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Multi-access edge computing
The top performance for cutting down on the amount of latency that virtual worlds experience has led to edge computing becoming an essential element in the creation of the metaverse according to numerous industry experts. For instance, Apple uses Mac with VR headsets that are attached that supports immersive 360 degree VR render . Facebook Oculus Quest 2 can offer VR experiences by itself without the need for a PC due to the powerful Snapdragon XR2 processor (462].
However, its capabilities are not as powerful as an extremely powerful PC, and therefore, its standalone VR experience is accompanied by lower framerates , and therefore less detail-rich VR scenes. Offloading the VR experience onto an edge server (e.g. PC, or a server) users will be able to enjoy an immersive and interactive experience with higher frame rates without loss of quality. It is the Oculus Air Link, also known as , that was announced in April 2021 by Facebook on April 20, 2021 will allow Quest 2 to transfer its data to the edge server at speeds of 1200 Mbps on the Wi-Fi at home network which allows for a smooth VR with greater mobility. These devices, however, are limited to indoor settings and have limited user mobility. Golf email lists.
In order to allow users to experience the full and omnipresent virtual reality, seamless outdoor mobility that is supported by mobile networks is essential. At present, access to the last mile is the main bottleneck in latency within LTE networks . . With the advent of 5G (promising lower than 1 millisecond the last mile delay) and 6G in the future multi-access edge computing (MEC) is anticipated to improve metaverse user experience by enabling
Standard or universal edge offloading services that are one hop away from mobile-connected user equipment, e.g., AR glasses. MEC, proposed by the European Telecommunications Stan-dards Institute (ETSI), is a telecommunication-vendor centric edge cloud model wherein the deployment, operation, and maintenance of edge servers is handled by an ISP operat-ing in the area and commonly co-located with or one hop away from the base stations . Golf email lists.
Not only does it cut down on the round-trip time (RTT) of the delivery of packets , however, it allows for near-real-time orchestration of multi-user interactions [467468as well as for multi-user interactions , . MEC is vital in outdoor metaverses to understand the precise local context and manage intimate collaborations between close users or devices. For example 5G MEC servers are able to manage the nearby customers’ AR video content through one hop packet transmission, and also enable real-time interaction with users in social AR applications like Pokemon”GO”‘ .
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Utilizing MEC to enhance metaverse experience has received academic recognition. Dai et al.  developed the view synthesis-based 360 degree VR caching technology that is based on MEC-Cache servers of the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) to enhance the QoE for wireless VR apps. Gu et al. [471 and Liu and Liu.  both utilized sub-6 GHz links as well as mmWave links , in together along with MEC resources to address the lack of resources for VR HMDs, as well as the bottleneck in transmission rates for regular virtual reality (VR) and panorama VR (PVRV) delivery as well as panoramic VR video (PVRV) delivery.
Metaverse companies have also begun to use MEC to enhance the user experience. For example, DoubleMe, a leading volumetric capture firm, recently launched a proof-of-concept project called Holoverse which is in collaboration with Telefonica and Telefonica, Deutsche Telekom, TIM, and MobiledgeX to determine the best five-G Telco Edge Cloud network infrastructure to enable seamless deployment of a variety of services via the metaverse starting in August 2021. Golf email address database.
The renowned Niantic company, which developed ‘Ingress “Pokemon’ Go” and Harry Potter Wizards Unite is planning to create an “Planet-Scale AR”. It is collaborating with a variety of telecom operators, such as Deutsche Telekom, EE, Globe Telecom, Orange, SK Telecom, SoftBank Corp., TELUS, Verizon and Telstra to enhance their AR service’s performance using MEC . Thanks to the ad-vancing 5G as well as 6G technology that will reduce the latency of the last mile is expected to be reduced further. Therefore, MEC promises to enhance its impact on the universal metaverse experience.
Privacy at the edges
The metaverse is changing how we interact and learn shopping or play, travel and so on. In addition to the amazing new possibilities it brings it is important to be prepared for what could fail. Because the metaverse will be able to collect more than any other information about users, the consequences should things go wrong will be even more dire than they have ever been. One of the main issues is the privacy risk  and , . For example, the tech giants such as Amazon, Apple, Google (Al-phabet), Facebook, and Microsoft have been advocating password-less authentication [477478for quite a while that authenticates identity using fingerprints, face recognition or the use of a PIN. Golf email address database.
