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Brazil is the largest country in Latin America and South America. It is home to more than 211 million people and covers 8.5 million km2. It is the only country on the planet with the Tropic Of Capricorn and the Equator running through it. Brazil is a leading emerging economy. It has the ninth-largest nominal GDP and the eighth largest by PPP. Brazil is active in the mining, manufacturing, and agricultural sectors, with more than 107 million people.

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Development of a Tool Database Management System

1. Introduction
Tool management has become an area of increased research
activity in the 1980s and 1990s. With the advent of computerised manufacturing systems, and in particular, flexible
manufacturing system (FMS), it has become evident that tooling is a major constraint that prevents manufacturing systems
from realising their full flexibility. Several approaches to tool
management systems have been proposed [1–6]. To increase
the efficiency of tool use in a flexible automated manufacturing
system, it is necessary for the tool database to support information used in the whole tool life cycle and in tool use. A
management system sharing some tools in some machines, and
using them efficiently, can make the best use of tool capacity Buy Brazil targeted email list.
For the realisation of this system, the tool user needs information to select the tool and to deploy it in the appropriate
place just in time, based on tool status and machining schedule.
Mitsui et al. [6] dealt with a design method for a tool
database to be used in tool use planning. They constructed an
activity model of such a system for an FMS for clarifying
requirements for a tool database. Later, they designed such a
Correspondence and offprint requests to: A. Gunasekaran, Department
of Management, University of Massachusetts, North Dartmouth,
MA 2747-2300, USA. E-mail: agunasekaranKumassd.edu
tool database for satisfying the requirements with the help of
an object-oriented method using software such as EXPRESS,
C++, and an object-oriented database system. In FMSs, the
initial investment in cutting tools and fixtures may be up to
25% of the total FMS investment. Seven to ten times more
money is spent on tools, jigs, fixtures and consumables than
on capital equipment during the useful life of the machines.
Veeramani et al. [5] advocate tool requirements planning (TRP)
as an information management tool for planning and controlling
tool use. They suggest that TRP performs well in a closed-loop
manufacturing control system driven by material requirements
planning (MRP) and supported by complete shop floor control.
The TRP is supported by a database whose files include tool
master, tool bills, etc. A comprehensive and effective tool
management system is essential in flexible manufacturing
systems Purchase Brazil  email lists.
Ranky [3,4] discussed the design of an FMS turning-tool
database and tool-management system and a robot-tool-management system for flexible assembly systems (FAS), both based
on common principles, resulting in a generic system architecture. Besides explaining the methodology, based on hierarchical
decomposition principles, both turning-tool and robot-toolmanagement system designs, and sample database runs are
illustrated to highlight the common and diverse features and
to point out the CIM specific design and implementation goals.

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Garapati and Wang [2] presented a decision support system
(DSS) for tool management in FMS. Considering the fact that
FMS should be able to accommodate a variety of different
parts in random order, tool management at cell level, and tool
transportation, tool data management, tooling data collection,
tool maintenance, and manual and/or robotised tool assembly
at an FMS level, are all very important. Tooling information
in FMS is used by several subsystems, including: production
planning; preset maintenance; robotised and/or manual tool
assembly; stock control and materials storage. Ranky [3,4]summarised the major tasks to be solved when developing
tool-management systems for FMS, as well as giving a solution
for describing the data structure of a tool database integrated
with a generic tool description method, and showed an example
of the way the FMS real-time control system can access and
use this database.
A Tool Database Management System 563
Tool management is very critical for effective and uninterrupted operation of computer-integrated manufacturing systems
(CIMS) and is especially important for high productivity and
flexibility in FMS. Shanker and Gopinath [1] dealt with the
tool planning and control (TPC) aspect of the tool management Brazil quality email lists,
and described a computer-aided procedure for the integration
of functions of assigning the tools to various operations, procurement and replacement of tools, and scheduling the sharpening of tools. The need for automated tooling in flexible machining, assembly, and sheet fabrication systems should be
addressed. ElMaraghy [7] discussed the various methods of
implementing these systems, their benefits and drawbacks. The
author also described the basic modules of automated tool
transfer, storage, loading/unloading and management, together
with the appropriate level of automation for each module.
This paper describes a systematic approach to the design
and development of a tool-management system for the valve
production unit of BHEL. The company has undertaken modernisation of the valve production unit with the aim of improving productivity, and quality and reducing the cycle time, by
the installation of the latest CNC machines. About 19 new
CNC machines are being introduced in the shop, which, with
30 existing CNC machines and other conventional machine
tools, is expected to enhance the manufacturing capabilities.

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objective of this work is to design and develop a centralised
database for tools that contains information regarding tooling
such as tool location, allocation, tool flow, tool storage and
retrieval, parts, and machines. The above database is required
for the timely flow of information for high performance of the
total manufacturing system. With the increasing diversity of
components handled in the above production unit, there is a
need to devise a computer-aided tool-management module in
order to ensure the right deployment of the right tool at the
right place at the right time. It is estimated that the system
being developed will significantly reduce the downtime of
machines owing to the non-availability of the appropriate tools.
The proposed system will minimise the duplication of tools
purchased and facilitate the forecast of tool requirements based
on tool consumption and lead time, besides ensuring a substantial reduction of tool inventory.
2. Information System
In a large organisation such as BHEL, the database system is
typically part of a much larger information system that is used
to manage the information resources of the organisation. An
information system includes all resources within the organisation that are involved in the collection, management, use, and
dissemination of information. In a computerised environment,
these resources include the data itself, the database management
systems (DBMS) software, the computer system hardware and
storage medium, the personnel who manage the data, the
application software that accesses and updates the data, and
the application programmer who develops these applications.
Hence, the database system is only a part of a much larger
organisational information system.
Fig. 1. A DBMS as the sole source of data.
2.1 Data Model
When data is added to a database, it becomes a “model” of
that part of reality to which the data refers. As there is an
increased need for up-to-date information, an automated DBMS
was developed based on groups of formalised data modelling
rules called data models. A DBMS is a central controller of
tool data. All applications must request data from the DBMS.
The DBMS permits direct access to the data. Figure 1 shows
the structure of the DBMS centralised data.

