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MACHINES FOR AUTOMATION AND NUMERICAL CONTROL
AUTOMATION IN MANUFACTURING
Automation is the process through which a process, or procedure can be carried out without the assistance of a human. It is carried out using an instruction program that is paired with a control system which performs the instructions.
To automatize a process, power is required for both the operation it self and also to operate the control system and the program. While automation is a possibility in many sectors, it is closely linked to the manufacturing industry.
Automated manufacturing systems run the factory and work on the actual product. Buy Hospitals email lists online. They carry out operations like processing assemblies, assembly or material handling sometimes performing more than one of these tasks within the same process. They are termed automated because they execute their tasks with less human involvement compared to the manual processes. In certain highly automated systems, there is almost no human involvement. Examples of automated manufacturing systems are:
* machine tools with automated functions which process the parts
* transfer lines that execute an array of machining operations
* Automated Assembly Systems
* manufacturing systems that utilize industrial robots for assembly or processing operations
* Automatic storage and material handling systems that integrate manufacturing processes
* automated inspection systems to ensure quality control
Therefore Automation is a process that involves the use of electronic, mechanical and computer-based systems to manage and manage production. Buy Hospitals email lists online.
The technology is comprised of:
* Machine tools that are automated to process components
* Automated assembly machines
* Industrial robots
* Automated storage and material handling systems.
* Automatic inspection systems to ensure quality control
* Control of feedback and computer process control
Computer systems used for planning, data collection and decision making to facilitate manufacturing processes.
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Elements of an AUTOMATED SYSTEM
A computerized system is comprised of three elements fundamental to it:
(1) the power to carry out the process and manage the system.
(2) an application of instructions that directs the procedure (2) a program of instructions to direct the process
(3) an electronic control system to trigger the directions. Buy Hospitals email address lists online.
All systems that are considered to be being automated are comprised of the three fundamental elements listed above in some form or the other.
(1) Power to accomplish the automated process
Automated systems are used to run a particular process, and power is needed to run the process and the controls. The main source of power for the automated system is electrical power. Electricity has numerous advantages both in automated and non-automated procedures.
Electricity is readily available for a reasonable cost.
* Electric power is easily converted into different forms of energy, including thermal, mechanical, light, acoustic pneumatic, and hydraulic. Buy Hospitals email address lists online.
* Electric power in low levels can be used for tasks such as transmission, signal information processing, data storage and communications.
* Electrical energy is stored in batteries with a long life to be used in places in which an outside source for electricity is not readily accessible.
The need for power in automation is to perform the following functions:
* Processing operations
• Loading and unloading of the work piece
* Transport of materials between operations
* Controller unit
* Power to activate the signals for control
* Processing of information and data acquisition
(2) The Program of Instructions
The steps that are carried out in an automated procedure are specified by a written program. Buy Hospitals email address lists online. Each product style or component produced in the process requires some or all of the steps which are specific to the type of product. These steps are executed in a process. The creation of a new product is accomplished at the end of each cycle (in certain manufacturing processes multiple parts is made during the process; e.g., a plastic injection molding process could create multiple pieces every time by using a mold with multiple cavities). The specific processing steps that are required to be followed during each work process are outlined in a work cycle plan. Buy Hospitals email address lists online.
Work Cycle Programming. For the simplest of automated process the work cycle is comprised of just one element, which is to control the same parameters of the process at a specified level. But, the system gets complicated when an entire work-cycle that comprises several steps and a greater number of parameters to be monitored. The majority of discrete manufacturing operations fall into this class.
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Process parameters can be described as inputs into the process like the temperature setting of an oven, coordinate axis values in the positioning system as well as valves being closed or opened in a flow system and the motor’s turning off or on.
Process parameters differ from process variables that are outputs of the process, for instance the actual temperature of your furnace, exact location of the axis, the actual rate of flow of the liquid in the pipe, and also the rate of rotation that the engine is operating at.
As the examples in our list suggest that changes in the values of process parameters can occur in a continuous manner (gradual changes in the process stage, for instance, gradual increase in temperature during the heat treatment process) and/or discrete (stepwise changes, for instance turning on/off).