The metaverse will likely follow this pattern, perhaps using more biometrics, like iris and audio recognition , [480and . If users lost their passwords the most likely scenario is the user loses some information and had to create a new password to ensure the security of other data. But, as biometrics remain associated with the user when they’re stolen (stolen through an imposter) and stolen, they will remain compromised for the rest of time and can’t be restored which means that the user will be in deep danger , [482or .
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The cloud currently is a data mining and storage facility that collects the information of users as well as on the provider’s end, it collects and mines data and therefore poses a significant possibility of privacy breaches -. Edge computing is a better option to both privacy and security by permitting data processing and storage to be done at the edge of data . Edge service is also able to remove the private data of the application in the authorization process to ensure privacy of the user.
For instance, federated Learning is a distributed method of learning receiving a lot of notice is a method of training and keeping users’ data locally on devices, and then updates the global model through the aggregation of local models. It runs on edge servers of the users, and can conduct massive-scale data mining on distributed clients without requiring personal data aside from local gradient updates. Golf email address lists.
This approach (train on the edges and then aggregate to the cloud) will increase protection and confidentiality of data in the metaverse. For instance eye-tracking or motion tracking information gathered from wearables that are used by millions of users could be trained locally on Edge servers (ideally belonging to the user) and then aggregated by a federated learning parameters server. Users can thus enjoy services like visual content recommendations within the metaverse, without having to divulge their personal information.
Due to the unique characteristics of heterogeneity and distribution, edge computing has multiple trust domains, which require mutual authentication of each functional unit [488488. Thus, edge computing needs the most innovative data security and privacy methods to ensure its benefits. Please refer to SectionXVIII for further details. Golf email address lists.
As mentioned above it is the edge that has advantages in a variety of ways that include lower latency because of its proximity to end-users and faster local or-chestration of close-by users’ interactions as well as privacy protection via the local processing of data. But in terms of long-term, massive-scale metaverse data storage as well as economic options the cloud is in the lead by a large margin. The reason for this is those thousands of servers that make up the cloud datacenter are able to store far more data with greater security than the edge. This is crucial for the metaverse due the staggering volume of data.
According to High Fidelity in 489 The metaverse is 1,000 times larger than the earth in 20 years and assuming that each computer in the world only has to store and service and simulate a smaller area than the common video game. This is why a robust cloud services are crucial to keeping a shared space available that can accommodate thousands, or even millions of simultaneous users in an enormous metaverse.
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In addition, as Internet bandwidth and capacity of the user device grow as well, the metaverse will continue its growth, and will require more storage and computation capacity. It is cheaper and easier to set up additional servers in the centralised cloud warehouses rather than the scattered and limited edge sites. The cloud will play an important role in the metaverse age. However edge computing is an additional solution to improve the speed of data processing in real-time and user interaction locally while the cloud is still able to maintain the overall picture.
In order to optimize the interactions between the edge and the cloud, a well-organized orchestrator is essential to meet the diverse and demanding requirements of various processes within the meta-verse -. For instance the cloud performs extensive data management that is tolerant of latency processes while the edge is responsible for real-time data processing as well as exchange between nearby metaverse users. Golf email address directory.
The orchestrator will help to plan the assignment of workloads and data flow to and from the cloud edge to provide more seamless service that will ensure users get a seamless experience. For instance edge services handle live student discussions in a virtual classroom on the virtual campus hosted through the cloud. As described in Section X-C edge services store private information like eye-tracking tracks that can expose user desires to various kinds of visual content. Likewise, the cloud stores public content.
A number of related studies are being proposed to study the possibilities in edge cloud cooperation in the metaverse. Suryavansh et al.  evaluated hybrid cloud and edge with the baselines of only edge and cloud. They looked at the effects on WAN bandwidth variation and cloud cost as well as edge heterogeneity. They discovered that the hybrid cloud model performed the best in the most realistic configurations. On the other hand Younis and colleagues. and Zhang et al. suggested solutions and Zhang et al. proposed solutions AR and VR and VR, respectively. Golf email address directory.