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2.2 Relational Database Structure
A relational database model was used to design the database.
The relational database eliminates the need to follow predefined
access paths to reach the target data, and makes the data access
more flexible. Hence, this database facilitates uninterrupted
queries and is well suited to the manufacturing environment.
The module was developed using ORACLE (V7.1) as a back
end and DEVELOPER/2000 as a front end. ORACLE supports
the largest of databases by providing access for a large number
of concurrent users. The database server or back end is used
to manage the database tables optimally for multiple clients
and also concurrently requests the server for the data. It also
enforces data integrity across all client applications and controls
database access and other security requirements. A client or
front end database application also interacts with the database
by requesting and receiving information from the database
server. It acts as an interface between the user and the database.
Furthermore, it also checks for validation of the data entered
by the user.
2.3 Oracle Forms
Oracle allows users to insert, update, delete and query data
using a variety of interface items, presents data using text,
images and VBX controls and controls forms across several
windows database transactions.
3. Tool Coding
The tools used in the shopfloor were classified into eight
different groups, namely, cutting tools, jigs, fixtures, templates,
gauges, dies and others. The following eleven digit coding
system has been designed to address the various tools used in
the shop floor of BHEL, Trichirapalli, India.

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Table 1 shows a sample entity–attribute data requirement list
for a cutting tool (C tool). Similar data requirement lists were
developed for tool holders, jigs, fixtures, gauges and issue.
3.1 Relationship Matrix
A relationship matrix is drawn and the names of the entities
on both sides are labelled as shown in Table 2 (1–1 denotes
a one-to-one relationship).
With the entities, the associated attributes and relationships
were identified and an entity relationship diagram of the general
database design was prepared. Figure 2 shows the entity
relationship diagram for the database design.
4. Development of User Interface
An exhaustive ORACLE database comprising twelve tables
capturing real-time tool information was developed and the
various tables prepared are listed below:
Table 2. Relationship matrix.
C Tool Jig Fixture Holder Die Gauge I
issues issues issues issues issues issues issues
Fig. 2. An entity relationship diagram.
Eight tables each one pertaining to a particular group of tool,
i.e. C Tool, fixture, jig, template, holders, die
and gauge.
Two tables to consolidate data pertaining to issue and return
of tools.
One table to highlight the updated list of tools issued.
One table for storage of password information.
The data pertaining to one of the tables created, i.e. that for
C tool is given in Table 3

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The main forms that are created are the tool data entry form,
tool issue form, tool receiving form, tool life details form, tool
assignment form, tool storage form, accessories and the help
form. By clicking the push buttons, the users can navigate to
the respective forms. The above-mentioned relational database
can be accessed using the front end of the module developed
using DEVELOPER/2000. The key forms that have been
developed for various transactions include:
A main form to access the various forms of the module, such
as data-entry form, tool issue, tool return form, etc.
A Tool Database Management System 565
Individual forms for each tool group, i.e. tool data entry form,
tool issue form, tool receiving form, tool life details form, tool
assignment form, tool storage form, accessories and help form.
4.2 Tool Life Status Form
This form gives the life status of each tool that is available
in the tool room. The user can have a graphic display of life
status in the form of pie chart with the help of a graphic
button. A VBX control which will move according to the
worked-hours, indicates the worked-hours of that tool.
5. Conclusions
An exhaustive database has been designed and developed in
an ORACLE V 7.1 RDBMS package to control, store and
retrieve associated data. A form-based interface has been created to access the database. A menu interface has been
developed that can call items like submenu, forms, etc., to
carry out the data processing requirements.
The major useful data that can be derived from the tool

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A database-management system (DBMS) is a collection of interrelated data and a set of
programs to access those data. This is a collection of related data with an implicit
meaning and hence is a database. The collection of data, usually referred to as the
database, contains information relevant to an enterprise. The primary goal of a DBMS is
to provide a way to store and retrieve database information that is both convenient and
efficient. By data, we mean known facts that can be recorded and that have implicit
meaning. For example, consider the names, telephone numbers, and addresses of the
people you know. You may have recorded this data in an indexed address book, or you
may have stored it on a diskette, using a personal computer and software such as DBASE
IV or V, Microsoft ACCESS, or EXCEL. A datum – a unit of data – is a symbol or a set
of symbols which is used to represent something. This relationship between symbols and
what they represent is the essence of what we mean by information. Hence, information
is interpreted data – data supplied with semantics. Knowledge refers to the practical use
of information. While information can be transported, stored or shared without many
difficulties the same can not be said about knowledge. Knowledge necessarily involves a
personal experience. Referring back to the scientific experiment, a third person reading
the results will have information about it, while the person who conducted the experiment
personally will have knowledge about it.
Database systems are designed to manage large bodies of information. Management of
data involves both defining structures for storage of information and providing
mechanisms for the manipulation of information. In addition, the database system must
ensure the safety of the information stored, despite system crashes or attempts at
unauthorized access. If data are to be shared among several users, the system must avoid
possible anomalous results.
Because information is so important in most organizations, computer scientists have
developed a large body of concepts and techniques for managing data. These concepts
and technique form the focus of this book. This chapter briefly introduces the principles
of database systems.
2
1.2 Data Processing Vs. Data Management Systems
Although Data Processing and Data Management Systems both refer to functions that
take raw data and transform it into usable information, the usage of the terms is very
different. Data Processing is the term generally used to describe what was done by large
mainframe computers from the late 1940’s until the early 1980’s (and which continues to
be done in most large organizations to a greater or lesser extent even today): large
volumes of raw transaction data fed into programs that update a master file, with fixedformat reports written to paper.
The term Data Management Systems refers to an expansion of this concept, where the
raw data, previously copied manually from paper to punched cards, and later into dataentry terminals, is now fed into the system from a variety of sources, including ATMs,

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EFT, and direct customer entry through the Internet. The master file concept has been
largely displaced by database management systems, and static reporting replaced or
augmented by ad-hoc reporting and direct inquiry, including downloading of data by
customers. The ubiquity of the Internet and the Personal Computer have been the driving
force in the transformation of Data Processing to the more global concept of Data
Management Systems.
1.3 File Oriented Approach
The earliest business computer systems were used to process business records and
produce information. They were generally faster and more accurate than equivalent
manual systems. These systems stored groups of records in separate files, and so they
were called file processing systems. In a typical file processing systems, each
department has its own files, designed specifically for those applications. The department
itself working with the data processing staff, sets policies or standards for the format and
maintenance of its files.
Programs are dependent on the files and vice-versa; that is, when the physical format of
the file is changed, the program has also to be changed. Although the traditional file
oriented approach to information processing is still widely used, it does have some very
important disadvantages.
1.4 Database Oriented Approach to Data Management
3
Consider part of a savings-bank enterprise that keeps information about all customers and
savings accounts. One way to keep the information on a computer is to store it in
operating system files. To allow users to manipulate the information, the system has a
number of application programs that manipulate the files, including
A program to debit or credit an account
A program to add a new account
A program to find the balance of an account
A program to generate monthly statements
System programmers wrote these application programs to meet the needs of the bank.
New application programs are added to the system as the need arises. For example,
suppose that the savings bank decides to offer checking accounts. As a result, the bank
creates new permanent files that contain information about all the checking accounts
maintained in the bank, and it may have to write new application programs to deal with
situations that do not arise in savings accounts, such as overdrafts. Thus, as time goes by,
the system acquires more files and more application programs.

