online.
4. Automated Drafting
Automated Drafting is the process of creating of engineering drawings that are hardcopy using an CAD database. In early computer-aided design departments, the automation of drafting was the primary reason for investing into an CAD system. In fact, CAD systems could boost the efficiency of the drafting process by about five times that of manual draftsmanship. Certain of the features in graphics of computer-aided design software can be particularly useful in the process of drafting. They include automatic dimensioning of crosshatched areas and seating of drawings, the capability to produce sectionsal views and larger views of specific details of the part as well as the capability to rotate the piece or perform other modifications on the drawing (e.g. Oblique isometric or perspectives). Buy best Insurance Industry email address database online.
CREATING manufacturing DATA BASE
The main reason to use the CAD system is that it provides the possibility of developing the necessary database to make the product. In the traditional manufacturing cycle the engineering drawings were created by design draftsmen. They were then utilized by engineers in manufacturing to design the process plans (i.e. routes sheets). The processes involved in the design of the product were separate from those that were associated with planning the process. In essence, a two-step method was used. Buy best Insurance Industry email address database online.
This process was time-consuming and required a duplication of efforts for both manufacturing and design engineers. In a CAD/CAM system that is integrated there is a direct connection established between design and manufacturing. The goal of CAD/CAM, not just to automate specific phases of design, but also certain stages of manufacturing, but also make it easier to transfer from design to production. Computer-based systems have been created that generate a lot of the data and documentation needed to manage and plan manufacturing processes to produce the final product. Buy best Insurance Industry email address database online.
Manufacturing databases are an integrated, CAD/CAM-based database. It contains all the information regarding the product created during the design process, i.e., geometry information, bill of materials and assemblies lists, specifications for materials as well as other specifications. along with other data needed for manufacturing, a lot of that is based on design of the product. Figure 2.2 illustrates how the CAD/CAM database can be closely linked to design and manufacturing.