More specifically, Younis et al.  have proposed an edge cloud framework hybrid MEC-AR for MAR that has the same design as Figure 20. In MEC-AR MEC handles any edge service requests that come in and handles the AR app objects. In addition cloud storage provides an extensive database of data storage that can’t be stored in MEC because of memory limitations. Zhang et al.  focused on three major requirements of VR-MMOGs: high time to play, high speed and allowing for a wide range of concurrent players. They developed a hybrid gaming model which places local view change updates as well as frame rendering at the edge, and globally game state updates in the cloud. This system efficiently distributes the load and ensures immediate response as well as high bandwidth and the ability to scale up for users.
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In the end Edge computing is an interesting option that could complement existing cloud-based solutions for the virtual world. It is able to) lower the latency experienced by users for offloading metaverse tasks and allow real-time multi-user interactions locally with improved mobility support, and) increase security and privacy for users of the metaverse. In fact the heterogeneity and distribution features of edge computing present additional challenges for the technology to fully realize its potential. We outline a few problems in Section XVIII.
The metaverse will be dependent on a plethora of connectivity to networks, whether to run complex tasks remotely, connect to large databases, exchange information with automated systems and provide experiences among users. To meet the various requirements of these applications the metaverse will depend heavily on the next generation of mobile networking technologies, like 5G and above. Golf email address outlook.
High Throughput and low-latency
Following the well-established trends of multimedia applications that are real-time, it will take huge amounts of bandwidth to send highly high-resolution media content in real-time. Many interactive applications take into account the motion-to-photon delay, which is the time between the actions of the user and the impact on the screen , to be one of the major users’ experience drivers.
The demands for throughput of the next generation of multimedia applications are growing exponentially. The enhanced capability in 5G (up up to 10Gb/s ([498(up to 10Gb/s ) has opened the way to an array of applications that depend on instantaneous transmission of large quantities of data (AR/VR cloud gaming and connected cars). Golf email address outlook. With the interconnection of such a broad spectrum of technologies and devices, the bandwidth requirements of the metaverse will be huge and high-resolution video streams being the biggest portion of data traffic. This is followed by huge quantities of data and metadata generated by ubiquitous sensor deployments [499and 499. In a medium that is shared, like mobile networks, the metaverse will not just require a large portion of bandwidth available it will also be competing in a similar manner to other software.
Therefore, we anticipate that the metaverse’s requirements will exceed the bandwidth available to 5G [440444. Golf email address outlook. The amount of latency required will depend on the type of application. For extremely interactive games like cloud gaming and online gaming, 130 milliseconds is typically considered to be the highest level , whereas certain studies have shown reductions in performance for users with latency as low as 23 milliseconds [501(501). Displays mounted on the head, such as transparent AR or VR and haptic feedback devices show motion-to-photon latencies that go that go down to milliseconds to maintain the user’s experience , .
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There are many factors that contribute to motion-to-photon latency. Among them is the duration of the hardware sensor (e.g. frames capture times, touchscreen press [504504.) as well as the time to compute. For applications that require latency of the range of milliseconds or less, you must consider the OS timing of the context switch (often varied between 100Hz and 1500Hz ]) and the copy and memory allocation times between various components (e.g. copying across CPU or GPU memory space) are also significant in affecting the overall latency of motion to photon . In a pipeline that is constrained network operations, network operations add delay.
While 5G promises significant improvements in latency, the most recent measurements show that radio access networks (RAN) has a similar latency to 4G and the major improvements are due to the exchange of information between the gNB with the operator’s core network . It is nevertheless important to keep in mind that the majority of 5G networks operate in non Standalone (NSA) configuration in which only the RAN and the gNB utilize 5G radios, whereas the core network of the operator remains predominantly 4G. Additionally, despite a standardization of RAN delay to four milliseconds in the case of enhanced Mobile Broadband (eMBB) and 0.5 milliseconds for Ultra-Reliable Low-Latency Communications (uRRLC which is still in the process of being implemented) (508), the connections between the gNB’s and the core network accounts for the majority of the latency in the round trip (between 10 and 20 milliseconds) and often with little control by the ISP [507507. In other words as long as servers are not in direct contact with 5G’s gNB the benefits from edge computing over cloud computing might be limited particularly in countries that have large clouds . Golf email lists outlook.