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This typical file-processing system is supported by a conventional operating system. The
system stores permanent records in various files, and it needs different application
programs to extract records from, and add records to, the appropriate files. Before
database management systems (DBMSs) came along, organizations usually stored
information in such systems.
Keeping organizational information in a file-processing system has a number of major
disadvantages:
Data redundancy and inconsistency.
Since different programmers create the files and application programs over a long
period, the various files are likely to have different formats and the programs may be
written in several programming languages. Moreover, the same information may be
duplicated in several places (files). For example, the address and telephone number of a
particular customer may appear in a file that consists of savings-account records and in a
file that consists of checking-account records. This redundancy leads to higher storage
and access cost. In addition, it may lead to data inconsistency; that is, the various copies
4
of the same data may no longer agree. For example, a changed customer address may be
reflected in savings-account records but not elsewhere in the system.
Difficulty in accessing data.
Suppose that one of the bank officers needs to find out the names of all customers who
live within a particular postal-code area. The officer asks the data-processing department
to generate such a list. Because the designers of the original system did not anticipate this
request, there is no application program on hand to meet it. There is, however, an
application program to generate the list of all customers. The bank officer has now two
choices: either obtain the list of all customers and extract the needed information Brazil Email Database
manually or ask a system programmer to write the necessary application program. Both
alternatives are obviously unsatisfactory. Suppose that such a program is written, and
that, several days later, the same officer needs to trim that list to include only those
customers who have an account balance of $10,000 or more. As expected, a program to
generate such a list does not exist. Again, the officer has the preceding two options,
neither of which is satisfactory.
The point here is that conventional file-processing environments do not allow needed
data to be retrieved in a convenient and efficient manner. More responsive data-retrieval
systems are required for general use.

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Data isolation. Because data are scattered in various files, and files may be in different
formats, writing new application programs to retrieve the appropriate data is difficult.
Integrity problems. The data values stored in the database must satisfy certain types of
consistency constraints. For example, the balance of a bank account may never fall
below a prescribed amount (say, $25). Developers enforce these constraints in the system
by adding appropriate code in the various application programs. However, when new
constraints are added, it is difficult to change the programs to enforce them. The problem
is compounded when constraints involve several data items from different files.
Atomicity problems. A computer system, like any other mechanical or electrical
device, is subject to failure. In many applications, it is crucial that, if a failure occurs, the
data be restored to the consistent state that existed prior to the failure. Consider a program
to transfer $50 from account A to account B. If a system failure occurs during the
execution of the program, it is possible that the $50 was removed from account A but was
5
not credited to account B, resulting in an inconsistent database state. Clearly, it is
essential to database consistency that either both the credit and debit occur, or that neither
occur. That is, the funds transfer must be atomic—it must happen in its entirety or not at
all. It is difficult to ensure atomicity in a conventional file-processing system.
Concurrent-access anomalies. For the sake of overall performance of the system
and faster response, many systems allow multiple users to update the data
simultaneously. In such an environment, interaction of concurrent updates may result in
inconsistent data. Consider bank account A, containing $500. If two customers withdraw
funds (say $50 and $100 respectively) from account A at about the same time, the result
of the concurrent executions may leave the account in an incorrect (or inconsistent) state.
Suppose that the programs executing on behalf of each withdrawal read the old balance,
reduce that value by the amount being withdrawn, and write the result back. If the two
programs run concurrently, they may both read the value $500, and write back $450 and
$400, respectively. Depending on which one writes the value last, the account may
contain either $450 or $400, rather than the correct value of $350. To guard against this
possibility, the system must maintain some form of supervision. But supervision is
difficult to provide because data may be accessed by many different application programs
that have not been coordinated previously.
Security problems. Not every user of the database system should be able to access all
the data. For example, in a banking system, payroll personnel need to see only that part of
the database that has information about the various bank employees. They do not need
access to information about customer accounts. But, since application programs are
added to the system in an ad hoc manner, enforcing such security constraints is difficult.
These difficulties, among others, prompted the development of database systems. In what
follows, we shall see the concepts and algorithms that enable database systems to solve
the problems with file-processing systems. In most of this book, we use a bank enterprise
as a running example of a typical data-processing application found in a corporation.

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A database system allows several users to access the database concurrently. Answering
different questions from different users with the same (base) data is a central aspect of an
information system. Such concurrent use of data increases the economy of a system.
An example for concurrent use is the travel database of a bigger travel agency. The
employees of different branches can access the database concurrently and book journeys
for their clients. Each travel agent sees on his interface if there are still seats available for
a specific journey or if it is already fully booked.
1.5.2 Structured and Described Data
A fundamental feature of the database approach is that the database systems does not
only contain the data but also the complete definition and description of these data. These
descriptions are basically details about the extent, the structure, the type and the format of
all data and, additionally, the relationship between the data. This kind of stored data is
called metadata (“data about data”).
1.5.3 Separation of Data and Applications Brazil Mailing Database
As described in the feature structured data the structure of a database is described through
metadata which is also stored in the database. An application software does not need any
knowledge about the physical data storage like encoding, format, storage place, etc. It
only communicates with the management system f a database (DBMS) via a standardised
interface with the help of a standardised language like SQL. The access to the data and
the metadata is entirely done by the DBMS. In this way all the applications can be totally
seperated from the data. Therefore database internal reorganisations or improvement of
efficiency do not have any influence on the application software. 
1.5.4 Data Integrity
Data integrity is a byword for the quality and the reliability of the data of a database
system. In a broader sense data integrity includes also the protection of the database from
unauthorised access (confidentiality) and unauthorised changes. Data reflect facts of the
real world. database.
1.5.5 Transactions
A transaction is a bundle of actions which are done within a database to bring it from one
7
consistent state to a new consistent state. In between the data are inevitable inconsistent.