The work-cycle may contain manual processes, where the operator does certain tasks throughout the course of the work, and the automated system handles the remainder. An example of this is loading and unloading of components by the operator from a numerical control device between machining cycles in which the machine is able to perform the cutting process with the help of a part program. The cutting process of each cycle is activated through the operator’s activation of the “start” button once the item is loaded. Buy Hospitals email id lists online.
Decision-making in the Programed Work Cycle. When working with automated cycles, the only two elements comprise (1) the number and order of processes and (2) the change in process parameters during every step. Each work cycle is comprised of identical steps and parameters of the process, without any variation between one cycle and the next. The instructions program is rewritten each cycle without any deviation. Actually the majority of automated manufacturing processes require that decisions be taken in the course of the work to handle the varying conditions of the process. In many instances the changes are just routine components of the cycle and the instructions to deal with these variations are integrated into the normal part program. Examples of this include:
* Interaction with the operator. While the instruction program is designed to be executed with no human input however, the controller may require input from an operator to function. Buy Hospitals email id lists online.
* Different parts or product designs processed through the system. In this case this automated program is designed to run different work cycles on various types of product or part.
Variations in the beginning work units. In many manufacturing operations , the beginning work units aren’t uniform. An example of this is an sand casting that is the primary work unit of an machining process. The variations in the dimensions in raw castings may require an additional machining process to increase the dimension of the machined to the desired value. The program for the part must be programmed to allow an additional pass if needed. Buy Hospitals email id lists online.
In each of these cases the routine modifications can be accommodated within the normal routine work-cycle program. The program could be designed to react to inputs from sensors or operators through the execution of the subroutine to match the input. In other instances, the fluctuations in the working cycle aren’t routine at all. They can be unexpected and rare for instance, the failure of a part of the equipment. In these situations the plan must incorporate contingency plans or adjustments to the sequence to deal with circumstances that are outside of regular routine.
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(3) Control System
The control element of an automated system runs the program of instructions. The control system triggers the process to perform its intended purpose that is to execute an operation in manufacturing.
The control system in an automated system could be closed loop as well as open loop. Closed loop control systems or a feedback control system , is one where each output value is evaluated against an input parameter and any variation between them is used to force the output to be in line to the input. As illustrated in Figure 1.2 an closed loop controller is comprised of six fundamental elements: (1) input parameter, (2) process, (3) output variable, (4) feedback sensor. (5) controller , and (6) actuator.
The input parameter, often called the set point, is the value that you want to output. The process is the action or function that is being controlled. Particularly, it is the output variable that is controlled by the loop. Sensors are utilized to determine the output variable and to close the loop between output and input. Sensors provide feedback in closed loop control systems. The controller compares the output to the input and then makes the necessary adjustments to minimize the differences between them. Buy Hospitals email id directory online.
Adjustments are made with the help of the actuators that are the hardware components which physically perform the control functions for example, the electric motor, or flow valve. The diagram in Figure 2 only shows one loop, but many industrial processes require multiple loops with one loop for each variable in the process which must be controlled.
Contrary with the closed loop controlled system one that operates with an open loop works without feedback loops, as shown in Figure 1.3. In this scenario the control systems operate without taking into account the output variable and therefore no comparison can be drawn to the value that is actually measured parameter and the input parameter that is desired. The controller is dependent on a reliable understanding of the effect an actuator has upon the variables in the process. Buy Hospitals email id directory online.
When using the open loop method there is always the possibility that the actuator may not achieve the desired impact on the process. this is the drawback that comes with an open loop design. Its benefit is that it’s generally cheaper and less complicated than closed loop systems. Open loop systems are generally recommended for the following scenarios:
(1) (1) The operations carried out through the system’s control are easy, (2) the actuating function is extremely solid and (3) the forces opposing the actuation’s initiation are minimal enough to have no impact on the action. If none of these are relevant to you, then a closed loop controlled system might be more suitable. Buy Hospitals email id directory online.
Advanced AUTOMATION FUNCTIONS
In addition to running work cycle programmes Automated systems may be capable of performing sophisticated functions that are not restricted to a specific work piece. In general, these functions focus on improving the safety and performance for the machinery. Advanced automation features comprise of: (1) safety monitoring, (2) maintenance and repair diagnostics and (3) the detection of errors and their recovery.