Another factor that could reduce latency is the possibility the possibility for content providers to manage the entire process from beginning to end [511through the ISP through network virtualization . A vision like this requires the signing of commercial contracts with ISPs as well as content suppliers that are much more extensive in comparison to peering contracts between AS. One of the most important requirements for the metaverse’s success is the complete coordination between all the actors (application development, ISPs, content providers) in order to guarantee a stable high-throughput, low-latency connection.
As of now 5G is unable to meet the demands of the latest multimedia applications and displays ‘ latency is far too high for the future of applications like view-through AR as well as VR. It is true that the URLLC service class promises low latency as well as high reliability, which are often contradicting objectives, and has an established 0.5 milliseconds of the RAN latency. But, URLLC is still currently not able to build frameworks that encompass the entire network architecture that can provide time-to-latency guarantees between client and server [513513. So, the URLLC has yet been deployed commercially. Furthermore, we anticipate uRRLC will prioritize the applications that low-latency is a factor of safety, for instance smart grids, healthcare as well as connected automobiles, and over entertainment applications like open-access AR or VR. Golf email lists outlook.
The third class of service offered under the specifications for 5G includes called massive Machine Type Communication (mMTC). This class focuses on specifically autonomous machine-to machine commu-nication in order to handle the increasing amount of devices connected with the Internet [514514. A variety of applications from this metaverse require mMTC to manage communications between devices that are not within the reach of users which include smart buildings and smart cities, drones and robots and connected vehicles. The future mobile network will have major challenges in sharing the spectrum among billions of autonomous devices and human-like applications . We review the use of these classes of services in Figure 21.
Network Slicing can also be an essential enabler for the metaverse, offering throughput, jitter and latency protection to all applications that are part of the metaverse. Golf email lists outlook. Similar to URLLC the deployment of network slicing on existing networks will likely be targeted at mission-critical applications, in which the network’s conditions could significantly impact the security of the equipment or users , . In addition, network slicing requires addressing the issue of efficiently orchestrating the network resources in order to map the slices of the network with frequently competing requirements to finite physical resources. A further feature of 5G that could dramatically improve throughput as well as latency is the use of frequency bands that are new. This is the Millimeter waves (24GHz-39GHz) provides broad channels (up to 800 MHz) which can provide a high throughput with a minimum latency of 1 milliseconds. These frequencies have the lack of range and obstruction penetration.
This is why mmWave is primarily utilized in dense base station deployments in highly crowded areas like those at the PyeongChang olympics of 2018, (Korea) as well as Narita airport (Japan) [521521. These massive deployments enabled us to provide a greater number of users simultaneously at the same time ensuring high throughput and minimal latency in the RAN.
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People– and users-centric networks
Metaverses are user-centric system by design. In this sense, each part of the metaverse must put the human being at the center of its. Regarding the design of networks, this consideration could take many shapes, from putting your user’s experience in its core of traffic management to making it possible for users to be the center of all sensing and communication.
To address these issues the community of networkers is increasingly incorporating the metrics of user experience into the performance of network measures and defining them as quality of Experience (QoE). QoE seeks to provide an accurate method of measuring the perception of a user towards an application or service [522522. A majority of studies employ the term QoE to refer to an umbrella term for the basic Quality of Service (QoS) metrics that can impact users’ experience (e.g. latency or throughput).
There are a few attempts to clarify the concept of QoE using various models that incorporate applications- and network-level metrics. Although these models represent a step in the right direction, they are application-specific, and can be affected by a multitude of factors, whether human, system, or context . Quantifying QoE of cloud gaming applications running on a home-video game console like Sony PS Now28 is significantly different than an XR mobile application using a headset with a view-through. In addition, many studies concentrate on how to measure the quality of video as close as is possible to the perception of the user [524525, [524and . They don’t take into account other factors like usability or subjective perception of the user [526526. The metaverse must incorporate these metrics in order to manage expectations of users and to proactively control traffic to enhance satisfaction for users. Golf email data contact lists.