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A transaction is atomic what means that it cannot be divided up any further. Within a
transaction all or none of the actions need to be carried out. Doing only a part of the
actions would lead to an inconsistent database state. One example of a transaction is the
transfer of an amount of money from one bank account to another. The debit of the
money from one account and the credit of it to another account makes together a
consistent transaction. This transaction is also atomic. The debit or credit alone would
both lead to an inconsistent state. After finishing the transaction (debit and credit) the
changes to both accounts become persistent and the one who gave the money has now
less money on his account while the receiver has now a higher balance.
1.5.6 Data Persistence
Data persistence means that in a DBMS all data is maintained as long as it is not deleted
explicitly. The life span of data needs to be determined directly or indirectly be the user
and must not be dependent on system features. Additionally data once stored in a
database must not be lost. Changes of a database which are done by a transaction are
persistent. When a transaction is finished even a system crash cannot put the data in
danger.
1.6 Advantages and Disadvantages of a DBMS
Using a DBMS to manage data has many advantages:
Data independence: Application programs should be as independent as possible from
details of data representation and storage. The DBMS can provide an abstract view of the
data to insulate application code from such details.
Efficient data access: A DBMS utilizes a variety of sophisticated techniques to store and
retrieve data efficiently. This feature is especially important if the data is stored on
external storage devices.
Data integrity and security: If data is always accessed through the DBMS, the DBMS
can enforce integrity constraints on the data. For example, before inserting salary
information for an employee, the DBMS can check that the department budget is not
exceeded. Also, the DBMS can enforce access controls that govern what data is visible to
different classes of users.

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Data administration: When several users share the data, centralizing the administration
of data can offer significant improvements. Experienced professionals who understand
the nature of the data being managed, and how different groups of users use it, can be
responsible for organizing the data representation to minimize redundancy and finetuning the storage of the data to make retrieval efficient.
Concurrent access and crash recovery: A DBMS schedules concurrent accesses to the
data in such a manner that users can think of the data as being accessed by only one user
at a time. Further, the DBMS protects users from the effects of system failures.
Reduced application development time: Clearly, the DBMS supports many important
functions that are common to many applications accessing data stored in the DBMS.
This, in conjunction with the high-level interface to the data, facilitates quick
development of applications. Such applications are also likely to be more robust than
applications developed from scratch because many important Brazil Email Database List
tasks are handled by the DBMS instead of being implemented by the application. Given
all these advantages, is there ever a reason not to use a DBMS? A DBMS is a complex
piece of software, optimized for certain kinds of workloads (e.g., answering complex
queries or handling many concurrent requests), and its performance may not be adequate
for certain specialized applications. Examples include applications with tight real-time
constraints or applications with just a few well-designed critical operations for which
efficient custom code must be written. Another reason for not using a DBMS is that an
application may need to manipulate the data in ways not supported by the query
language. In such a situation, the abstract view of the data presented by the DBMS does
not match the application’s needs, and actually gets in the way. As an example, relational
databases do not support flexible analysis of text data (although vendors are now
extending their products in this direction). If specialized performance or data
manipulation requirements are central to an application, the application may choose not
to use a DBMS, especially if the added benefits of a DBMS (e.g., flexible querying,
security, concurrent access, and crash recovery) are not required. In most situations
calling for large-scale data management, however, DBMSs have become an
indispensable tool.

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Data Warehousing: Strategic ToolData warehouse is a huge, enterprise-wide independent database that’s

It is populated with data that is sourced from various sources. The information is
is kept separate from its source and can be used to improve the quality of the decision-making process.
Making the.
A variety of old-fashioned Databases play a role in recording day-to-day operations of
the business, referred to as”online transaction processing (OLTP) typically used in
Airline Bookings & Banking Systems that provide quicker response times and better control of information.
Following the establishment in OLTP Systems, reports and summary reports can be drawn to provide
inputs into the decision-making process, and is referred to as online analytical processing.
(OLAP).
For a better customer relations management, you must use the call centers and the data
Warehouses should be fully integrated. Data warehouses function as a strategic tool taking decisions.
support that takes a long time to set up and must be regularly updated to
operational information on a daily, weekly as well as a monthly or daily basis.
Data warehouses are used to aid in proactive strategies for formulation in difficult and difficult scenarios.
Some CRM vendors are promoting a single customer database that is integrated.
It includes call centres websites, branches and direct mail. However, it’s not equipped with analytical functions
of the data warehouse. It is a data warehouse. Database isn’t able to be expanded and include the capability of decision aid
operations at the call center Database is slow and the processing of queries and queries slows down.
handling processes can become slow and inefficient for agents handling clients.
Data warehouse is vital to identify the most profitable and loyal customers as well as customers who have a high probability of being profitable.
customers will be provided with higher-quality services that are more individualized, which improves the chance of
Additional profits.
Although call centre systems and data warehouses are completely different systems , they’re not exactly the same.
dependent on each other in order to maximize their respective potential.
Questions
1. Let us explain OLTP and OLAP procedures with respect to their respective advantages.
2. What is the best way to reduce the time it takes for the OLAP query process could be enhanced?
3. Discuss the importance of regular updating of data stored in a warehouse.
4. Define the function of data warehouses within the workings of a call center.
5. “Data warehouse is an instrument for strategic decision-making support”. Comment.
Source: Dharmenda and Sangeeta Gupta, Management Information System

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The rules are outlined in the normalisation, where we reduce the databases into
the minimum amount so that there aren’t any issues, such as conflict within the
database.
The databases can be normalised by using different forms of normalisation like 1st NF 2nd
NF 3rd NF BCNF and 4NF 5NF.
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Unit 8: Normalization
Notes8.9 Keywords
Normal Form A relationship to a Boyce-Codd normal Form (BCNF) when and only the case
each determinant of the relation can be considered a candidate key.
Non Key Attribute non-key attribute is operationally dependent upon the key in the event that it is
is functionally dependent upon all of the attributes that comprise the primary key.
Normalization: Normalization is an array of rules that must be used to construct
ensure that the table is properly normalized by listing all functional dependencies, and then decomposing
it into smaller, efficient tables.
The transitive dependence occurs when a non-key column is functionally
dependent on another column that is not a key column that is functionally dependent upon the primary
key.
Review Questions
1. Draw with examples of the distinctions from and the Third Normal Form (3NF) and Boyce
Codd Standard Form.
2. Discuss the drawbacks of normalization.
3. Provide a relation that exists in two NF, but is does not belong in 3.
4. “Normalization refers to the procedure of improving the design of tables in relational databases in order to decrease the number of records
redundancy”. Define redundancy.
5. “A relationship R is considered to be in its usual form (1NF) If and only if each property is in the first normal form (1NF).
includes only atomic values”. Consider the issue with the help of a an appropriate example.