Advanced automation features are enabled by specific subroutines that are part of the program of instructions. In certain instances the functions offer information and do not require physical actions from the system of control. One example is reporting an inventory of maintenance tasks to be performed in the future to be completed. Buy Hospitals email id directory online. The actions that are taken on the information in this document will be decided by humans who operate and manage the system, not it itself. In other situations the instructions program should be physically carried out through the control system by using actuators. An example of this is the safety monitoring system which emits an alarm whenever the human operator gets near in the automation system.
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(1) (1). Safety Monitoring
One of the primary motives for automating the manufacturing process is to eliminate worker(s) from the dangers of a working area.
A computerized system is typically set up to perform a dangerous task that is normally be done manually by humans. However, even with automated systems, humans are required to maintain the system on regular intervals, if not on a full-time basis. It is therefore essential that the system is constructed to function safely while workers are present. Additionally, it is crucial that the system carried its work in a manner that’s not self-destructive.
There are two main reasons for supplying an automated system that has an ability to monitor safety conditions: (1) to protect humans working in the area of the system, in addition to (2) to safeguard the equipment that is part of the system. It is important to note that any Safety monitoring program is restricted in its ability to react to dangers due to potential irregularities that were anticipated by the system’s designer. If the designer hasn’t predicted a specific danger, and, consequently, has not equipped it with the ability to detect the hazard that is, the safety system is unable to identify the event in the event that it occurs. Buy Hospitals email id outlook online.
(2) maintenance and repair Diagnostics
Modern production systems that are automated become increasingly complex and sophisticated, increasing the difficulty of maintaining and repair them. Diagnostics for maintenance and repair is the capability that an automatic system has that aids in identifying the cause of actual problems and malfunctions within the system. Three different modes of operation are typical of modern diagnostics system for maintenance and repair. subsystem.
Monitoring of status: In monitoring of status the diagnostic subsystem monitors and tracks the status of the most important sensors and other parameters of the system in normal operation. If you request it the diagnostics system can show any of these values and give an explanation of the current status of the system and even alert you to imminent failure.
“Failure Diagnostics”. The diagnostics mode is activated when an error or malfunction occurs. Its goal is to analyze the current values of the values being monitored and to examine the recorded values prior to the failure, so that the reason for the failure can be pinpointed. Buy Hospitals email id outlook online.
* Recommendation for repair procedures The subsystem offers an recommended process to the repair team on the steps that must be followed in order to make repairs.
The methods used to formulate the recommendations can be dependent on expert systems where the opinions of a variety of repair specialists are combined and integrated into the computer program using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Buy Hospitals email id outlook online.
Status monitoring plays two essential purposes in the field of machine diagnostics: (1) providing data for diagnosing the current malfunction and (2) giving information to forecast a potential breakdown or failure. When a malfunction of the equipment is observed it can be hard for the repairs team to pinpoint the cause of the failure , and also what steps to take to repair the equipment. It is usually beneficial to reconstruct the events that led to the malfunction. Computers are programmed to observe and record the variables, and draw logical conclusions from their results regarding the cause of the issue. This information helps repair technician make the needed repairs and replace the necessary components.
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This is particularly useful for electronic repairs as it is difficult to identify by examination of the components that are failing.
Another purpose of monitoring status is to detect warning signs of imminent malfunction, so component that is affected can be repaired before the failure causes the system to fail. Replacements of these parts are usually done in the evening shift or at any time the system is not in operation which means that the system does not suffer any interruption in normal operation.
(3) Error Recovery and detection
In the course of operating an automatized system, it is possible that there may be glitches in the hardware and unexpected events that can occur in the course of operation. These incidents can cause expensive delays and reduction in production until the issue is resolved and regular functioning is restored. Typically, equipment malfunctions are addressed by human workers, maybe by using the subroutine for repair and maintenance diagnostics. Buy Hospitals email id database online.
Due to the increasing utilization of computer-controlled manufacturing processes, there’s an increasing trend to use the computer control system not just to detect malfunctions, but also to determine the appropriate corrective action in order to restore the system back to normal operating. The term”error detection” and recovery is utilized when computers are able to perform these functions,
Error Detection: As outlined by the phrase error detection and recovery is made up of two stages:
(1) error detection and (2) error recovery. The error defection process uses the system’s sensor systems to detect the moment when a malfunction or deviation is occurring, accurately determine the signal(s) and categorize the error. The design of the error detachment subsystem should begin with the identification of possible errors that may be encountered during the operation of the system. The manufacturing process are particular to each application. Buy Hospitals email id database online.