Accurate QoE metrics to evaluate the user experience is crucial for networked applications that are centered around users. applications. Next step would be to incorporate QoE into the way that the network manages traffic. QoE is able to be integrated at different levels within the network. The client typically has a significant capability of detecting the users, their app use, and also the context in which an application is running. In addition, many applications, like AR or live streaming can generate substantial upload traffic. Therefore, it is sensible to assign the client responsibility for managing internet traffic in an end-to-end view [527527 and [528528.
The server typically has more computing power and certain apps are heavy on downloading like 360 streaming of VR or video. In this scenario the server can make use of the QoE measurements sent from the user to modify the transmission of data over the network in line with. Golf email data contact lists.
This method has been employed to adjust the quality of streaming videos according to the preferences of users  and utilizing the client’s input . In addition, it is possible to utilize QoE measures to manage the management of traffic in the central networks, be it through queueing poli-cies [531 , software-defined network [533 or network cutting . To meet the strict demands that lead to satisfactory user experience The metaverse may need to evade the traditional network model of layers. The lower layers of the network may provide information about available network resources to an application layer modify how much data it can send, while measuring QoE at the application level could be considered by lower layers to adjust the transmission of content [527to adapt the transmission of content .
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Making networks more human-centric requires a consideration of human activities that could impact the way that people communicate in new york. Handover and mobility are just one of the major factors that impact the parameters of the network’s core stability. Handovers have always been associated by a temporary rise in latency [535535. Though many attempts are made to reduce the amount of handover latency that occurs in 5G [536537This latency has to be taken into account in the design of ultra-low-latency services for mobile environments. The network conditions faced by mobile users are directly correlated with the diversity of mobile operator infrastructure deployment.
A study of the geographical distribution of the 4G latency in Hong Kong and Helsinki over different operators found that mobile latency was strongly dependent on the ISP choice as well as the physical location of the user’s home 538. In the end, mobility of users significantly impacts the network parameters that affect the user experience and must be taken into account when designing user-centric software. Golf email data and address lists.
The other aspect of human-centric networks is found in the the rise of sensors that are embodied. In recent times sensors have developed from fixed-environment sensors to self-organizing sensor networks [539539. A lot of these sensors were created to stay at the same spot for longer periods or to be in controlled mobility [540and 540. In addition the embodied sensors, they have for a long time been thought to be able to detect only the user. However, we’re seeing an increase in sensors that are embodied, and therefore can detect the entire environment around the user, posing the question of how sensors could communicate with each other in the already overcrowded com-munication environment. The ability to detect and aggregate redundant data between sensors that are not connected could be vital to release valuable resources to the network [541541.
C. Applications with network awareness
In the previous section we looked at how the distribution of content is influenced by the QoE measurement at the layer of application. This operation can provide high degree of accuracy when estimating the user experience through mixing network metrics and user usage metrics and other metrics, the lower layer of network only have a limited say in the content that they transmit. Golf email data and address lists.
In many instances of the metaverse, it’s sense to let the layer that is running applications determine the quantity of data it will transmit, and the importance of the data to the lower layers of the network . Network-aware apps were introduced in the latter part of 1990 to address the issues raised by these [542and . Numerous frameworks were developed for fixed and mobile networks [544and 544. In recent times, network-aware apps were proposed to provide resources  and optimized learning distributed  and content distribution [547548().
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With the rapid growth of 5G technology, there’s an increase in desire for network-aware apps [549549. 5G allowed many applications that are user-centric to move to cloud computing, including cloud gaming, real-time streaming of video cloud VR. These apps rely on the instant transmission of video streams, and the quality can be adjusted to the conditions of the network.
The 5G specification also includes exposure to network capabilities, where the gNB will communicate conditions of the RAN to the user equipment [508508. In cases of edge computing where the edge server located just after the gNB, it is the user’s equipment that is then aware of the state of the entire route. If the server is further on the network, the it is still exposed to network capabilities, which is one of the most complex components of the entire path and provides valuable information to control the transmission.