Transaction Management

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After completing this unit, you’ll be able:
Define the transaction concept
Give an explanation of the concept of recovery and serializability.
Discussion of lock-based protocols and deadlock handling
Define weak consistency
Introduction
The notion of transaction forms the basis of simultaneous execution of transactions within the DBMS
and recovery from failures and recovery from system failure DBMS. A user writes data access/updates programs in
terminology of the high level query language that is supported in the DBMS. To comprehend the workings of the DBMS
manages such requests. With respect to the control of concurrency and recovery manages such requests, and it is easy to
consider the execution of a user’s application or transaction in terms of a sequence of read and write operations on a databases.
objects. Brazil Email List Database
To read data from a database, it first gets transferred into the main memory (in one frame of the buffer pool)
by transferring it to disk. Then, the value is transferred to an application. This is accomplished through a the read operation.
In order to write the database objects an in-memory copy is first altered and later written to
disk. All this is accomplished through a the write operation.
In general, Database objects are the elements that programs use to read or writes data. The components
may be records, pages and the like, but it is contingent upon the DBMS. So, we could also
Think of a database as “a permanent collection of separate objects.”
A transaction is the execution of a user-created program. It is perceived in the DBMS as a sequence or list of
actions. The actions that are performed by a transaction include the writing and reading of
database.
A transaction is an element of program execution which accesses and may update various types of information
items.
9.1 The Concept of a Transaction
The user writes data access/update programs in the high-level query language and update language.
which are supported by that are handled by DBMS. To comprehend how the DBMS manages such requests with regard to
Recovery and control of concurrency control and recovery, it is practical to view the execution of a user-programme or
the transaction as a set of writes and reads database objects:
1. To read a database object it must first be loaded into the main memory (specifically an individual frame
within the buffer pool) on disk to disk, and the value is transferred to the buffer pool and then into a variable in the program.
2. To write a database object an memory copy of the object is initially modified, the object is then written to memory.
Written to disk.

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Database objects are units that allow programs to can read or write data. The objects can be
pages or records and so on, however all of this is dependent upon data management systems like the DBMS as well, and not integral to the underlying principles
The underlying concurrency control or the underlying concurrency control or. In this section we will look at databases to be an underlying concurrency control or recovery system.
Fixed collection of independently-owned objects. If objects are added to or removed from a database
there are connections between databases objects that we wish to make use of for speed, certain
Additional issues are likely to arise.
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Notifications Four key aspects of the transactions that DBMS must maintain to preserve the data
in the faces of the issue of concurrent access and the occurrence of system problems:
1. Users should be able see the execution of each transaction as an atomic operation: either all
The actions are either carried out and no actions are. Users need not be concerned about the impact of
incomplete transactions (say for instance, when an event like a system crash happens).
2. Each transaction, which is executed on its own, without the execution of any other transactions must
ensure the integrity of the maintain the consistency of the database. This property is known as consistency, and it is the
DBMS assumes that it is responsible the transaction’s data for each one. Making sure this property is present in any transaction is
the user’s responsibility.
3. Users should be able be able to comprehend a transaction, without having to consider the impact of any other
simultaneous execution of transactions in parallel, even if the DBMS is able to interleave the activities of multiple
Transactions for reasons of performance. This is often called isolation:
Transactions are shielded, or isolated from the impact of concurrently scheduling other
transactions.

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4. When you get the DBMS notifies the user the transaction has been completed successfully It will also notify the user that the transaction has been successfully completed.
The effects will persist even if the system fails before all the changes are recorded effects are reflected on disk.
This is known as durability.
9.2 Transaction State
Partially
committed Committed
Active
Failure Aborted
A transaction has to be conducted within one of the states listed below:
1. Active State The Active State is the first state of a transaction the transaction will remain in this state
when it’s about to start execution.
2. A Partially Committed state: The state takes place after the closing (last) report of
the transaction is now complete.
3. Failure State: The state happens after the realization that normal execution cannot
longer proceed.
4. Absorted State: This state is triggered when the transaction is carried out and
The database was restored to the condition it was prior to the commencement in the course of this transaction.
5. The Committed State type of transaction state is completed following the successful completion of
transaction. The diagram of the states of a transaction that corresponds to a transaction can be seen above.
The transaction is in its active state. After it has completed its last (last) statement it is able to enter the state of inactivity.
Partly committed state that is partially committed. In this moment, the transaction has been completed however, there is a
Figure 9.1 Figure 9.1: Diagram of Transaction State
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Section 9: Transaction Management Brazil Email Database
There is a chance that it could be cancelled, as the output could be temporary
The main memory is where the data is stored, and a hardware failure can stop it from completing.
If your database software writes successfully the output data to disk, the
The transaction enters the committed state.
The transaction could also enter the failed state via the state in which it is currently active, or from the partially committed state.
state when the system decides that the transaction cannot longer be carried out as it normally would.
execution due to the hardware or logical error. A transaction that fails to run due to hardware failure or logical errors must be reversed
The database is restored back to its original condition prior to the commencement in the course of this transaction. After that, it’s
Also known as the aborted condition. In this point the system is able to choose between two choices:
1. Start the transaction: It’s possible to start the transaction again however only when the transaction was successful.