They need to be identified beforehand to choose the right sensors to allow their detection
When analyzing a particular production process, possible mistakes are categorized into three broad types:
(1) random errors,
(2) systematic errors and
Random errors can occur as an outcome of the random nature of the procedure. These errors can occur even in the event that the production process is under statistical control. The large variations in the dimensions of parts even when the process is controlled by statistical methods and can result in problems during downstream operations. If you can identify these deviations on a piece-by-piece basis, corrective actions can be taken during future processes. Buy Hospitals email id database online.
These errors originate from an identifiable source, like an alteration in the properties of raw materials or a shift in the setting of an equipment. The result is that the product to diverge from the specifications, causing it to not be acceptable in terms of quality.
The third kind of error aberrations results from either a failure of equipment or a human error. Examples of equipment failures are cracks in mechanical shear pins or a burst in an hydraulic line and rupture of a vessel under pressure, and the sudden failure of a cutting device. Examples of human errors include mistakes in the control program and incorrect fixture settings, and the use of incorrect raw materials. Buy Hospitals email id database online.
The two major design challenges in the field of error detection are: (1) to anticipate all possible errors that may occur during a particular process , and (2) to define the correct sensors and interpretive software that will ensure that the system can recognize every error. To solve the first issue, it involves a thorough analysis of the possible outcomes in any of three classifications. If the error hasn’t been identified, the error detection subsystem is unable to properly detect and detect it.
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Error recovery is focused on taking the corrective actions to eliminate the issue and restore the system to normal functioning.
The challenge of creating an error recovery strategy is focused on the development of suitable strategies and procedures that either rectify or mitigate the range of mistakes that may be encountered during the process. In general, a distinct recovery method and process should be developed for every particular error. The various strategies are classified as follows:
1. Make any adjustments prior to the conclusion of the current cycle. Once the current cycle is complete and the program is completed, it branches to an action subroutine specially created for the error that was detected it executes the subroutine and return to the work cycle. This indicates a lower degree of urgency and is usually caused by accidental errors that occur during the process. Buy Hospitals email database lists online.
2. Adjustments should be made in this cycle. This generally indicates a higher intensity than the previous type. In this scenario the corrective action and compensate for uncovered error should be taken immediately after the error is identified. It must, however, be possible to carry out the corrective measure that was planned while the process is in process.
3. Stop the process to trigger corrective action. In this instance the malfunction or deviation demands that the operation of the work process be stopped during corrective action. It is presumed that the system will be capable of immediately recovering from the mistake without assistance from a human. When the corrective procedure then the normal process continues. Buy Hospitals email database lists online.
4. Shut down the procedure and phone for assistance. In this situation, there is an error requires the stopping of the process cannot be fixed using automated recovery methods. The reason for this may be that (1) the automatic cell isn’t able to fix the issue, as well (2) an error is unable to be classified in the predefined set of error categories. In either of these cases the assistance of a human is needed to rectify the issue and bring the system back to full automation.
Error detection and recovery require an interruption system. If an error within the process is detected and spotted then an interrupt in process execution is invoked to switch to that appropriate repair subroutine. which is executed either at the close in the present sequence (type one above) or in a matter of seconds (types 3 and 4).At the conclusion of the recovery procedure execution of the program returns to normal operations. Buy Hospitals email database lists online.
LEVELS OF AUTOMATION
Automated systems can be applied to different levels of factory operation. It is common to associate automation with the production machines. However, the production system itself is comprised of subsystems which can be automated.
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For instance, a modern computer controlled (NC) machine is an automation machine. However it is the NC machine itself is comprised of several control systems. Similar to a NC machine is usually part of the larger manufacturing system and the bigger system might become automated.
1. Device level. This is the smallest stage in the hierarchy of automation. It comprises sensors, actuators, along with other parts of hardware which are at machines. The components are integrated in the various control loops that the machine has; for instance that feedback loop that controls one the axes of the CNC machine, or the one joint in the industrial robotic.