The information provided by the access and physical layer is then transmitted into the layer of network which is where decisions about the path are made based on the different network capabilities, including the transport layer can proactively tackle congestion potential [550 in addition to the app layer to decrease or increase the volume of data to be transmitted and improve your user’s experiencein order to improve the user experience . Golf email contact lists.
Figure 22 outlines the way in which a synergy between applications that are network-aware and user-centric can be forged to enhance users’ experience. The application relays QoE as well as user usage metrics to lower layers to adjust the transmission and improve user experience. Parallel to this, layers of network relay conditions of the network for the app, who then determines the amount of data to be transmitted over the network, for example through cutting down the resolution of video streams.
The word Avatar is derived of the Hindu concept of the appearance of an Hindu god, who is portrayed as animals or humans in the real world29. Avatars are seen across a wide range of digital environments. It is frequently used as a profile picture in chat rooms (e.g. IRCQ, the ICQ) forums (e.g., Delphi) as well as blog sites (e.g., Xanga) and the social media (e.g., Facebook, Figure 23(a)).
Additionally, gamers using very primitive metaverse examples like AberMUD or Second Life, leverage the concept of avatars to represent themselves. In recent times, gamers or members of virtual social networks are able to alter and alter the appearance and look of their avatars with a variety of possibilities  such as Fortnite and Fortnite, as illustrated on Figure 23(b). Golf email contact lists.
Additionally, VR games, such as VR Chat (Figure 23(c)) let users look at their appearance and then select their avatar outfits that emulate their real-world appearances. Figure 23(d) illustrates that online meetings, which are accompanied by AR technology, allow users to transform their faces into various cartoon designs. Research studies have also sought to make use of avatars as closest family members, coaches or even an imagined self to manage oneself and set goals, such as nutrition and learning [5535, 554554, .
Within the realm of the field of computer science and technology avatars are the digital representations of users in virtual environments like the ones above and also other physical agent, e.g., social robots, regardless of their sizes and shapes. Golf email contact lists. The discussion in this section is focused on the digital representations. But, it’s important to note that social robots are a possible communication channel between human beings and virtual entities throughout the real world as well as the metaverse. For instance robots are able to detect the user’s feelings and communicate with users in a way that is appropriate to conversations  or they could be used as service providers to provide remote workstations (telepresence workstations) in physical environments .
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Digital representations of the human seeks to be mirror image of the user to reflect their behavior and interactions with other users within the metaverse. The appearance and design of avatars may affect perceptions of users, including perceptions of realism and presence [559and trust [560and body ownership [561and group satisfaction  during different social events in the metaverse.
These are influenced by a variety of elements, including the particulars of the avatar’s facial features  and the micro-expression that is associated with it (564), the totality of an avatar’s physique (which is 559) and the avatar’s styles (representation , color [567and positions  as well as fidelity (or fidelity) the degree of details in avatars’ movements , shadows , style of avatar behavior , the synchronization of the avatar’s motions , walk-in-place moves , the capability to detect the user’s self-movements reflected in their avatars, collaboration and possible glitches between multiple avatars  just to mention some. In this way, avatars play the most important role in shaping how virtual social interaction functions within the multi-user scenario of the metaverse. However, the methods of computer vision aren’t equipped to accurately capture and interpret the user’s emotions as well as their behaviours in real-time as discussed in Section IX. Golf email and contact list format.
Consequently any additional input mode could be added to enhance the quality of avatars. For instance, the present body sensing technology can be used to enhance the characteristics of the avatar and capture the user’s actions in real-time. In the case of avatars, their pupillary responses are able to reflect the user’s heartbeat. In the virtual worlds of VR Chat Users in the real world rely on sensors on their bodies (i.e. sensors that are positioned to their body) to communicate their gestures and body movements which allow non-verbal interaction (i.e. expressions of gaze, gestures and expressions on the face) replicating the vital element of real-life communication577.
As avatars become more widespread in vastly diverse virtual environments, research of avatars need to extend beyond the purely features as discussed previously mentioned. The following sections will discuss six unexplored aspects of the interaction of avatars by users with virtual environments. They are: 1) behaviors of the natural user 2.) avatars and their contextual surroundings 3) avatar-induced behaviours of users 4,) privacy of users, 5) fairness and six) interactions with physical worlds.