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The transaction was aborted because of an issue with the hardware or software issue. A restarted transaction can be
The idea of a considered to be a.
2. Stop the Transaction This could cause the transaction due to an internal error that is logical in nature.
The only way to fix it is by rewriting the program or due to the input being incorrect.
What happens when a transactions is into the state of failure?
9.3 The Implementation of Atomicity as well as Durability
The transaction may be incomplete due to three reasons. First, a transaction may be cancelled or
failed to complete the task, triggered by the DBMS due to an error that occurs in the course of the execution. If an
If a transaction is terminated by the DBMS due to an internal issue when it fails, the process is restarted automatically and
It is executed again. In the second, the system might fail to function (e.g. due to the power supply has been cut)
While some or all transactions are being conducted. Thirdly, a transaction could occur in a sudden manner
scenario (for example, reading an unintentional value of data or not be able to access a disk) and
decide to terminate (i.e. to end it).
Of course, because the majority of people view transactions as atomic an event that is disrupted in
The middle can cause the database to be in a state of confusion. Therefore, the DBMS must figure out a way to
eliminate the negative effects of transactions that are not complete from the database. That is, it should make sure that transactions are secure
The atomicity of a transaction is that either all the actions of a transaction are completed in atomic order, or none of them are. A DBMS assures
The atomicity of transactions is achieved by reversing actions of transactions that are not complete. This means that the users
are able to ignore transactions that are not complete when contemplating the way that databases are altered through transactions
over time. In order to accomplish this it is necessary that the DBMS keeps a log that is called the log of all the writes made to it
database. It is also used to make sure that the system is durable: If the system goes down before modifications are made, the log will be used to ensure that they’re permanent.
after a successful transaction by a completed transaction, the data is written to disk the logs are used to keep track of and the details of the transactions.

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The system’s behavior changes after a restart.
A DBMS component that is responsible for ensuring the atomicity and endurance is known as the recovery manager.
9.4 Concurrent Execution
Transaction-processing systems usually allow multiple transactions to run concurrently (at the
simultaneously) also known as simultaneous processing of transaction. It is when the DBMS connects (inter changes)
the actions of various actions to boost performance, however not all interleavings must be
allowed. Since allowing multiple transactions 16 update data simultaneously can cause many
Good reasons and numerous issues regarding the reliability of the database. have
Illustrations as follows:
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Notes on the Motivation for Concurrent Execution
The schedulethat consists of two transactions in the figure below, is an interleaved
the execution of both transactions.
T1 T2
R(A)
W(A)
R(B)
W(B)
R(C)
W(C)
While one transaction is waiting on the page to be read from the disk, the CPU is able to be processing
Another transaction. This is due to I/O activities can be performed in parallel to CPU activity in
computer. The overlap of CPU and I/O can reduce the amount of time spent and also increases the performance of the
throughput is the sum of transactions that are completed within a certain period of.
Second, interleaved completion of one transaction that is short with the possibility of a longer transaction typically allows for
Short transaction that must be completed in a short time. When executed in serial fashion short transactions, they can be delayed
that are the cause of a lengthy transaction which can lead to unpredictability in response time, or even average time
used to conclude the procedure to complete a.
9.5 Serializability
A schedule that can be serialized over an S number of transactions committed is a plan which has an impact can be observed on any
A reliable database can be assured to be exactly the same as the one of a complete serial schedule that is over S.
Even though the transactions’ actions are interspersed, the results of the execution of transactions
In different sequences, serially result in different outcomes.
9.6 Recoverability Brazil Email Database List
Unfortunately, the protocol for timestamps used above permits calendars that aren’t
Recoverable, as shown in the table in Table below. If TS(T1) is 1, and TS(T2) is 2 this
Schedules are permitted under the protocol for timestamps (with or without Thomas Write Rule). The
Timestamp protocol can be altered to prevent such schedules from being allowed in the event of buffering every write operation
until the transaction is committed. In this case the case of T1, when T1 wishes the transaction to be written, WTS(A) changes to
The change is recorded in this manner, however, the change from A to B does not take place immediately. Instead, it is recorded in the form of a
private workspace, also known as buffer. If T2 is trying to read from A later it’s timestamp is checked against the timestamp of T2.
in conjunction with WTS(A) with WTS(A) with the read deemed as valid. But, T2 is blocked until T1 is completed.
If T1 commits, the changes to A are copied into the buffer; otherwise, the changes to the buffer are
discarded. T2 can then read A.

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This blockage of T2 has the result of T1 getting exclusivity over A! Nonetheless,
despite this change, the protocol for timestamps allows certain schedules that aren’t permitted.
by 2PL 2.PL. The two protocols are not identical.
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Section 9: Transaction Management
NotesBecause it is vital to have recoverability the modification has to be applied to the protocols for timestamps.
It is practical. Due to the extra overheads it entails, this is in addition to the (considerable) cost
Maintaining read and write timestamps, ensuring that timestamp concurrency is controlled is not likely to be beaten.
Lock-based protocols used in central protocols that use locks in centralized. In reality, it has been studied within the setting of
distributed databases.
To complete a task if any transactions is impacted by an unexpected circumstances, then the it is a problem with the transaction.
either incomplete or complete.
9.7 The implementation of isolation
The users are accountable for the consistency of transactions. In other words, it is the person who makes a
The transaction should ensure that it has it is completed by itself against a database that is consistent
For instance, the transaction may be able to leave the database in a consistent state. In other words it is possible that the user
(naturally!) are governed by the consistency criteria that bank transfers of funds accounts shouldn’t
Change the total amount on the account. Transfer funds from one account to another
A different way, a transaction needs to debit one account, thereby temporarily leaving the database unbalanced in
Globally in which the new balance on the account could satisfy any integrity requirements with
in relation to the acceptable range of balances of accounts. The idea of a uniform database is
is maintained when the second account is credit with the transfer amount. If the transfer was not correct, it will be credited to the second account.
The program always gives the other account credit for one less dollar than the sum debited from the first account.
The first account that is the first account, the DBMS is not able to find inconsistencies due such mistakes in
User program’s logic.
The isolation property is protected by ensuring that there are multiple transactions involved, the actions will be distinct.
may be interleaved. The effect is similar to the execution of every transaction sequentially in
Some serial orders. For instance the case where two transactions T1 and 2 are performed concurrently each transaction will be a net
Effect is guaranteed to be the same as executing (all the steps of) T1, followed by the execution of T2 or
T2 is followed by T1. (The DBMS provides no guarantees on which order is the correct one.
The most effective way to select.) Each transaction maps a database instance to a different consistent
database instance, performing various transactions one after another (on an identical initial
Database instance) can also lead to an identical database instance.

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Database consistency is the feature that each transaction has an identical database instance.
Consistency in databases is a result of transaction isolation, atomicity, and consistency of the transaction.
9.8 Evaluation of Serializability
Example: The timetable shown in the figure below can be serialized.