2. Machine level. The hardware at device levels is put together into separate machines. For instance, CNC machines as well as similar equipment for production industrial robots, powered conveyors and automated vehicles. Control tasks at this level comprise performing the steps within the instructions program in the proper order, and making sure that every step is executed correctly. Buy Hospitals email address database lists online.
3. Level of the cell or system. The manufacturing cells or the system level, that operates according to orders by the factory level. A manufacturing system or cell is a set of workstations or machines that are that are connected to the material handling system or computer, as well as other equipment suitable for manufacture. Production lines are an integral part of this category. Most likely, they are responsible for the dispatching of parts and loading machines in coordination with machines and the material handling system as well as evaluating and collecting information from inspections.
4. Plant level. This is the production or factory level. It receives orders coming from (he the corporate system of information) ) and transforms the instructions into production plans that are operational. Its most common functions are: process planning, order processing as well as inventory control and purchasing and material requirements and control of shop floors as well as quality assurance. Buy Hospitals email address database lists online.
5. Enterprise level. It is the most advanced stage that houses the company’s information system. It is responsible for all the tasks required for the management of the company. These include sales and marketing, accounting research, design in aggregate, planning and the master schedule of production.
A RANGE OF AUTOMATION TYPES
Automated production systems can be classified into three main kinds:
1. Fixed automation
2. Programmable automation
3. Flexible automation
Fixed automation refers to a technique where the order of the processing (or assembly) processes is set by the configuration of the equipment. Buy Hospitals email address database lists online. The sequence of operations typically are simple. It is the coordination and integration of many different processes into one piece equipment which makes the system more complex. The most common characteristics of fixed automation include:
* A large initial investment for equipment that is custom-engineered
• High rates of production
* Relatively inflexible when it comes to adapting to changes in product
The rationale for fixed automation is evident in products that have large demand and volume. Buy Hospitals email address database lists online. The initial expense of the machine is dispersed over a huge amount of units, making the cost of the equipment attractive when compared with other techniques of manufacturing.
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In the case of programmable automation, the equipment used for production is designed with the ability to alter the order of operation to accommodate various product configurations.
The sequence of operations can be controlled through a software that is a set of instructions that are coded in a way that the system is able to be able to read and interpret the instructions. The new program can be created and then incorporated into the equipment to create new products. A few of the characteristics that define programmable automation are:
A large investment in equipment for general use
* Low production rates compared to fixed automation
Flexibility to accommodate modifications in the product configuration
* Best suited to batch production
Automated production systems that can be capable of being programmed are employed in medium and low production. Buy Hospitals mailing lists online. Products or components are generally produced in batches. In order to make each batch of a new product, the machine must be programmed using the new set of instructions for the machine that correspond with the new product. The physical configuration of the machine needs to be altered The tools have to be loaded and fixtures need to be connected to the table on which the machine is located and the needed machine settings have to be set. This process of changeover requires time. Thus, the standard process for a particular product includes a time in which the setting up and reprogramming is completed and then a time where the batch is made. Buy Hospitals mailing lists online.
Flexible automation is a variation of programming automation. The idea of flexible automation is only a result of the last 15-20 decades, but the concepts continue to evolve. Flexible automated systems are one that can be capable of making a range of products (or components) without a lot of time wasted in switching between one item in one product to the following. It is not possible to produce time lost in reprogramming your system or changing the physical configuration (tooling fixtures, fixtures or machine parameters). Buy Hospitals mailing lists online.
This means that the system can create a variety of kinds of combinations and schedules and not require they be created separately. The benefits of flexible automation may be described as follows:
* Expensive for an engineered system that is custom-designed
* Continuous production of different mix of the products
* Medium production rates
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Flexibility to handle changes in design of the product
The most important features that differentiate the flexible and programmable is (1) the ability to alter part programs in a matter of minutes without losing production time and (2) the ability to switch over the physical setup without losing production time.
These capabilities allow an automated system for production to run without the interruption between batches that is typical of automated programmable. Modifying the part programs typically involves preparing the programs offline on a computer and electronically transferring the programs directly to an automated system.
This means that the time it takes to program the next task does not disrupt production on the currently being completed task. Moving the physical configuration between components is done by making the changeover offline , and then placing it in place while the new part is moved into place for processing. Utilizing pallet fixtures to hold the components and then transfer them to the work area is one method of implementing this method. To make these met