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Notes A Serializable Schedule
While the steps similar to the first run of the T1 as well as T2 is interleaved the results of this
Schedule is totally and running T completely. In reality, the T’s write and read from B aren’t affected
through T2’s actions on B, and the overall effect is identical in the event that these actions are part of in the serial schedule first T1, Brazil Email List Database
then T2. The schedule can also be serialized. schedule in the event that first T2, and then T1. Thus, if T1 and T2 are
If the data is submitted simultaneously to the DBMS submitted concurrently to a DBMS, one of these two options could be used as the primary.
A DBMS can sometimes run transactions that are not serial one i.e. not serializable.
This could be due to two reasons.
1. The DBMS could employ an approach to control concurrency which ensures that the schedule is executed
itself.
2. SQL provides programmers with the power to direct the DBMS to pick non-serializable
schedule.
9.9 Lock-based Protocols
A DBMS must be able make sure that only serializable recoverable, and schedules are permitted and
that the actions of executed transactions get lost when reversing transactions that were aborted. Thus, it is that is
DBMS utilizes a locking mechanism to accomplish this.
The Locking Protocol or a Locking protocol is the set rules that must be adhered to in every transaction
Make sure that, despite the fact that the actions of several transactions could be interleaved, the final effect will be
similar to executing all the transactions of a serial order.
9.9.1 Two-phase Locking (2 PL) Protocol
The two-phase locking protocol guarantees serializability. This protocol demands that every
Transactions are able to issue request for lock and unlock in two stages as the following:
1. Growth Phase: A deal could acquire locks, but it will not be able to release locks.
2. The Shrinking Phase: An transaction could unlock locks, however, it will not acquire new locks.
In the beginning, a transaction will be in the growth phase. When the transaction is able to release an encryption lock, it is entered into the
the shrinking phase and is unable to issue any more requests for lock. The transaction thus acquires the lock as well as
Locks are released when required. Modifications to two-phase locking is known as the strict two-phase lock.
Locking Protocol.

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9.9.2 2.-phase lock that is strict (Strict 2PL) Protocol
The two-phase lock protocol, which is strict is that in addition to locking being two-phase, every
exclusive-mode lock. (Exclusive lock refers to the method of locking that allows an exclusive access to the lock.
data is an item that belongs to just one transaction) recorded by the transaction, has to be kept until the time the time that
The transaction is successfully committed, which blocks any subsequent transaction from reading the data.
Therefore the most commonly used lock protocol for locking is called the Strict Two-Phase Locking Protocol, which is
known by the name of Strict 2PL, has following two rules:
Rule 1: If a transaction wants to be able to open an object it first asks for the Shared lock, which is the
Mode of locking to guarantee that the item’s data never undergo any incorrect modifications
even when it is locked when it is locked on the object. If, however, the transaction T wishes to alter an object it
The first step is to request an exclusive lock for the object. Then, it requests an exclusive lock on the.

The locking protocol has two possible scenarios as follows:
1. If two transactions connect to totally different parts of the database they will proceed
with no interruptions in their travels.
2. If two transactions connect to the identical database objects the actions of both transactions are coordinated
Serially i.e. the actions of the transaction that are locked are completed first, then the lock is released
and the second transaction may continue.
Therefore, the locking protocol is only helpful in the second scenario, i.e. interleaving transactions.
Furthermore this shared lock for the database object A is indicated by the letter S(A) as well as the exclusive lock is denoted as S(A).
The database object A is identified in X(A).

Deadlock Prevention
Deadlock prevention protocols guarantee that the system does not become locked out. The
the most fundamental prevention strategies include:
1. The methods require that every transaction secure the entirety of its data items prior to when the execution begins.
(pre declaration).
2. They force an incomplete order for all items of data. They also make it mandatory that transactions be locked to the data
items in the order that is specified through the partial ordering (graph-based protocol).
Two of the most common methods used for preventing deadlocks are wound-wait and wait-die. In both ,
Wait-die and wound-wait schemes an unrolled back transaction is then reopened with the initial
timestamp. The older transactions therefore have precedence over those that are more recent, and deadlocks are a result of this
avoided.
These methods employ transaction timestamps to ensure protection against deadlocks.
Wait-die scheme — non-preemptive
1. Older transactions may be waiting for the newer one to release the data item. Younger transactions
Don’t wait around for older models They are simply replaced with new ones instead.
2. A transaction can fail many times before acquiring the necessary data item
Wound-wait scheme — preemptive
1. Older transactions wound (forces to rollback) of a younger transaction rather than waiting
it. The younger transactions might be able to wait for older ones.
2. There may be fewer rollbacks than a wait-die plan.

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Timeout-based schemes
The timeout-based systems are characterized by the following:
1. A transaction is waiting for a lock for a specific period of time. Then, the waiting times
out and transactions are out and transaction are rolled back. So deadlocks are avoided.
2. Easy to implement, however the risk of starvation is possible. It is also difficult to know what is the best
The value of the value of.
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NotesDeadlock Detection Brazil Email Database
Deadlocks can be identified using wait-for graphs, which is composed of a pair G = (V,E),
1. V is an array composed of vertices (all the transactions within the system)
2. E is a collection of edges. Each one can be described as an orderly pair of edges Ti Tj.
In the event that Ti Tj are in E the graph, there is a direct edge that runs from Ti to Tj which suggests Ti is waiting for Tj to arrive. Ti will be waiting on Tj to
release an item of data. If Ti wants to release the data item that is currently stored by Tj and Tj, Ti Tj will release the data item. Ti Tj
The wait-for edge is added to the graph. This edge will be removed when Tj ceases holding data
the item you require by Ti.
The system is locked in the event that the wait-for graph shows an unending cycle. It is necessary to use an
Deadlock detection algorithm is periodically used to search for cycles that could be causing deadlocks.
9.12.2 Deadlock Recovery
If a deadlock is found it will require a transaction to be reversed to unlock the deadlock.
The choice of that transaction as the victim, will result in a minimum cost. The rollback process will determine the
the distance that transaction must be the transaction has to be rolled back. A complete rollback stops the transaction.
Then it restarts. The most effective way to deadlock recovery is to rollback the to only the extent of the transaction
as needed to in order to. It is possible to cause starvation if the same transaction is used repeatedly to break the deadlock.
as the as a victim. You can add your rollback amount included in the calculation of cost factor in order to
avoid starvation.
9.13 Insert and delete Operation
In the event that two-phase locking has been utilized:
1. A delete operation can be executed only if the operation deletion of the tuple includes an
Exclusive secure lock that allows the tuple which can be removed.
2. A operation that inserts a new tuple to the database is granted an X-mode lock to the
tuple.
Incorrect deletions and inserts can result in the phenomenon of phantoms.
1. A transaction that searches an entire relationship (e.g. Find the accounts of Bombay) and an operation that scans a relation (e.g., find all accounts in Bomb
Inserting a tuple into the relationship (e.g. or create an account in Bombay) could be at odds with
one another even though both transactions aren’t connecting to any tuple.
2. If the only lock type is tuple schedules that cannot be serialized could be the outcome: the scan that
Transactions may not appear on the account that was created, but could be serialised prior to the insert transaction.
The transaction that scans the relation reads the data which identifies the tuple of the relation.
contains, while inserting a Tuple updates the same data.
Figure 9.2: Deadlock Detection
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Notes: The information must be secured.
One way to solve this issue could be:
1. Affixing a data object to the relationship helps to convey the information regarding the tuples
the relationship contains.

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2. The transactions that scan the relation gain a shared lock within the item of data.
3. The process of inserting or deleting data from the tuple obtains one-time access to the information item.
The above mentioned protocol provides very low concurrency for insertions/deletions. Index
locking protocols offer greater concurrency while stopping the phantom phenomenon (by
needing locks on certain index buckets).
Index Locking Protocol: Every relationship must contain at minimum one index. Access to a relation has to be granted to a relation.
Only made through one of the indexes for the relationship. A transaction Ti which performs the lookup
It must secure all index buckets it connects to in S-mode. A transaction Ti is not able to insert the Tuple
Ti must be inserted into the relation r, without updating all indexes to. Ti has to perform an index lookup to
search for every index bucket which could have contained the tuple ti pointer in the event that it was present
alreadyhave locks, and install them on the index buckets. Also, you must obtain locks for
The X-mode must be applied to all index buckets modify. The rules of the two-phase locking protocol have to be observed.
It is important to be aware of index locking protocols that are successful.
9.14 A Low Degree of Consistency
The protocols like the strict two-phase locking protocol limit the possibility of concurrency, while transactions
are being execution. Are we able to allow more concurrency without compromising on the accuracyor
accuracy, which is now required to be assured by database programmers and not accuracy, which is now a matter of
DBMS? We are able to operate with low levels of consistency by with the following method:
9.14.1 Degree-two Consistency
Two-phase consistency is different from degree-two locking in that S-locks can be released at any time.
Time, and locks can be obtained at any point in moment, however:
1. The X-locks should be kept until the transaction is complete
2. Serialisability cannot be assured. The programmer has to ensure that there are no databases that are incorrect.
The state will take place.
The most common of these two consistency level protocols is Cursor stability. It follows the following guidelines:
1. To read, each tuple is secured, it is read, and the lock is immediately let go
2. The X-locks are kept until the completion of transaction.

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Section 9: Transaction Management
Notes9.14.2 Low Levels of Consistency in SQL
SQL allows non-serialisable executions:
1. The default is Serialisable.
2. Repeatable read permits only records that have been committed to be read. repeating a read is not recommended.
Return the same value (so read locks must be maintained). (However the Phantom
This phenomenon cannot be stopped) however, T1 could see records added by T2 however, it is not a guarantee.
You may not be able to see other characters inserted through T2.
3. Read committed same as degree two of consistency however, the majority of systems use it as a cursor–
stability.
4. Read uncommitted allows even non-committed information to read. This is the degree, that has
There is virtually no limit on concurrency. However, it can result in any kind of concurrency-related
problems.
Task Use of the wound-waiting scheme.
Lab Exercise Create an index table and then apply implicit transactions to it.
9.15 Summary
Since it is the smallest unit in an operation.
It is a key element in the Database Management System.
In this course, we will go over Properties of transactions basic operations for transactions The state of
transaction etc. and covers concepts of Concurrency Control as well as other issues that
are caused by Concurrency, such as the lost-updata issue, the dirty read problems, and so on. and also cover
ideas about serializability and the method of determining whether the transaction you are considering is serializable.
Are they serial or are they not.

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9.16 Keywords
A transaction is a piece of program execution which accesses and could update other
Data items.
Absorted states: This state happens when the transaction is returned and
Database has been restored back to its original state prior to the beginning on the day of the event.
Active state It is the initial condition of a transaction the transaction will remain in this state as long as it is
Beginning execution.
State of Committed: The state occurs following the successful completion of transaction.
Complete schedule A schedule that has either an abort or commit statement for every
If the actions of a transaction are recorded in a schedule, it is referred to as an entire schedule. A complete
The transaction should also include all the transactions’ actions that is recorded in it.
Partly committed states: These state is triggered after the last (last) declaration of
transaction is completed.
Data Warehousing: An Effective Tool
Data Warehouse is a huge independently operated business-based database that’s
It is populated with data that was gathered from various sources. The data comes from a variety of sources.
is kept separate from its source and can be used to improve the quality of the decision-making process.
Making the.
A variety of old-fashioned Databases play a role in the recording of day-to-day operations of
the business, referred to as the business, referred to as online transaction processing (OLTP) generally used in
Airline Bookings & Banking Systems to provide faster response time and better control of information.
Following the establishment in OLTP Systems, reports and summary reports can be drawn for providing
the inputs that are used in decision-making processes and is referred to as online analytical processing.

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To improve the customer relationship management strategy, call centers and the data
Warehouses need to be integrated fully. Data warehouse is an effective tool to make decisionsdata warehouses.
Support that requires a lot of time to establish and is required to be regularly updated to
operational information on a daily as well as a monthly or daily basis.
Data warehouses are used to aid in proactive strategies for formulation in difficult and complex scenarios.
Some CRM vendors advocate for a single, customer database that is integrated.
This includes call centres branches, web sites, call centres and direct mail, however it’s not equipped with analytical functions
of the data warehouse. of data warehouse. Database isn’t able to be expanded and include the capability of decision assistance
operations at the call center Database gets slower and the queries processing slows and the queries are not processed.
processing operations can also be inefficient and slow for agents who deal with customers.
Data warehouse is vital for identifying the most profitable and loyal customers as well as the ones who are
customers will be provided with higher-quality services that are more individualized, which improves the chance of
Additional profits.
Although call centre systems and data warehouses are completely different, they’re not exactly the same.
dependent on each other for full enjoyment of their respective potential.